A MANUAL OF THE PUDUKKOTTAI STATE Volume I (Second and Revised Edition)

I . A MANUAL OF THE PUDUKKOTTAI STATE Volume I (Second and Revised Edition) EDITED BY . K.R. VENKATARAMA AVYAR © DIRECTOR OF MUSEUMS PUBLISHED BY DIRECTOR OF MUSEUMS GOVERNMENT OF TAMILNADU 2004 A MANUAL OF THEPUDUKKOTTAISTATE Volume I (Second and Revised Edition) EDITED BY K.R. VENKATARAMA AYVAR © DIRECTOR OF MUSEUMS PUBLISHED BY DIRECTOR OF MUSEUMS GOVERNMENT OF TAMILNADU 2004 Second and Revised Edition 1938 Reprint 2004 . © Director of Museums Government of Tamilnadu Price: Rs. 190/- Printed by Seawaves Printers No.5, Chockalingam Nagar Main Road, V. Teynampet, Chennai – 600 086. Ph : 2432 7060, 2434 7060 A MANUAL OF THE PUDUKKOTTAI STATE Volume I (Second and Revised Edition) Published under the authority of the Pudukkottai Darbar EDITED BY K.R. VENKATARAMAAYVAR PUDUKKOTTAI PRINTED AT THE SRI BRIHADAMBA STATE PRESS 1938 · M.A. SIDDIQUE, lAS., Director of Museums Government of Tamilnadu Government Museum Egmore, Chennai – 600 008. FOREWORD Off : 28193718 © Res: 2620 7277 Fax: 2819 3035 The Pudukkottai Princely State was keen in preserving the history and heritage of the State. A museum and the department of Archaeology were established in 1910 and books were also published on the history of the State. The first edition of the Manual of Pudukkottai State, Volume I was brought out in 1920 and a revised edition in 1938. Volume II of the Manual was published in 1944. These books are important for the study of the south Indian History. They are the mine of information for the history of Pudukkottai region. These books are interesting and informative and even enlighten Engineering students like me. These volumes were Ol:Jt of print for a long time and not available for consultation to the student and scholars. The department of Museums, Tamilnadu took-up this cause, reprinted and published Volume II of the Pudukkottai Manual and Inscriptions of Pudukkottai State, in 2002. When Dr. J. Raja Mohamad, Assistant Director of Museum (formerly Curator, Pudukkottai Museum) brought to my notice that Volume I of the Manual is due for reprinting, I was happy to release funds for reprinting this book as a publication of the department of Museums. This was possible because of the liberal grants from the Government ofTamilnadu for reprinting such rare books. Our thanks to MIs. Sea waves Printers, Chennai for executing the reprinting work of this book. M.A. SIDDIQUE PREFACE. IN June 1934, the Darbar decided that since the first edition of the State Manual issued in 1920 was out of date and also susceptible of considerable improvement, a new and up-to-date edition should be prepared. Owing to various circumstances no progress could be made with the work till it was entrusted to Mr. K. R. Venkatarama Aiyar, B. A., L. T., M. R. A. S., Head:..Master, High School Section, His Highness the Raja’s College, Pudukkottai, in December 1935. The manuscript draf~ of the first volume was ready by September 1936, but owing to the time and labour involved in putting it ‘into its final form, and to congestion of work in the State Press, it could not be published till 1938. The Darbar have exercised close personal supervision pver the work throughout. Most of. the chapters were originally drafted by the Manual Officer himself, but Chapter II ‘Flora. and Fauna.’ was drafted by MI’. K. R. Srinivasa Aiyar, and Chtpter IV ‘Agriculture’ by Mr. T. S. Sundaram Aiyar who was supplied with neqessary information by the Officers of the Agricultural Department. This volume is to a considerable extent based on the corresponding chapters of the first edition, .though the phraseology has undergone .considerable modifications. Chapters I and II however h~ve been. rewritten and amplified. The section of Chapter III relating to ‘ Cultural Anthropology’ has been recas~ . and includes Chap~r XVIII of the old edition. Chapter VII on ‘Trade and Occupation’ contains much entirely new’ matter. Chapter XII on ‘Local Self-Government’ contains. two new sections, ‘u niona and Village Panchayats ‘ and ‘Rural Develop- .LIlent Activities.’ Chapters XI (Co-operative Movement), XIX (Devastp,nam and Charities), XXI ( Finance) and XXII (Museum and Al’chmology) are altogether new. IV PREFACE The Chapter on General History and the Gazetteer section have had to be con8id~rably amplified H,nd will forIll the second volume of this ,York. .l\I Ht-h (;al’e has been bestowed on the Holeetioll of illustl’H,- tions to emmre that they should be reproduced in :t manncr worthy of the work. The photogril,phs from which they havc been reproduced ‘were supplied by :\[essrs. K. VOllkatal’engn.J1l Rajn, Museum Cura,tor, n.nd IJ. Gane~;a Sal’llln. of the Bhn.ra,t Btudio, Pndukkottai, and the blocks have been prepared by the Calcutta, Chromo-type Ltd. Dr. Stella KraUll’isch of the U nivel’sities of London and C~llcutta has plaecd the J)a,rhn,l’ under a debt of gratitnde for a(iYice and help ill l’cgn.r(l tu them. It is impossible to mentiull n.1l thuse to whom the ])~trba,l”s thanks are dne for their assistallce, but spe(‘ia,ll’l~(;bgllitioll is dne to NIl’. K. VenliH,tarellgam Haju, Cumtor of the State )luseulll, }lr. N. P. Swamil1atha Aiyar, State Archrrologist, )1r 1\.. n. Sl’inivasn. Aiyar and J1r. ‘f. S. Sundn.ram Aiyar, while the Superintendent of the State Press and his stn.ff desern’ to he congratulated on their work. .Every eHort Ims been lllade to lllake this work aecUl~to ttud , complete. rrhe Darbar will be gra.teful to anyone who bring~ any errors or omissions to their notice. CONTENTS. CHAPTER I. I. PHYSICAL FEATURES. Position and boundaries (I), Rivers (2), Hills (3). II. GEOLOGY. Stratigraphy (4), Topography (5), The Gneissic or Metamorphic rocks (5), The Cuddalore series (7), The laterite group (9), Alluvium (10), Soils (10), Economic Geology and MineralogyGranite and Laterite (11), Red jaspe-r (12), Lime, Brick-clay, Potter’s clay, Bangle-earth, Dhobie’s earth, Earth-salt, Saltpetre (12), Ochre, Iron, Mica (13). PAGES. 1- 4 4′- 13 III. METEOROLOGY. Sta.tiJitics of avera.ge rainfall (14), Season and rainfall Temperature (J5), Winds (16), Cyclones (16), Earthquake 13..,…. 24 (14), Economic effects of climate-Liability Floods (23), Resume (24). CHAPTER II. to (17), Famine (17), I. FLORA. 25- 82 Ecology (25), Vegetation (27), Forests (29), Economic plants (30), Cryptogams (32). II. FAUNA. Mammals-Primates (33), Carnivora (33), Insectivora (35), Chiroptera (35), Rodentia (35), Ungulata (36), Edentata (37),. Aves or Birds-P(Mures or Perchers (37),’ Pici (39), Anisodactyli (40), MaC1’ochires (40), Coccyge.~ (40), Psittaci (41), Striges (41), AccipitTf’S (41), Colnmbce (41), Pte’rOceltes (42), Gallina (42), Gralla (42), Limicola ~42), Gal’ice (43), Steganopodes (43), Herodiones (43), Anseres (44), Pygopodes (44), Reptilia.- Chelonia (44), Lacertilia (44), Ophidia (45), Amphibia (48); P.isces (48), Arachnida (48), Ml/riopoda (49), Mollusca (50), Annelida (50), Crustacea (50), Insecta-Orthoptera (50), Dennoptera (51), Neuroptera (51), Thysalloptera (51), Anoplura (51): Rhyncota (52), Lepidoptera (53), Diptera (54), HlIl1ienoptera (54), Coleoptera (55), 32- 55 vi CONTENTS CHAPTER III. THE PEOPLE. I. STATISTICAL. Census Statistics (56), Density of Population (57), Migration (59), Sex (En), Civil condition (62), Languages (62), Religion (63), Literacy (64). II. ANTHROPOLOGY (CtTLT”CRAL). Introductory (67), Customs and manners (68), Villages and houses (68), Dress (69), Ornaments (70), Food (72), Games and amusements (72), Superstitions (7f», Reaction to the impact of modem conditions (78). PAGES. 56- 67 67- 80 III. RELIGION. 80-101 i. Hinduism-Worship of the serpent, and of plant’ ana t,’ees (80), Pitris (81), 1;ke worship of the d1.,ijas (81), Adoration of a personal god-Im-age-worship (81), study of the Darsattds, Vedanta, etc. (63), Jains (83), ‘Bhakti cu.lt (83), Religious OI’ganisations (84); Wor8hip of totem god.” demons and spirits, and vtlkJge -godliftgJ (85), VOW8 (92), Festivals (93). ii. Muhammada.nism-The five principal 1/(‘111 elljoinM ;U tM Qur4n (95), Principa,lfeast.~ and fasts (95). iji. Ohristianity-Christia.n Missions :-(a) Roman Oatholics (96), (b) Protestant (99), Oth~7′ lIectll (101). IV. CASTES AND TRIBES. 101-187 General tendenoies (101), Brahmins (102), Vala.iyaos (106), Valuva~is (l06) , Kalla.ni (106), Pt;.1’&iyans (112), Pal.la.ns (115), I~a.iya11! (116), VeUalars (117), CheUis (118), Kammalans (128), U~yans (124), Ahamba~iyans (125), Mar~vans (126); Balijas (126), Kusavans (127), Kurumba;rs (127), Ambattans (128), Va~l}.ans (129), A~~is (129), Muttiriyans (129), Pal}.~ra.ms (130), Sbal;ulns (130), Uppiliyans (130), KUfavans (130), Chakkiliyans (131), PatnUlkarans (131), Rajus (132), Ka~~y Rajas (132), Ula Kshatriyas (132), O~~as (188), Pallis (183),Tottiya.ns (138), Va.llambans (134), DraUs (134), KarumbUrattans (135), Melakarans (135), Sattans (136), Tadans (Dasaris) (136), Occhans (136), Ilamagans (137), senaikku~aiyans (137): V3.r;ti. rans (137), Semba~avans (137), Pillaiperans (137). • OONTENTS CHAPTER IV. AGRICULTURE. Introductory (138), Classification of lands (138), Soils (131:1), Cultivation (140), Broadcast sowing (140), Double-crops (li1}, PaMy (141), Dry crops·-Vamgu (145), Gmm (145), Cholarn and ltfaize . (145), Rafli (145), Cumbu, etc. (146), Oil-seedsGround-nut (146), Gingelly (147), Sugar-cane (147), Pla.ntain.~ (148), Tobacco (148), Tomato (148), Tapioca (148), Betel vine (148), Groves and Plantations-Mango (149), IJack (149), Manures (150), Pests and Diseases-Insect pests on-Paddy (151), ChoZmn (151), Sligar-cane (151), P1tl.~e.y (152), Oil-seed crops (152), Vegetable.~ (152), lll’Uit crop.y (152), Fibre crops (152), Tobacco (153), Palms (153), Some Fungus diseases ofCereal.s (153), Pul.ses (153), Tobacco (153), Chillies (154), Palms (154), Sugm·.cane (154), Fruit crops (154), Local remedial measures (154), Prickly-peat (154), Popular agricultural beli~fs, etc. (155), Stock implements (156), Live-stock (156), Cultivation expenses (157), Tenures (158), Statisticl\l ta.bles (160), Productive capacity of la.nds (HiS), Sale value of land (164), The Peasantry and their economic condition (164), State aid (165), Administrative (169). CHAprrEH V. vii PAGES. 138-170 IRRIGATION. 171-1S8 Riv.ers-Th.e VellaI’ (171), The Pambar (172), The Agniyar (172), The Amln~liydr (172), Tanks (172), In·jgation Projects and Schemes~ A Retrospect (174), Pl’oject.~ from sources O1~tside the State (185), Administra.tive (188). CHAprfER VI.. PORESTS AND PLANTATIONS. Their nature and uses (189), Forest conservancy (190), Plantations (191), Forest Revenue (193), Administration (195). 188-195 Vlll CONTENTS CHAPTEH VII. OCCUPATIONS AND TRADE. Introductory (196), Statistics of chief occupations (1~8), Tjle Professions (200), The artisltn class (200), Agriculture(~OO). . \ Pa.sturing (200), Weaving (200), Dyeing (205), Embroidery (208), Woollen spinning and weaving (209), Mat industry (211), Basket-making (212), Rope-making (212), Bangle industry (~12), Metal industry (213), Oil-pressing (214), Perfumery (215), Brick-making and Pottery (215), Stone-work (215), House· building (215), Manufacture of Musical instruments (216), Fine Arts and Music (216). Public utility concerns :-(1) Electricity-The P1ulukkottai Electric Supply (Jorporation Limited (217), The Brah11Ulvidyambal Elec· tric Sl’pply Corporaticm Limited, Ramctchandraptt1’am (218), Rice mills and decorticators (219), Printing. Presses (219), The Statc Press (219), Joint Stock Companies (220). Trade and Markets (221), ,Weights and Measures (223), Linear meaSUl’es (225), Square’measures (226), Measurement of time (227), Commercial weights (227), Goldsmith’s weights (228), Coins (228). CHAP’J1ER VIII. P.”GES. 196-229 MEANS OF’ COMMUNICATION, 230-247 Introductory (230), Travelling in the Past (230), Roads and their extension (232), Upkeep of roads-Bridges (237), The Railway (239), Post Officea (243), Tolls and Toll·gates (246), Trll.Yellers’ Bungalows (246), Chouliries (247). CHAPTER IX. PUBLIC HEALTH. l. DiFECTIOCS ANn EPIDEMIC I>ISEASES. Cholera (241:1), Small-pox (250), Guinea-worlll (253), Hook·worm (255), Fe”‘el’ (256), Other diseases (256). 248-257 CONTENTS II. MEDICAL HE LIEF. General (257), H. H. The Raja’s Hospital (258), H. H. The Rani’s Women & Children’s Hospital (263), Dispensaries (263). Statistical (264), Administration (265). Financial(266). III. VITAL STATISTICS. IV. PCBLIC HEALTH OHGANISATION AND ADMINIHTHATIOX. HistOrJcal (267), Health Education (268). V. VETEHINARY HOSPITAL. Town Veterinary Hospital (269), Touring Veterinary Assistants (269). Statistics (270). CHAPTER X. EDUCATION. Indigenous schools (271), Elementary Education (272}-Free and comPU1S01’Y Pri’mal’yEducation (274), Girls’ Schools (275). Teaching Statl (276). Seconda.ry Educa.tion–State Lower Secondary Schools (276). H. H. The Rani’s Free High School for Gi”ls (277). The Church of Sweden lIfission High School (277), The Bhumeeswamswami High School, Ramachandrapll1’am (278). S,’i SatyamU1·ti Secondary School, Tir1lmayarn(278). Collegiate Education-H. R. The Raja’s College (278). Sanskrit and Tamil learning-The Veda Sastra Patasal(t (284j. Dassara Examinations (285). Kalasalas (285), Normal instruction (285), Education of the Backward classes (286)-The Reclamation School (287). Vocational Instruction-The Sri Mdrthdnda Industrial School (288). The State Weaving School (288), The State Agric1lltural School (288), Mass Education (289), Libraries (289). Exhibitions (290), The Children’s Guild and the Boy Scout Movement (291), Administrative (292), State aid to pupils (292). }i’inancial and Statistical (294). CHAPTER XI. IX PAGES. 267-266 266-267 267-268 268-270 271-297 CO-OPERATIVE MOVEMENT. 298-306 History of the Movement (298), The Central Bank (300), The Town Ba.nk (301). Co-operative Education and Dissemination of Co-operative Principles (303), Administrative control. Inspection and Audit (304). General (305), Statistics (306). • • COXTEXTS CHAPTEB XII. LOCAL SELF-GOYEHN:’IENT. 1. l’UlJCKKOTl’Al ~1T”‘ICll’:\LITY . • aIunicipal’ activities before the crelttioll uf the alnnicipality itself (807), The constitution of the Municipality (308), Public amenities (309), Town conservancy (310), Drainage (311). Water- 1l111)ply (312), Bye-h1ws (315), Public Health (317). PAGES. 307-317 II. L”2’i’IU;:’; .ISII VILLAliE PA:>1UHAYAl’S. 318-321 Introductory UnS), Union PallclmYl1ts (818), Village PnlJchayatf; (319), Control (320), Village conservancy (321). III. HUHAL IMPROVEMENT. Darbar’s attempts to effect rural improvement (321), Agricultural ?lJarketing–P(uldy (324), around-nut (324), Tobacco (325), Hides alld Skins (32;), Fruit (825). C HAPTEH X [J I. LAND REVlmai .Jagil’ (;)59). The Hettlement of l!)08-1~ (at)!)), ?llinol’refol’lus-Het.’ision of tree-tll.!’ (864), Abolition of Sn'(/.tcmtrall!~ (365), .Jliolitioll (!( I~Zim/l8 (3GH), Hesults a 11<1 rede\\” of the tJcttlellJellt (3G7), Old 1l1Te,tJ’S (:j(j!), _\Illaigallllttioll of the :’Ianovarti ,Tagil’ (370). 345-35fl 356-370 CONTENTS xi PAGER. IV. :oiOMJo: FEATURES OF THE ImVENPE DBPAHTMENT AT PRERF.NT. :170-383 Land Records Section (370)-Settinnent of the Chimwf(l.lllllanai Indm lands (371) and of n(l.tham.~ (372), Di!;pos!~l of unoccupied lands (373), Administration: The Revenue Agency (375), The new Revenue Inspector’s Firkas (379), Demand and Collection for CasJi 134.’) (382), Conclusion (382). OHAP’rER XIV. SALT, ABKARI AND MISCBLLANEOUS REVENUE. 3fo\.1-401 Historical (384), Sayer (385), Mohturpha (3R5), Salt–T<.:arth-salt: it.s manufacture (386), SIlPPI’,·~·~ion of the manufacture of earth-salt (387), the Salt cOn/’ention of 1887 (390), .~erl,-Nalt (392), Abkal’i-· country liquor (392), Toddy (394), Jayyery (396), Foreign liquor and beer (397), IntoxicatillfJ dmgs (397), Statistics (398), Matches (39!»), Administration (399), Stamps (400), Income-tax (401). Other miscellaneous items (401). CHAprrER XV. LEGISLATION. 402-420 Hist.ory df legislation (402), The Representative ARsembly (403), The Legislative Council–inau!/uratio1Z (404), composition (404), pown·s· (~05), thl’ cmlstitllenci,s (~07), the electoral roll (408), Regulations in force in the State (409). CHAPTER XVI. ADMINBTRA’fION OF ,JUSTICE -LAW AND ORDER. I. COCHTS OF JrSTICE. 421-437 Historical (421): The Judiciary hefore 1877-:-Dhm”1/U1.Wlnam (422), The·Tah.~ildt’.~ Courts (423), NIlO-!/et Sctbha about 1810 (423), Kotct1o(tl’s o.tfice, 1811 (424), The Danda wtd Mudra ::’:abhas, (thout 1818 (424), The Hllzur Admrll/t 001£1″t, 1845 (427), l.’ou’u Small Ca1t.~e COllrt 1844, and .lfllllsi.tf·~ COl/rts 1860 (427), Cit’il and Se.~sions Court·, “1866 (427),/;The anomalies or the Huzur Court (428), The Reorganisation of the Judiciary ill its’present form-‘l’he Chief COllrt, 1871′ (429), The abolition of the Munsi.tTs Gourt.~ (429), Ruml Small Caust’ Court 1890-!).’j (430), The Se.cond AppeO-l Court, 1910 (430), Further reforms and changes (430), The working of the litw courts at presentgen(‘1’al (433), Cit’it Justice (434), Criminal Justice (436), Mi:scellalleous (437), Xll CONTENTS II. POLICE. Introductory (437), Reforms in the Police Force (438), Mr. Hurne’s reorganisation (438), Figures relating to crimes (440), Prevention (441), Administration (443). PAGES. 437-443 III. PRISONS. 444-446 The Central Jail-Descriptive “lid histtwical (444), Population (445), Conduct of Prisoners (446′, Finance (446), Administm#on (446), Sub-Jails (446). IV. REGISTRATION. 447-449 Historical and Statistical (447), Financial (449), Notary Public (449). CHAPTER XVII. THE PALACE ESTABLISHMENT. General and historical (450), The Stables (450), The Pujai Vidu (451), The Danadhikar (451), The Music EstabliRhment (451), The Bokkusham (452), The Vaidyan (452), The Palace kitchens (452), Domestic Establishment (452), The Dignity Establishment (453), The Personal staff of the Raja (453), Administrative (454). CHAPTER XVIII. 450-454 THE DARBAR AND DARBAR OFFICE. 454-457 The Darhar (455), The Darbar office (4li6). CHAPTER XIX. DEVASTANAM AND CHARITIES. Historical HllrVey and kinds of charitable institntions (458), ,Amal. gamation of Devastanam and Chatram lands with Ay!tli lands (461), Results of the amalgamation (462), The Devl\,stanatll Committee 1922-23 (463), The Orders of the Darbar, !931 (467), . Uliams (468), Appointment of a Special officer-Reconsideration of the 1931 orders a.nd issue of fresh orders in 1935 (469), The working of the department at present (471), Adminis. tration (472), Financial (472), Dassara (472), The Poor Home (473). CHAprrER XX. 458-474 MILITARY.’ 475-478 ‘Descriptive and historical (47.’», Mr. Hume’s reorganisation (-477), Strength of the ~iilitary forces in Fasli 1346 (478). CONTENTS CHAPTER XXI. FINANCE. Historical Survey 1808 to 1937 (479), eonclusion-Rereipts (488), Expendit1tre (489r Statistics (490), Administrative (498). CHAPTER XXII. MUSEUM AND ARCHAEOLOGY. I. THE STATE MUSEUM. Short history (499), ‘I’he different sections-Art and Industries (499), Economic (500), Natural Histcrry (500), Ethnology (501), Numismatics (501), Archaology (501), Painting and Pictures (502), Library (502), Educational service (502), Financia.l (503), General (503), Other exa.mples of Museum enterpri~e-Exhibits of archaological specimens in the sites they are excavated from (504), The Raja’s College museum (504), The Old Palace portraits (505). X III l’AGES. 479-498 499-506 II. ARCHAEOLOGY. 507–518 Epigraphy (507), Tables of Inscriptions in the State (508), Conservation (509), List of eOD8el’Voo monuments (510), Renovatia.n (513), Excavation (514), List of Dolmens (515). LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. I. His Highness Sri Brihadamba Das Rltja Rajo.gopltht Tonda.iman Blthadur, Raja of Pudukkottai Fmntispiece. II. H. H. The Raja’s Hospital To face pa!/e 258 III. H. H. The Raja’s College … 278 IV. The New Palace ” 451 V. The Public Offices 456 ERRATA. PAGE. LINE. FOR READ 15 a I\S there is as there ‘is, 35 1 ErinaialB Erinacicla 48 26 Ma.ny of fishes Many of the fishes 68 5 culture cultural 72 2 sown sewn 82 27 ~ ~ 83 5 Bhlidara yana BadarayaJ;,la. 266 22 7,202 7,022 277 11-12 History, Chemistry History and and Botany Chemistry. 324 30 0098 ()O098 350 22 inj”ustice in justice 893 14 costly cost. 15 separate separately 486 5 Panchayats courts Panchayat courts 455 10 . Councilors Councill~ . 487 9 Ba.hadur, Bahadur) .r ,:; . .., 1. A MANUAL OF THE , PUDUKKOTT AI STATE I CHAPTER I. I. PHYSICAL FEATURES. Position and boundaries.-The State of Pudukk6ttai lies between the parallels of 10°7′ and 11°4′ North Latitude and between the meridians of 78°25′ and 79°12′ East Longitude. The area of the State is 1,178 square miles. Its greatest length from East to West is 52 miles, and its greatest breadth from North to South is 41 miles. It is bounded on the North by the Trichinopoly and Tanjore Districts, on the West by the Trichinopoly District, on the South by the Ramnad District and on the East by the Tanjore District . . rrhe surface of the country is characterised by flat plains in the East, and is intersected by streams and low hills in the West and the South. Pininmalai and the Sevalur Hills may be mentioned as natural boundaries though they run but for a short distance. The boundaries of the State changed with its gradual expansion as the result of conquests; and thi::; fact accounts for the existence of several enclaves of Pudukk6ttai territory in the adjoining British territory. The State has no sea-board; the Bay of Bengal is about 1~ miles from the easternmost point. 2 PUDUKKOTTAI STATE [CHAP. The State is the third in importance of the five Madras States included in the charge of the Agent to the GovernorGeneral at Trivandrum, and is divided into three Taluks, , Alanguq.i, Kolattur and Tirumayam. Rivers.-Most of the so-called rivers of the State are only jungle streams that remain dry for most of the year. ,; The Veltar is the longest stream in the State. It rises in the Vela Malai ((JfJ)Jl:J)w3.ro) in the. Marungapuri Zamfndari of the Kulitalai Taluk of Trichinopoly District and falls into the Bay of Bengal near Manam~lkuq.i in’ the Tanjore District, after a course of about 85 miles. The river separates Tirumayam Taluk on the South from the Kolattur and Alanguq.i Taluks on the North. It is torrential in character, suddenly rising in high freshes of short duration. In the Tirupperundurai PuraJ}.am this river is said to have been sent down to the , , earth by Siva in answer to the prayer of king Svetaketu for a river that would confer salvation on people bathing in it. , The Sanskrit name of the river is Svatanadi (white river). A few places on the banks of the river are considered particularly sacred; such are Paraiyur, Pushyatturai near the town, Kaq.ayakkuq.i, and Tiruvidayapatti. The Kundaru takes its rise from the Kavinaq. tank, and after a course of about five miles joins the Venar near Kaq.ayakkuq.i. The Pdmbdru (called in Sanskrit Sarpanadi) is the surplus of the Perundurai tank near Malur in the Tirumayam Taluk. It empties itself into the FJ.’amaraikanmoi tank near Tirumayam, and issuing from it flows in a south-easterly direction till it joins the Vellar near Arantangi. It takes off once again as a separate stream, and dividing into five branches falls into the Bay of Bengal. The Agnanavimochani or Agnidr is the surplus of the Kolattur tank. After passing through Perungalur, Malaiyur and Karambakkuq.i, it falls into the Bay of Bengal, south-west I] PHYSICAL F~ATURES 3 of AdrampatI.lam, in the Tanjore District after a course of only about fifty miles. The Mahdrdjasamudram river is a narrow torrential stream taking its rise from the highlands of Vallam in the Tanjore District. After flowing through Kilankaq.u and Sengalmeq.u in , the AlanguQ,i Taluk, it falls into the Agnanavim6chani to the “sQuth of Sandak6ttai in the Tanjore District. According to Pha~oah’s Gazetteer of Southern India (1855), this stream was originally a branch of the U yyakkondan channel in the Trichinopoly District but “it has been for ages long past in a total state of decay west of Vellum.” The Ambuliyaru has its source in ManjanviQ,uthi tank in the forest to the east of Tiruvarangulam, and after passing through AlanguQ,i, VadakaQ,u and other villages falls into the Bay to the north of Sul6chana Bai Chattram in the Tanjore District. The K6raiyaru is the surplus of a tank in the Viralimalai firka. It passes to the west of Rajagiri, and to the east of Kattalur in the Kolattur Taluk, and falls into the Uyyakkondan, three miles to the south of Trichinopoly. The Suraiyaru is another stream in the Kolattur Taluk which falls into the Samudramkulam of the Trichinopoly District. The Manimuktd river, or Tiruppattur river, gathers the , drainage of the eastern end of the Sirumalai and of the hills lying north of Nattam, both in the Madura District. The river carries the surplus water of a tank in Varappur Zamindari, passes through Varput and Tirukkalambur under the name of Yenad’iaru and falls into the Neikkuppaikkanmoi in the Tiruppattur Taluk of the Sivaganga Zamindari. HiIll.-The State contains a few hills and high rocks of which the most important are the following :- 1. Piranmalai, the highest hill in the State, on the southwest border and reaching a height of 2,119 feet above sea-level; PUDUKKOTTAI STATE [CHAP. 2. Narttamala’i, lying west of the ro”ad’from Trichinopoly to Pudukkottai; 3. Aluruttimalai close to N arttamalai ; 4. The Sevalur hills in Tirumayam Taluk, which are low craggy ridges covered with jungle, of which the Kanjattimalai is an off-shoot; , 5. The Sittannavasal hill near Annavasal ; 6. The Puram hills, in the Arimalam yattam of the Tirumayam Tal uk-a low ridge; 7. K’ltnnatMrmalai, a flat topped rock in the vattam of the same name in the Kolattur Taluk; and 8. The Sampatti hills, in the north-west of the State, in Kilaiyur vattam in the Kolattur Taluk. On the tops or slopes of the rocks at V~ralimalai, NequnguQ,i, KUQ,umiamalai, Tirug6karJ.lam: Vaiyapuri, Tlmimalai, Kumaramalai, KunnanQ,ark6il, Malayak6il and MalayaQ,ipplHti are well-known temples. II. GEOLOGY. Perhaps the most valuable of the published reports that deal with the Geology of the State is Mr. Bruce Foote’s Rec01·d.s of the Geological Survey of the Pudul,k6ttai State, the northern part of the lvladu~a District and the southern parts of the Tanjore and the Trichinopoly Districts (Rec01’ds of the Geological S’urvey of India, Vol. XII, part 3). In compiling the present account most of the information has been derived, and much repeated verbatim, from it. Stratigrapby.-The rocks found in the Pudukk6ttai State may be divided as follows :- 1. Soils and subrerial formations. 2. Alluvial formations, marine and fluviatile. 3. Laterite conglomerates, gravels and sands. 4. Cuddalore Sandstones, grits and conglomerates. 5. Upper Gondwana beds. Hard mottled shales. 6. Gneissic or metamorphIC rocks. I] GEOLOGY 5 T O)fography .-‘ The gneissic rocks occupy the western p:1rt of the area and form the highest prominences in it. The line of hills stretching from south of Kolattur to Annavasal, and the granite gneiss, hills to the ‘south of the VeHar at and near Tirumayam belong to this classification. A considerable part of the surface of the gneissic rocks is occupied by debris of the younger overlying rocks, which have been in great part destroyed by the denuding agency of atmospheric’ forces. The rocks assigned to the Rajmahal section of the Upper Gondwa.na system are very slightly exposed, and though their contact with the gneiss is not visible, there is no reason to imagine that their base rests on’ anything else than the gneiss. The Cuddalore Sandstones and grits rest, wherever their base is exposed, on the irregular surface of the gnessic rocks, and are themselves overlaid by laterite conglomerates, gravels and sands. The conglomeratic beds of both groups occur in the western parts of the State. . rfhe gravelly and sandy members of the laterite group occupy the eastern part. The laterite area. is divided by the alluvial valleys of the several rivers (the Agnanavim6chaniar, the VeUar, the Pambar and the Matjimuktanadi) into various patches. The rivel: alluvia are of no great extent or importance. Owing to the great extent of wet cultivation carriEtd on along the various rivers and under tanks, the apparent area of the alluvium has, iIi. the course of many centuries, been largely increased .by the formation of artificial alluvial spreads; the boundaries between which and the true alluvia it is in very many, if not in most, cases impossible to determine with any accuracy. The Gnei •• ic or Metamorphic rock •. -The prevalent form in this region is quartzo-felspathic micaceous granitoid gneiss or semi-granitoid gneiss, of pinkish or greyish-pink colour. In texture. it varies from a massive, coarse, highly granitoid rock to 6 PUDUlrKOTTAI STATE [CHAP, a schistose gneiss nearly akin to mica schist. A very marked variety is a coarse granular quartz rock, very rudely bedded and showing numerous small indistinot cavities, from which some mineral has been weathered out. Finely banded granite gneiss of dense grain ooours here and there, for example at Tirugokart;lam and at Ammaohatram. The Al uruttimalai and N arttamalai hills consist of banded slightly hornblendic granite gneiss of a pale grey oolour, weathering to a pale dirty flesh colour, and showing characteristic bare rocky masses. The Annavasal hills are of very similar pet.rological character, and so also is KuQ.umiamalai. These hills are almost bare of vegetation owing to their very rocky character, but to the east of Narttamalai is a ridge of highly crystalline quartoze rook, which crumbles by weathering into a ooarse grit, thickly covered by heavy thorny scrub. This band of granular quartoze gneiss is conneoted with a more southerly outcrop of similar rock on the south bank of the Venar. Unconnected with any of the above beds is a band of the granular rock a.t Mallampatti, where the only occurrence of magnetic iron in the gneiss is met with. Little of the outcrop is seen, but a good deal of debris of a rioh magnetite bed is found soattered about the fields. Beautifully banded micaceous granite gneiss is to be seen at Viralimalai. Among the more noteworthy outorops of granite gneiss in the northern part of the State is a band of grey mioaoeous variety which forms large tors and bosses at KiUumalai. Round about Kolattur is micaceous granite gneiss distinctly bedded. Near KoJattUr on the boundary of the laterite are other fine outcrops of granite gneiss, as for instance near N angupatti ; such olutcrops also occur at PerumanaQ.u and Chittur near the VeHar. The general strike of the bedding of the gneissic rocks trends to north and south, or north-by-west and south-by-east. But over GEOLOGY 7 the southern part of the area, comprIsmg the valley of the MaI).imuktar, northward to within a. couple of miles of the Pambar valley at Tirumayam, the strike varies from east-bysouth and west-by-north to north-west-by-west and south-eastby-east; in the central part no well-bed~ed rocks have been mapped, while in the northern part the strike changes from east-west to east-by-north and west-by-south. The Cuddalore .erie •. -The representatives of the Cuddalore series (established by Mr. H. F. Blanford for certain’ rocks in South Arcot and Trichinopoly Districts) which occur in our limits consist of coarse conglomerates, sandstones and grits, the latter passing locally into a rock perfectly undistinguishable from the common laterite which so largely covers the surface in this region. Here, as in so many other parts of the Coromandel coast, the slight slope of the country and the very low dip of the rocks have prevented the formation of really valuable natural sections. The extension of wet cultivation greatly militates against the formation of deep channels by the different streams, whioh give rise to the formation of looal alluvial fiats, whioh only add to the obsouration of the younger rooks, whose relations are generally_ very unsatisfactorily and imperfectly displayed, so that definite information regarding many interesting stratigraphioal points is at present not procurable. The total absence, so far, of organic remains renders the oorrelation of detached exposures of even similar rocks of great and inevitable uncertainty. Ill-compacted gritty shingle conglomerate occurs resting on the gneiss on the high grounds north-east of Pudukk6ttai near Mullur. Among the more southerly conglomerate beds are . , those met with in the Sengirai ridge,displayed by an extensive series of rain gullies which expose a considerable surface of the grit;y conglomerate, but unfortunately do not cut deeply into it. The bedding is seen to dip east-north-east or east-by-north. at angles of from 12° to 15°. The conglomerate varies from mottled brown to a pinkish and whitish, less frequently reddish, colour, 8 PUDUKKOTTAI STATE [CHAP. and is tolerably compact with a gritty matrix, including quartz and gneiss shingle from the size of a cocoanut downward, in moderate quantity. The eastern slope of the ridge is overlaid by the massive and continuous bed of laterite conglomerate met with on the Ooroman4el coast; it covers a considerable space between Arimalam and Ne4-ungu4-i, and is itself lost sight of to the east under lateritic sands and the alluvium of the VeUar. , A second section of the Cuddalore beds forming the Sengirai , , ridge, situated near Ayangu4-i, has beds unlike the Sengirai ones; they are conglomerates of very coarse texture and rather friable; the matrix, which varies from light-red to brown-red in colour, is semi-lateritic and vermicularly cellular to some extent. The enclosed shingle is mostly large and rounded; it is chiefly quartzose and all apparently of gneissio origin. The lowest bed seen is mottled and more gritty in texture, with fewer enolosed pebbles. The dip is southerly at low angles. The best section of Cuddalore grits of the softer variety occurs near Perungal ur. Here the small stream, which feeds the tank, in descending from the high ground to the north cuts through the upper laterite beds, and exposes beds of typical grits in many gullies, forming. miniature canons of very perfect shape, with nearly vertioal sides from 12 to 18 feet deep, and only 2 or 3 feet . apart at the bottom. The s~ction here displayed shows the following sequence of beds in descending order– 1. Blaok laterite conglomerate, on gravel; 2. Red-brown vermioularly porous conglomerate,passing down into; 3. Brown conglomerate with many pebbles of quartz-grit and older laterite; and 4. Grits, pale-mottled, generally showing columnar jointing, with vermicular tubes and scattered galls of fine olay. r] GEOLOGy 9 The lateritic group.-. The Cuddalore series is overlaid by the several members of the lateritic series, which vary from hard typic:tl conglomerates through gritty beds to gravels, and finally to reddish sands, with variable quantities of gravelly pisolitic hrematite concretions. The sandy beds occupy the lower slopes, while the conglomeratic beds occupy the higher grounds to the west, and often overlap widely on to the gneiss. The various rivers which convey the drainage of the country to the sea divide the lateritic region into a number of minor areas or patches amounting in all to nine, of which the following are the more prominent. 1. The southward continuation of the TanJore patch. Where the conglomerate is covered with soil, the latter is generally a very hard compact sandy clay of a red or yellow (bath-brick) colour, much marked by sun-cracks, which run in very regular systems and give the soil a tesselated appearance on a large scale. In the presence of water these laterite soils are fertile, but in the high dry downs, upon which they are oftenest seen, they bear little but a very low scrub. 2. The PuclukkOttai patclt.-Striking spreads of hard typical conglomerate are to be seen in many places near the western boundary, and even at some miles distance from it, for example at U rrilir (near Perungal lir) in the extreme north-west corner of the patch, also nearly all along the left side of the VeHar alluvium down to Arantangi, and to the north and , north-west of Alanguq.i. , 3. The Sengimi patch.-This cOhtains an extensive and maSSIve development of conglomerate on the eastern slope of the Sengirai ridge and the plain east of it. This great development of conglomerate is continued under the alluvium of the Pam bar and reappears in the Shahk6tai patch, and is especially well seen at Kilanilaik6ttai, where the walls of the 2 10 P’UDUKKOTTAI STATE [CHAP. extensive old poligar fort are built of massive blocks of laterite quarried close by. The conglomerate is also admirably seen on the bluff east of N eq.ungu4i which may be regarded as the , continuation of the Sengfrai ridge south-westward. 4. The N allur patch.-Like the western part of theTanjore patch this consists of a more gritty and rather less compact form than prevails over the spreads enumerated. A1luvium.-The alluvia of the various small streams traversing our area are very limited, an,d are generally a whitish mixture of sandy clay, with laterite pellets and small debris of quartz and gneiss. Soila.-The soils depend almost everywhere on the underlying rocks for their character. Red and reddish sandy Boils abound eyerywhere. Black soil is not at all common, and occurs only under a few important irrigation tanks, where it must. be regarded as of artificial ongm. Where the conglomeratic laterite occurs, two forms of soil prevail, both of them hard clayey sands, the one of a bright red, the other of a pale yellow colour-often approaching in texture to true sandstone. Over the laterite bands, the soil is generally a nearly pure, less frequently somewhat clayey, sand. Almost all the dry lands in the Sta·te are of red ferruginous soil.; regar is found in the wet fields of the Tirumayam and , KolattUr Taluks and at scattered places in the Alangudi Taluk. The popular classification is as follows- 1. Padugai.-(alluvial soil). Alluvial soil of the kind prevalent in the Cauveri delta is rarely found in the State. The State pa4.ugai lands contain somewhat rich loamy soil, and as a result of constant manuring with green leaves, etc., ha-ve acquired a slightly chocolate colour. Such soil is found in villages situated close to forests, the green leaves from which are often used to manure the wet. nelds in the adjoining villages. I] GEOLOGY 11 Amongst the villages in which this soil is found are Kavina4., and Vallana4., in AlanguQ.i Taluk. and Pudunilaivayal, Melanilaivayal, N edungudi, Rayavaram, and Arimalam, in Tirumayam Taluk. 2. Karisal.-or black loamy soil found in the wet lands of the Tirumayam Taluk. In villages where, in the mixture of clay and sand, clay preponderates, the field yields a poor crop. , 3. Sevval.-(red ferruginous) found almost throughout the State. This is the loamy soil as distinguished from 4. Manal.-(ferruginous sandy soil) , and 5. 8aralai.-(ferruginous gravelly soil) 6. Kalar.-(black clayey soil of a saline character) found in several villages in ‘firumayam Taluk, from which salt was actually manufacture.d before its manufacture in the State was prohibited. This classification is by no means a scientific one. Economic Geology and Mineralogy.-Though poor ill precious metals,the State produces a few useful minerals. Granite and lat.erite are used for building purposes, in the construction of sluices, kalingulas or surplus weirs, revetments of tank bunds, etc. Granite of so fine a quality as to be suitable for delicate carving is quarried in the State. The laterite quarries yield stones of a very large size. Granite is now quarried under Government licenses at the following places-Tirug6karI.lam, Put tarn bur, Tirumayam, LambalakkuQ.i, Konapet, Malayak6il, Peraiyur, U silamalaipparai, Viralimalai, Vittampatti, KuQ.umiamalai, PananguQ.imalai, Ammachatram, Virappatti, Chittambur, and Kiranur. Laterite quarries are to be found near Arimalam. The stones quarried in the State are much in demand in surrounding districts on account of their quality and excellence. The rocks in tbe State yield ston~ fol” road metal. 1’2 PUDUKKOTTAI STATE [CHAP. Specimens of red jasper, and pieces of rocle crystal both white and violet in colour, have been picked up near the Sittannavasal rock and on a waste piece of land known as pacchaippottal in the Kolattur Taluk. The violet-coloured crystals, which are considered to be amethysts, are not large; but the white ones are fairly big. Lime of superior quality is prepared from Kankar found at VMappur and KaruppuQ.aiyanpatti. A rather inferior kind of Kankar is obtainable at Karaiyur, Perumanadu, Animachatram and other places. Brick clay is obtainable from superficial alluvial deposits. Bricks are manufactured in the Government factory from clay obtained from Pattattikulam, north of Tirugokarnam. Potter’s clay is a fine variety collected from the beds coveredby the fluviatile alluvia,l deposits of the irrigation tanks. Since the suppression of earth-salt manufacture in 1888, the silt is said to have become rather saline and not so good. Pots made at Malaiyur and a few other places where the soil is not so saIlne, are strong and are in great demand. Bangle-earth is of the alkaline variety and is found mostly in the KoJattur Taluk. Bangle-makers in Trichinopoly purchase large quantities of this earth. Fairly good bangle-earth is also found in the beds of Nirpalani, Perambur and Tamaraikanmoi tanks, at Kurambavayal near KarambakkuQ.i, and in the waste lands of Rasipuram and PakkuQ.i. Dhobie’s earth is a whitish soil used for bleaching. It is found on the banks of the Venar and the Nerinjikkudi stream. Earth-salt was manufactured in 175 villages up to· 1888 when the manufacture was suppressed in the State. Saltpetre was once collected in and near the capital town. IJ METEOROLOGY 13 , Ochre of different colours is found in and near the Sengfrai Forest and near Tiruvarangulam. It is used in making pigments, and crayons, and for water and oil colours, and is largely exported out of the State. hon.-It has already been mentioned that magnetic iron occurs at Malampatti. As Mr. Bruce Foote remarks, the metallic minerals in the State are represented by iron-ores only and those not of the highest quality. The conglomerate about Sengfrai is thick and massive over an area of several square miles, and is remarkably rich in iron. There are traces of a considerable smelting industry having been carried on at no , remote period at Ayangudi in the southern part of the State. An inscription dated the 4th year of Vira Pa1)Q.ya (13th century) speaks of a smelting industry at Tiruvarangulam. The statistical account of the State for 1813 mentions several tracts where iron was found; among them are places near Andakkulam, , Perungallir, Thekkadu, Tiruvarangulam, KiJ.anilai, and 8engirai. From Mr. Baillie’s report (1811) which states that” the monopoly of digging and smelting iron ore was farmed out for Rs. 1,300 a year,” it is clear that iron was smelted in these places up to the middle of the last century. Mica has been collected at Annavasal and Karaiyur. III. METEOROLOGY. rrhe climate of the State naturally resembles closely that of the surrounding districts of the Presidency. It is one of the drier areas in Southern India. The earliest recorded meteorological observation (of rainfall only) is that for November, 1880. In about 1890 twelve rain-gauge stations were opened. All, except that at Tiruvarangulam, are still working. In September, 1905 an Observatory was opened at the c~,pita,l. 14 PUDUKK6TTAI STATE [CHAP, Statistics of the average rainfall at the various recording stations in the State, and for the State as a whole, are given belowYears January April June Ootober Station, recorded, to to to to Total, March, May, September , December, Pudukk6ttai .. , { 1906-17 1’34 3’99 15’44 14’56 35’33 :;:1925-35 2’91 5’10 12’46 18’05 38’52 , .. , { 1906-17 1’83 3’29 16’72 14’36 36’20 Alangul},i 1925-35 3’76 4’98 8’32 16’85 33’90 KarambakkueJi ,{ 1906-17 1″77 2’70 9’67 11’57 25’71 1925-35 3’93 3’72 9’80 20’43 .37’88 Tirumayam , .. { 1906-17 1’94 4’53 19’38 12’89 38’74 1925-35 2’42 5’78 10’40 15’01 33’61 Kfjanilai .. ‘ { 1906-17 1’30 2’76 13’92 13’21 31’19 1925-35 2’93 4’60 11’55 16’76 35’M Kojatttir .. , { 1906-17 1’44 3’40 13’55 14’12 32’51 1925-35 2’48 3’98 8’65 15’85 30’96 Viralimalai ! 1906-17 2’00 4’75 11’26 14’44 32’45 “‘1 1925-35 2’11 3’70 8’81 16’37 31’00 Oe}ayajippatti ‘” { 1906-17 1’53 3’30 12’85 13’60 31’28 1925-35 1’88 5’58 8’72 15’78 31’96 Annavasal .. , { 1906-17 1’47 4’39 14’37 13’94 34’17 1925-35 2’14 4’13 11’39 17’04 34’71 Ponnamaravati { 1906-17 1’84 3’91 15’78 13’58 35’11 1925-35 2’22 6’36 14’41 16’89 39’87 . ,J 1906-17 1’57 2’85 13’86 14’82 33’10 AdanakkOHal ‘” I 1925-35 2’52 5’25 9’72 18’10 35’59 Average for { 1906-17 1’63 3’62 14’25 13’73 33’23 the State, 1925-35 2’66 4’83 /10’38 17’01 34’89 I • l”aslis 1335 to 1344, Season and rainfall.-The year may be divided into four distinct seasons, The first period January to March is relatively dry and cool. In the second, April to May, though more rain is to be expected, the heat steadily increases, The second half of the year comprises the two monsoons, Practically, the hot season extends frolD March to October, with occasional intervals METEOROLOGY 15 of rain, while the rainy season properly so-called extends over October, November and December, and sometimes into January. Such “cold weather” as there is sets in in December and lasts till March. ‘l’he rainfall varies remarkably from year to year. More rain is generally expected from the North-east than from the South-west monsoon, but statistics show that this expectation is by no means always realised. The total annual average for the State is nearly 35 inches. The year 1920-21 (Fasli 1~30) records the high average of 60’44 inches, and 1934-35 (Fasli 1344) the very low average of 24’46 inches-Kolattur has the lowest average. The average number of wet days in a year for the last five years 1931-35 is 70; so that the average fall per rainy day works out approximately to 0’5 inches. October and November have the highest average number of rainy days. In March and April humidity is generally low. In May and June the scorching heat is occasionally relieved by thunder showers. In July, August and September-especially in August-there are sometimes heavy falls of rain. September shows a decrease, while in October and November the humidity is usually highest. In December and January rainfall is generally-but by no means always-scanty. Temperature;-The temperature is officially recorded daily only at the Observa.tory at Pudukk6ttai Town. The annual mean for the five years 1931 to 1935 is 84’1° F. The lowest mean is 76’5° F. in December and the highest 90’So in May. The mercury rose to 109° in the month of May in the years 1931 and 1934 and seldom fell below 60° throughout the period. ‘In the cold and dewy months of January and February,” to quote the late Mr. Chakrapani Iyengar, the State Meteorological Superintenaent, “the dry minimum readings range from a little over 60° F. to 70° F.; and though there is a clear range of 16 PUD’UKKOTTAI STATE [CHAP. variation of from 30° to 45° between the lowest and the highest reading in the year’s course, yet such extreme cases pertain only to the second half of January and the first half of Februa~y. For the major portion ot the year the mean daily temperature is generally about its mean annual temperature. The range of temperature during the course of a day varies very greatly during the different seasons of the year. The range of daily variations is greatest in April or May and least in November or December. ” Winds.-The South-west monsoon wind, popularly known as the west wind (C1UJ6-v <err;d.g)i), blows=”” steadily=”” from=”” the=”” middle=”” of=”” june=”” to=”” august.=”” northerly=”” breeze=”” september-october=”” shifts=”” east=”” when=”” north-east=”” monsoon=”” breaks.=”” in=”” january=”” and=”” february=”” wind=”” east,=”” march=”” a=”” southerly=”” prevails=”” (g.qi~,f})6-v<e”‘;d.ji)j)=”” till=”” it=”” again=”” round=”” west=”” with=”” setting=”” south-west=”” monsoon.=”” cyclones.–,..thunderstorms=”” usually=”” occur=”” bay=”” about=”” beginning=”” end=”” monsoons.=”” following=”” extract=”” sir=”” william=”” hunter’s=”” imperial=”” gazetteer=”” india=”” (volume=”” i)=”” will=”” throw=”” light=”” on=”” that=”” important=”” feature=”” meteorology=”” indian=”” ocean-the=”” cyclones=”” which=”” exercise=”” so=”” great=”” an=”” influence=”” rainfall=”” on’=”” coast=”” 80uthern=”” india.=”” “=”” consi~erable=”” proportion=”” wet=”” (the=”” south=”” is=”” described=”” as=”” ‘wet=”” monsoon’=”” india)=”” over=”” greater=”” part=”” due=”” ascensional=”” movement=”” accompanying=”” cyclonic=”” storms.=”” average=”” eight=”” storms=”” moderate=”” considerable=”” intensity=”” pass=”” bengal=”” into=”” between=”” september.”=”” (only=”” occasionally=”” does=”” storm=”” area=”” come=”” far=”” peninsula=”” cover=”” pudukkottai=”” state.)=”” ………………………….=”” .=”” “after=”” current=”” has=”” withdrawn=”” northern=”” ‘opper=”” burma,=”” recurving=”” bay,=”” directed=”” i]=”” 17=”” ……………………=”” s~orms=”” at=”” longer=”” intervals,=”” but=”” continue=”” give=”” large=”” amounts=”” rain=”” areas=”” they=”” over.=”” their=”” path=”” is,=”” latter=”” october=”” almost=”” invariably=”” november=”” december,=”” westward=”” .the=”” oircars=”” arid=”” coromandel=”” coasts.=”” (in=”” first=”” half=”” precipitation=”” occurs=”” chiefly=”” north=”” circars=”” districts,=”” second=”” december=”” or=”” solely=”” coast)=”” ……………………………………..=”” heaviest=”” narrow=”” belt=”” coast,=”” where=”” ranges=”” 20=”” 30=”” inches,=”” decreases=”” ra.pidly=”” proceeding=”” interior.”=”” passing=”” pudukk6ttai=”” are=”” sometimes=”” accompanied=”” by=”” very=”” heavy=”” rainfall.=”” one=”” 1930=”” (for=”” example)=”” produced=”” ll~=”” inches=”” rain,=”” 1033=”” nearly=”” 8i=”” 1935=”” 8=”” 24=”” hours.=”” 1893=”” much=”” 27=”” were=”” registered=”” hours=”” some=”” places=”” state.=”” earthquake.-a=”” slight=”” tremor=”” was=”” felt=”” for=”” few=”” minutes=”” night=”” 8,=”” 1900;=”” no=”” damage=”” done.=”” economic=”” effecta=”” climate-liability=”” famine.-of=”” various=”” causes=”” formerly=”” contributed=”” widespread=”” distress-drought=”” flood,=”” anarchy,=”” war=”” misrule-the=”” last=”” three=”” are-at=”” least=”” time=”” being-suspended.=”” rrhough=”” state=”” not=”” differ=”” materially=”” adjacent=”” areas,=”” risk=”” famine=”” scarcity=”” state,=”” owing=”” absence=”” ri=”” vers=”” canals=”” affording=”” steady=”” continuous=”” supply=”” water.=”” cultivation=”” soil,=”” occupation=”” majority,=”” depends=”” adequate=”” total=”” amount=”” distributed=”” all=”” parts=”” occurring=”” suitable=”” intervals.=”” this=”” most=”” important”=”” condition.=”” torrential=”” downpour=”” fill=”” largest=”” tanks,=”” 3=”” 18=”” [chap.=”” concerned=”” (if=”” do=”” breach)=”” season=”” be=”” good=”” one.=”” hundreds=”” smaller=”” tanks=”” require=”” two=”” fillings=”” favourable=”” intervals=”” if=”” crops=”” under=”” them=”” maturity.=”” improvement=”” extension=”” communications=”” rail=”” road,=”” famine-in=”” sense=”” actual=”” dearth=”” necessities=”” life-is,=”” may=”” hoped,=”” thing=”” past.=”” nowadays=”” severe=”” drought=”” means-not=”” lack=”” supplies=”” grain=”” other=”” necessaries=”” life=”” but-a=”” money=”” buy=”” them.=”” remedy=”” (to=”” freely=”” had=”” recourse=”” year=”” 1935)=”” open=”” relief=”” works,=”” enable=”” unemployed=”” agricultural=”” labourer=”” earn=”” grain.=”” such=”” situation=”” also=”” tends=”” stimulate=”” emigration=”” ceylon=”” elsewhere=”” overseas.=”” though=”” history=”” remote=”” times=”” sheds=”” little=”” subject,=”” there=”” doubt=”” former=”” famines=”” occurred=”” frequently=”” disastrously.=”” vexatious=”” taxation=”” led=”” early=”” abandonment=”” whole=”” villages,=”” example,=”” madayani=”” 1512.=”” again,=”” authority=”” central=”” government=”” often=”” effective=”” distant=”” tracts,=”” thus=”” given=”” plunder=”” bloodshed.=”” inroads=”” mussalmans=”” fourteenth=”” century=”” desertion=”” rangyam=”” ,=”” adanur.=”” predatory=”” excursions=”” kahars=”” neighbouring=”” territory=”” provoked=”” reprisals=”” which,=”” injured=”” party=”” powerful,=”” severe.=”” 17th=”” 18th=”” centuries,’=”” its=”” full=”” share=”” troubles=”” arising=”” out=”” maelstrom=”” carnatic=”” wars,=”” english=”” arms=”” emerged=”” triumphant.=”” situated=”” between·=”” quarrelsome=”” neighbours,=”” forced=”” either=”” selfprotection,=”” considerations=”” prestige,=”” fulfil=”” obligations,=”” engaged=”” warfare=”” different=”” rulers=”” tanjore,=”” madura,=”” mysore=”” ramnad=”” rebel=”” poligars.=”” ij=”” 19=”” inscription=”” perumal=”” temple=”” ponnamaravati=”” dated=”” 1453=”” a.d.=”” (saka=”” 1375)=”” relates=”” how=”” dancing=”” girls=”” driven=”” homes=”” successive=”” 1436,=”” 1450=”” 1451=”” came=”” accepted=”” service=”” village.=”” another=”” meltir=”” 1465=”” refers=”” consequence=”” inhabitants=”” village=”” raise=”” sum=”” subsistence=”” selling=”” padikaval'”=”” rights=”” neighbours=”” rajasingamangalam=”” (rangyam)=”” ..=”” letters=”” madura=”” mission=”” furnish=”” harrowing=”” details=”” suffering=”” caused=”” seventeenth=”” eighteenth=”” centuries.=”” 1655=”” occasion=”” persecution=”” christians=”” kandeltir=”” depredations=”” abyssinian,=”” kanakhan=”” t=”” who=”” entering=”” tondiman=”” slaughtered=”” men=”” outraged=”” women.=”” perhaps=”” severest=”” recorded=”” 1708-1709=”” referred=”” irumbanad,=”” tells=”” wasted=”” lands=”” abandoned=”” villages.=”” missionaries=”” we=”” learn=”” “the=”” like=”” oldest=”” among=”” living=”” have=”” never=”” witnessed=”” ………………..=”” everywhere=”” along=”” roads=”” fields=”” heaped=”” up=”” corpses=”” rather=”” bleached=”” bones=”” ‘left=”” unburied,=”” amidst=”” people=”” amongst=”” whom=”” funeral=”” ceremonies=”” could=”” considered=”” dispensable.”=”” 1733=”” complete=”” failure=”” coupled=”” wars=”” 1735=”” responsible=”” ,;,=”” pddikdval=”” means=”” literally=”” watchrnanship=”” village.”=”” right=”” protecting=”” people,=”” property=”” crops,”=”” exercised=”” vilrj.ge=”” assemblies.=”” {khan-i-khanan}=”” general=”” idalkhan=”” adil-shah=”” bijapur.=”” he=”” invaded=”” levied=”” ransom=”” tanjore=”” raised=”” contributions=”” returned=”” bijapur=”” richet:’=”” lasted=”” 1736.=”” french=”” sit=”” days=”” left=”” “nothing=”” smoke=”” flames=”” fire=”” everywhere”=”” engagements=”” rajah=”” 1756=”” followed=”” rapine,=”” distress=”” accounted=”” migration=”” population.=”” 19th=”” reign=”” raja=”” raghunatha,=”” result=”” drought.=”” took=”” prompt=”” measures,=”” congratulated=”” suzerain’=”” power,=”” opened=”” feeding=”” houses=”” free=”” distribution=”” food=”” gruel,=”” purchased=”” stored=”” paddy=”” quantities=”” use=”” poor.=”” 1858=”” intense=”” misery;=”” usual=”” while=”” unseasonably=”” fall=”” april=”” crops.=”” 1866=”” 1868=”” years=”” even=”” distress;=”” rains=”” failed=”” entirely,=”” t,anks=”” wells=”” dried=”” up,=”” both=”” kdlam=”” k6dai=”” failures,=”” largescale=”” ryots,=”” traders=”” weavers.=”” allowed=”” remission=”” rs.=”” 4,338-8-11,=”” those=”” represented=”” sum.=”” 1870=”” 1871=”” succeeding=”” hot=”” months=”” drinking=”” water=”” became=”” scarce.=”” untimely=”” 1873=”” totally=”” 1875.=”” series=”” bad=”” culminated=”” more=”” serious=”” calamities=”” 1876-1877,=”” drought,=”” dry=”” alike=”” failed.=”” year,=”” hand,=”” excessive=”” breached=”” number=”” tanks.=”” subscriptions=”” collected,=”” aid=”” sought=”” charity=”” funds=”” through=”” madras=”” committee.=”” works=”” started,=”” conjeethotties=”” (gruel=”” kitchens)=”” principal=”” stations.=”” 1879-80,=”” 11889=”” 1895=”” period=”” marked=”” intermittent=”” scarcity,=”” brollght=”” 1890=”” prices’=”” touched=”” point.’=”” 1895,=”” insufficient:=”” kolattur=”” suffered=”” particular,=”” ol’dt~red=”” ‘on=”” extensiye=”” scnle.’=”” ]=”” t\=”” lsds=”” ag~till,=”” rdiuf=”” worb=”” wtll’e=”” found=”” nboll8lialy;=”” i\i1d=”” the’=”” trimming’=”” aguiar,=”” tho=”” ox(iiwlttl01l=”” h.=”” <hillking=”” wa.ter=”” urani=”” narttallu\iai,=”” a.nd=”” extensive=”” repairs=”” j{o!attul’=”” tank=”” afforded=”” help=”” \1)lemployed.=”” four=”” present=”” eontinuedpros~~·,:.;tblibi,pp;.ly=”” ternlinatedbowevel’~y=”” .drougbtof=”” l~t’,~~”q~rilqreto.=”” failut’eoftbe:=”” north-eas~=”” mo~n~·=”” in;~t,pla.ces=”” uetattemptw808&ver=”” ·made=”” 00=”” sow=”” paddy,=”” and,=”” \vher~lt=”” sown;=”” seedlings=”” died=”” before=”” transplantation,.=”” pootpeople=”” tirumayam=”” able=”” get=”” workln=”” thechetti=”” villages;=”” alanguqi=”” carried=”” 011=”” wells,=”” “fared=”” worst=”” au,=”” drinking-water=”” having=”” 1110st=”” pla.ces.”=”” 1907-8=”” pubuc=”” opened,=”” siiwe=”” conditions=”” deserve=”” name=”” fitll1ine,=”” 1909-10=”” eastern-ir!ost=”” firkas=”” i{o!a.ttur=”” south-east=”” corner=”” of,=”” tirnmaya.m=”” f:nffp.recl,=”” irrign.tion=”” started=”” relief.=”” ii’=”” 1911-19=”” generally=”” high=”” priues,=”” especially=”” inported=”” artioles=”” piece-goods,=”” kerosene=”” glass.=”” 19t6=”” 1918.~h.enq.rth-~fj=”” tb~=”” y~rs=”” 1924=”” wei=”” e=”” olle=”” the,=”” darbar=”” tried=”” (‘ase=”” sitnation=”” granting=”” loans=”” ryots=”” sink=”” cattle=”” seed.=”” ‘=”” rrhe=”” collection=”” kist=”” wa.:;postponcd.=”” 1927,=”” regent.=”” granted=”” land=”” revenue=”” extent=”” lakh=”” rupees=”” ‘instance=”” being=”” after=”” introductiq:n=”” new=”” settlement=”” rates),=”” collection,=”” amounting=”” postponed.=”” 1928=”” amounted=”” tha.n=”” 2=”” lakhs.=”” ne·pay~ent.=”” ryo.=”” governmenl=”” ···.loans,.=”” w8bsuspended,.=”” interest=”” remitted.=”” 19~9,=”” cdtection=”” otarrears=”” .hm4=”” ordered=”” made=”” ill=”” six=”” instead=”” four,=”” year’s=”” spread=”” months.=”” experienced=”” 1934–35=”” (fasli=”” 1344)=”” majoj,’=”” cala.mities=”” bas=”” been=”” visited.=”” 4’=”” rainfali=”” it,=”” quote=”” adminifitrationreport,=”” “was=”” insufficien.t=”” during=”” or,=”” raised,=”” state.”=”” addition=”” concessions=”” previous=”” occasions,=”” 50=”” per=”” cent=”” assessment=”” sanctioned=”” uncultivat~d’=”” shortage=”” water,=”” cultivated,=”” fa.ile<l=”” yield=”” anna.=”” crop__=”” ‘tb~=”” total··=”” remissioll=”” .during=”” fasli,=”” wns=”” 2,()~,=”” )1r.=”” ‘rp.eoveryof=”” instalments=”” oc=”” agricultnrnl=”” dne=”” fasli=”” suspended.=”” ‘rho=”” laud=”” rovcnno=”” wltk=”” colle<:ted=”” six.,iustajmeuts=”” folll’.=”” distraint=”” recovery=”” prohibited.=”” drough&cattsed=”” unemployment=”” scale=”” labourers.=”” relie;e=”” nunierous=”” mostly=”” form=”” builds=”” irrigation=”” d.arbai’=”” a.lso=”” measures=”” provide=”” villages=”” wh.ere=”” necessary.=”” •=”” labourers=”” required=”” turn=”” three-fourths=”” task=”” they.=”” would=”” turned=”” ordinary=”” times,=”” paid=”” daily=”” wages=”” annas=”” a.=”” ma.n=”” ilonum=”” woumn=”” child.=”” if,=”” howevor,=”” outtu1’ll=”” equa.l=”” ol’dinary’=”” task,=”” ‘at=”” four.=”” anum=”” andtwo=””>lttltlllos respectively. By tlleend of J nne lW17, a SiUll of Us. 3,03,()72 had becn spent on relief works. o There nre now 74G Governlllcut drinking WlLtOI’ wells in the Stn.te. I] METEOROLOGY 23 The following sta.tement shows the number of relief works completed or in prOocrress at that timeParticula.rs of works. 1. New wells … 2. Repairs to old wells· 3. Ta.nks-minor 4. Ta.nks-major 5. UTanies 6. Roads 7. Bore wells (a) New wells bored Numbers. 331 110 257 21 19 10 4 (b) Bores sunk in old wells and repairs to old bore wells. 21 Flooda.-Cyclones from the Bay of Bengal sometimes cause serious inundations. The earliest flood in the State of which we have any record is that of 1709, which contributed to the great famine of that year, N early all the tanks burst, and the standing crops were destroyed. Exactly a century later, in 1809, there was a similar flood resulting in similar devastation. In 1827 a ‘terrific’ hurricane occurred, and in December 1877 a number of tanks breached. In the middle of December 1884 there was a record fall of 7 inches in a single day, Several bridges were irretrievably damaged-the PeruIigalur Bridge, the biggest in the State, was entirely washed away, the KU]J.c;iar Bridge was undermined, and the Pam bar Bridge, further south was swept away. No less than 239 State tanks were seriously breached, and the· cost of repairing the damage done was estimated at Rs. 36,163 for bridges, and Rs. 33,360 for tanks. The 14th and 15th of December 1888 were cyclonic, and in October 1890, an unprecedented downpour of 7’61 inches breached tanks and sent a flood across the country. On November 22, 1893, tl)ere was ton-ential rain varymg from 12 to 27 inches in different places, and a flood of ullprecedented dimensions ensued, breaching nearly aJI the tanks and roads, damaging the crops and rendering the movement of traffic impossible. 24 PUDUKKOTTAI STATE [CHAP, rrhe heavy rains of 19 J 9 were very injurious to the crops then in ear. In November 1920 and January 1921, occurred some of the heaviest rainfall within living memory. fl’he bridge across the Periyar on the l{arambakkuQ.i road, and the causeways across the Venar on the KaQ.ayakkuQ.i and Tirumayam roads, were washed away. 1’he very heavy fall of 23’3 inches in October 1930 breached a number of tanks with results disastrous to agriculture. Resume.-It is evident that to ensure a good harvest in the State, there should be occasional rain in August and September, and frequent and plentiful falls in October and November. But unfortunately the rainfall on the South Madras coast at this. season occurs almost entirely in connection with storms in the Bay, and is therefore extremely irregular in its distribution and often untimely. A series of bad years, due to either excessive or deficient rain, leaves the ryot destitute of grain or money. rl’here is grain for the buying, but since he cannot earn wages the labourer cannot buy it. He has no subsidiary industry to faU back upon; too often he lacks the initiative and perseverance of the Salem and Coimbatore ryots or of the Udaiyars in the State itself, who even in a bad season will manage to raise a few crops under wells. 1’he Darbar’s present policy is to encourage the ryot by the offer of loans on easy terms to sink ,veIls for irrigation, to sink numerous wells to supply drinking water, and to improve the irrigation tanks and uranies. The State is exceptionally well supplied with roads which facilitate marketing. ‘l’he resources of the Darbar however are not unlimited. The ryots must learn to help themselves, and individually or in co-operation to start subsidiary occupations, and undertake protective works such as the digging of irrigation wells ‘which will render them less dependent than they now are on the caprices of the seasons. It is the earnest hope of the Darbar that the scheme of rural improvenient which they are now initiating will gradually educate the ryots to help themselves and each other. CHAPTER II. I. FLORA.* Ecology.–The vegetation of the State is not markedly distinct from that of the adjoining British districts. The ecological factors or conditions that operate and affect the nature and distribution of the vegetation, n,re chiefly temperature and moisture, the latter being the most active agent as regards distribution of plants. The low average rainfall, not well distributed throughout the year, the intense heat, the conformation of the country, and its geographical position (very near the equator in the tropical zone), and other atmospheric and edaphic conditions determine to a great extent the facies of the vegetation. ‘J1he rainfall is scanty and precarious; the average rainfall for the past ten years being 35’9″. Even this average is not uniformly reached. For instance, the average for the five years ending with Fasli 1339 was 30’4″; whereas the average for the five years ending with Fasli 1344 was 41’4″. The range of variation in rainfall is from about 20/1 to about 41/1. The two monsoons, the South-West and the N ortih-East, prevail during the second half of the year; the State is usually benefited more by the latter than by the former of these. ,. Flora.–The names of the plants described are according to the “Flora of the Madms Presidency-Gamble.” The classification and, to a certain extent, the descriptions given in that work have been followed. The Appendix giving a list of the common and economic plants is drawn up on the same lines as that to be found in the “Manual of the Tanjore District” with slight modification of the tabular heads. The general floristic description to some extent follows the “Imperial Gazetteer of India,-Himter: Vol. IX, Madras Presidency, and Vol. I Indian Empire-Descriptive–J. D. Hooker.” 4 26 PUDUKKOTTAI STATE [CHAP. Coupled with the low rainfall, the State experiences intense heat during the greater part of the year. In conformation the surface may be described as mainly fiat or slightly undulating, dotted here and there with low hilly ranges or isolated hills. The highest and longest ranges of hills lie close to the boundary of the State. The State is situated in the tropics, lying between 10°7′ and 11°4′ North Latitude, at a distance of twelve miles from the coast at the nearest point. The capital town is 317’53 feet above sea level. The maximum day temperature in the shade during the summer months is sometimes as much as 109°. F.; the temperature during the cool or rainy months does not fall below 64°. F. The average annual temperature is about 90″. F.,-6! or 7 degrees above that of the adjoining districts of Trichinopoly and Madura. The dry winds that prevail during the hotter months, when humidity is as low as about 30 per cent, increase th,e dessicating effect on the vegetation; the highest humidity in the cool and rainy months is 65 per cent. The Edaphic factor, i.e., the nature of the soil, combines with the other factors to determine the facies of the vegetation of the various localities. For instance, the hard clayey soils of the red or yellow variety in the conglomeratic laterite beds are covered mostly with a pa.rticular type of plant association, of which the predominant species are Dodonaea viscosa, and the dwarf mimosa (Albizzia amara). Here the surface of the soil is covered with thin layers of grit and sand collected by wind action. Where there is no such superficial layer on a hard laterite bed, the vegetation occurs only in the cracks or fissures. In the State the soil is mainly of the ferruginous type; the red variety predominating in the drier localities. Black cotton soil is very rare, and met with only in the wet fields. Alluvium of the true type is scarce, except for a type of soil not strictly alluvial in the black loam of wet lands, in the beds of the irrigation tanks, and in the neighbourhood of streams. Here thrive the more mesophytic types of vegetation. On the hard II] FLORA 27 laterite beds, and on the sandy porous soils with a low retentive capacity, an almost xerophytic’ vegetation obtains. The characteristic xerophytic plants, with reduction or modification of foliage to suit the environment, that are met with are Parkinsonia aculeata, Opuntia dillenii no~ much reduced by the cochineal insect, Oaralluma urnhellata, Aloe vulgaris, Oaralluma @scendens, Oereus hexagonus (an exotic found in hedges), Euphorbia antiquorum, Euphorbia tirucalli, etc. The sandy tracts are the places where the Casuarina thrives in the State; for its acicular foliage is adapted to resist excessive dessication. Saline soils are also to be met with in parts of the State, especially in some tracts in the Tirumayam Taluk. Vegetation.-In general the floristic features of the State may be said to range from the mesophytic to the xerophytic types. As Sir W. Hunter remarks in the Imperial Gazetteer of India, the hot season in India has much the same effect on the vegetation as winter has in a temperate climate. Herbaceous plants wither and disappear, trees and shrubs shed their leaves, and in many cases the young foliage remains in the bud till quickened by the rain. When the rain does come the effect is almost magical. In less than 24 hours the scorched brown plain is carpeted with green, and the bare trees are quickly mantled with the young leaves. At the same time animal life is stirred into activity. Sportive insects hover over newly opened flowers; swarms of frogs render nights hideous by their incessant croaking and every ditch, pool and tank teems with fish. During the hot season the vegetation is burnt up, many trees are leafless and the aspect of the coun try is dreary in the extreme. The silence of the sparse jungle is only broken by the discordant noise of the cicala, the tllk-tuk of the barbet (Xantholaema indica), the screech of the kite, or the melancholy whistle of the drongo-shrike. The scrub jungles contain mostly perennial shrubs reaching not more than 10 feet or so in height, forming a tangled growth that is sometimes impenetrable. Thorny plants are common. The ramification is generally very dense and the shru bs tend to 28 PUDUKK6TTAI STATE [CHAP. assume a compact or rounded form. On the level and low lying portions of the jungles there is a thick growth of Memec·ylvn edule, which is hardly penetrable, and overhead are standaxds of Mimusops hexandra, Pterospermum 8ubero8um, Albizzia amara, Atalantia monophylla, Dr-ora parviflora, and at higher levels there are Wrightia tinctoria, Azadirachta indica, Bassia latifolia, Pongamia glabra, Zizyphu.s juiuba, Z. leucopyrus, and Carissa carandas. Among the common&r shrubs may also be mentioned Dichrostachys cinlrrea, Gmfl-ina asiatica, and in places Erythroxylon monogynum. In the open tracts the undergrowth consists largely of prickly-pear, and the standards of Acacia latronum, A. planifrons, and Albizzia amara. Herbaceous flora also prevails in the wooded and moist regions. In the open deforested, cultivated or’ semicultivated plaiIrs and the neighbourhood of tanks and streams, a varied mesophytic vegetation of herbs, and grasses thrives where the soil can retain some water. ‘J.1hese areas are luxuriant in the rainy and cool months, but more or less bare during summer. Most of the plants are annuals; a few are perennials. The herbaceous flora is largely made up of plants belonging to the families, Oapparidaceae, M alvaceae, Tiliaceae, Zygophy’/,l,ace(B, Leguminosae, Lythraceae, Onagraceae, Euphorbiaceae; Rubiaceae,. A izoaceae, Amarantaceae, Nyctagineae, Oompositae, Oucurbitaceae, Verbenaceae, Labiata.e, OonvoZvulaceae, .Acantkaceae, Scrophtdariaceae, V iolaceae, Boragineae, Pedalineae, Oommelinaceae, Gramineae, and Oyperaceae. The representative genera of the above families are Gyandropsis and Oleome,’ Sida and Abutilon,’ Oorchorus,’ Tribulus; Tephrosia and Orota’laria,’ Ammani.a,· Ltulwigia ” Euphorbia, Acalypha, and Phyllanthus,’ Oldenlandia,’ Trianthema and Mollugo,· Amarant’U8, Achyranthes and Gomphrena; Boerhaavia ,. Tridax, Eclipta, V icoa, Blumea, and Vernonia,’ Oitrull’U8, Oephalandra, and Oucumis,’ Lippia, and Stachytarpheta,’ Leuca8, and Anisomeles; ipomaea, Evolvulus,’ RueZlia, Rungia, and J usticia; Striga, Stemodia Dopatrium, and LimnophyZa; II] FLORA 29 lonidium ” Trichodesrna, and Heliotropium ” Pedalium and Sesamum” Oommelina and Gyanotis; Panicum, and Eleusine; Cyperus and Fimbristylis ” in the order of the families abov(J mentioned. The pl:tntations of Casuarina have improved the aspect of the country by clothing the sandy tracts with luxuriant forests; but they also have a beneficial effect on climate and vegetation in the neighbourhood. The most important sandbinding plants are Ipomaea pes-caprae, Launea pinnatifida, Tridax procumbens, Pupalia atropu,rpurea, and Canavalia obtusifolia.. The Screw Pine (Pandanus) is abundant on the banks of rivers. fJ.1he forests are of the deciduous ~ype usual in tropical regions where the dry season is protracted. The trees shed their leaves and remain wholly or partly bare for a longer or shorter period during the dry weather. The leaves that remain during that season sometimes develop a reddish tint. The herbs on the floor of the forest are generally tall and climbers are common. ‘rhe whole vegetation is comparatively thin-leaved. The area occupied by the forests and jungles forms roughly about one-eighth of the area of the State; the nu~ber of such tracts is more than sixty, but none of them is very extensive. rrhe State seems to have been once wholly covered with forests as the names of various places such as Kana4.u, Manga4.u, and Vadaga4.u indicate. At present there are about 100 square miles of forest area, of which 63, square miles are ‘Reserves.’ Four reserve forests with an area of 32 square miles are special game-preserves. The names of the reserved forests are :- 1. The ‘rown forest-(comprising Periavalai kattu to the east, and Chinnavalai kattu to the north-14 square miles). 2. Sengirai forest-about 17 square miles. 3. Pulvayal, Vaya16gam and Parambukadu forest. 4 N art tam alai forest. 30 PUDUKKOTT.A.I STATE [OHAP, 5. Tiruvarangulam forest. 6. Varappur and Sakkilank6ttai forest which are small areas. The Town, N arttamalai, Tiruvarangulam and Pul vayal forests are special game preserves for the use of His Highness the Raja. Forest lands or scrub jungles are also to be found near Piranmalai, Ammankuruchi, Maravamadurai, LambalakkuQ.i, Kannanur, K6napet, Irumbanadu, VennavalkuQ.i, Ch6thupalai, Adanakk6ttai, Killuk6ttai and Perambur. The forests contain a considerable variety of trees and shrubs typical of the dry deciduous forests of Southern India. Among the commonest trees and shrubs the following may be mentioned. Dalbergia latifolia, Albizzia amara, A. lebbek, species of Acacia, CA. leucophloea, A. catecku., A. planifrons and A. latronum) Canthium parviflorum, Memecylon edule, Hiptage madablota, Zizyphus iuiuba, and Z. oenoplia, Pterospermum suberifolium and P. heyneanum, Terminalia belerica and T. catappa, Cassia nodosa, and other species of Cassia, Sapindus emar.llinatus, Mimusops hexandra, and M. elengi, Chloroxylon swietenia, Strychnos nux vomica, S. potatoTum, AnacaTdium occidentale, Gyro”ca1’pus iacquini, Bassia lati/olia, Gme lin a asiatica, Crataeva religiosa, Pongamia glabra, Randia dumetorum, Dichrostachys cinerea, Tamarindus indica, and ETythroxylon monogynum. Among the Palms that grow in the plains, jungles, and waste lands may be mentioned Borassus flabellifer (Palmyra) which oc~6lJ),(/j), usually about 3 or 4 feet in length but occasIOnally longer, are to be met with in the State. Another snake Gongylophis conicU8, called in the vernacular Podeiyan (GU,TfjiJ)LILlW), is said to be found by the snake-charmers. This is a viviparous snake, and has a skin marked like that of a leper, and is therefore supposed to give leprosy by licking. It is commonly ca.Iled the Red Sand-Snake. Another non-poisonous snake of this order and common here is the Black Sand-Snake (Eryx johnii) called in the vernacular Irutalai viriyan (@C5/li~ efJrRlL1G?r/). It has a very blunt tail rounded at the end. A reddishbrown band darker than the rest of the body cov~rs the tip. 46 PUDUKKOTTAI STATE [CHAP. It is the blunt tail that is responsible for the popular belief that it has two heads which change places every six months. The Uropeltidae or rough-tailed earth-snakes are peculiar to South India and Ceylon. It is not known whether any genera of these snakes are to be found here. The Oolubridae include by far the largest number of snakes, poisonous and non-poisonous. The commoner ones are as follows: the common Wolf-Snake (Lycodon aulicus) which often mimics the Krait, a fiat-nosed brown snake called in the vernacular Kattu viriyan (iDL(j) 6BrfJ /U~) whenbanded and Vazhalai (6lIfP3.ro) when not. This is not poisonous as it is believed to be. Another non-poisonous species allied to this is Simotes arnensis, a palebrown orange-coloured snake with well-defined black bands also called in Tamil Kattu viriyan. Another snake called the variegated Kulai Snake (Kulai pambu) is also common (Oligodon subgriseus). The common Indian Rat-Snake «Zamenis mucosus) , called Sarai in Tamil, is one of the largest snakes often measuring 6 or 7 feet. This is non-poisonous; it is erroneously believed to mate with the Cobra as the male and to be venomous. Another snake which is erroneously supposed to be poisonous is called in Tamil Komberi mukkan (Dendraphis pictus). This common sna,ke is arboreal, as the vernacular name (Kombu= branch) signifies. The species of Tropidionotus are many and common and are non-venomous. The common Pond-Snake or Checkered Keel-back, also called the Water Snake, is a fresh-water snake very common in the tanks and pools. This is called in the vernacular Nirkorattai, or Thannippambu (T. piscator). A very common snake is the Chammleon Snake (T. stolatus) called in Tamil OIei pambu which is found in gardens and houses. This snake is of a greenish or brownish olive colour with black spots or reticulated cross-bars, intersected by two yellow longitudinal bands which are most marked posteriorly. The Green Gronnd-Snake is a more common water-snake, and·is also c::tlled Thannirpambu (T. plumbicolor). This is of a’dull-green colonr, uniform or with traces of black markings above, and is nJ t:’AlJNA 47 about 2! feet in length and 3! inches thick. Another aquatic snake is the Water-Snake (Helicops 8chistosus) of an olive-brown colour, uniform or with dark lateral streaks. The so-called arboreal, but generally terrestrial, Brown Tree-Snake (Dipsa8 trigonata) has a close resemblance in shape and colour to Echis carinata, for which it is often mistaken. The Green Tree-Snake (Dryophis mycterizans) called in Tamil Pacchai pambu, with a long pointed snout, and a green body like a whip-cord, and supposed to be poisonous and given to da.rting at the eyes of passers-by, is mlltinly arboreal as its protective green colour would suggest. It is also found amongst green grass and bushes. The venomous snakes belong to the genera Bungarus, N aia and Vipera. The Banded Krait (Bungarus fasciatus) (4 to 6 feet in length) is a very dangerous terrestrial sna.ke with a brown snout, of a bright-yellow colour with black rings as broad as the interspaces between them or broader, and a black band beginning between the eyes and widening behind on the head and the nape. The common Krait (B. caeruleus) is also common; it is about 3 feet. in length. It is of a dark brown or bluish colour above with narrow transverse white streaks, and is very poisonous. These are called in the vernacular Kandankaru Vazhalai and Karuvazhalai. Another very poisonous snake is the Binocellate Cobra (Naia tripudians) called in Tamil Nagam or Nalla pambu, sometimes reaching about 6 feet in length. Many supposed varieties or ” castes” of this venomous snake are distinguished locally, viz., brahmin, raja, pariah, etc. The more venomous and larger species (N. b’lJ,ngarus) reaching a length of more than 10 (eet is fortunately not so common. It feeds on other snakes. Both these cobras can be recognised by their hoods. The Russel’s Viper or Chain Viper (V ipera russellii) is one of the most deadly snak~s. It is of sluggish habits, and frequently does not move out of the way on the approach of man. It is of a pale-brown colour above, with three longitudinal series of black light-edged rings, sometimes replaced by faint dark spots. This snake is not uncommon. It is called in the vernacular Viriyan or 4B PUDUKKOTTAI STATE [CHAP. KannaQ.i vmyan. Another and commoner poisonous snake is the Carpet-Viper or Little Indian Viper (Echis carinata) , called U du suruttai in Tamil. This makes a prolonged almost hissing sound by rubbing the folds of the sides of the body against one another. This snake has a cruciform or (II shaped whitish dark-edged marking on its head. Amphibia.-(Batrachia). This phylum consists chiefly of the Frogs and Toads. A large number of frogs belong to the Ranidae. The common Green Frog prevalent everywhere is Rana hexadactyla. A much larger frog which is occasionally to be found is R. tigrina. This is commonly called the Bull-frog. Other species of Rana are also to be found, especially R. breviceps and R. limnocharis. The Chunam-frog (Rhacophorus maculatusJ which is of a brown colour and about 2 or 3 inches in length, is found on the walls of out-houses and gardens, and occasionally or trees or rocks. It can adhere to walls by the adhesive webs and digits of its toes. The small frogs which appear in great numbers after rain, with a smooth reddish-greyish olive skin and a large marking on the back are M icrohyla ornata (Diplopelma ornata). The toads are represented by the common genus Bufo, the chief and common species being B. melano8tictus. Pisces.-(Fishes). The Pisces found in the State are none of them very large; they are mainly fresh-water fishes of the tanks, pools and streams. Many of fishes are caught and eaten. The principal edible varieties are called Kandai, Koravai and the Viral, in the vernacular. Most of these fresh-water fishes have yet to be identified. One very common fish is Ophiocephalus punctatus. The common fresh-water fishes of the plains of South India are the Siluroid8, and the Cypri’P.oid8. Most of the genera belonging to these groups may be found here. Pisces form the last phylum of the vertebrate fauna. Here follow some of the chief groups of the Invertebrate fauna, but the groups are not arranged in the regular order. II] FAUNA 49 Arachnida.-This class includes the Spiders and Scorpions. Many varieties of spiders are to be found. The large and formidable looking spiders, some of which belong to the genus Mygale, prey on insects of various kinds. Numerous spiders which live out of doors and make their webs, sometimes very strong snares, belong to the group Epeiridae. The Wolf Spiders (Lycosidae) which attain a considerable size and carry their ova about with them in a small bag attached to the abdomen, and the Crab-spiders which frequent flowers and often exhibit protective colours and feign death when alarmed, are also very common. The House-spider which makes its web inside houses is a species of Tegenaria., A genu~, probably Agelena, makes its webs in grass, and in corners of walls, with a funnel-like tube which forms its den in the centre. The beautiful scarlet silky-or velvety-co3,ted insect, often wrongly supposed to be a cochineal-insect, is a small spider (Trombidium) and is very common on grass after rain. The scorpions, which are poisonous arachnids, carrying their poison sac at the tips of their ‘tails,’ are very common everywhere. The little red scorpion, which frequents houses is a species of Scorpio. The very large black scorpion which is also common here is Butkus afer. It sometimes attains a length of 6 inches and its sting may even prove fatal. Myriopoda.-The millipedes and oentipedes belong to this class. The mIllipedes belong to the Okilognatka and are harmless. The common large, hard-crusted, glistening black or brown creatures of this class, which coil themselves up when touched, belong to the genus Julus of, this section. The smaller millipedes also common, with yellow or red markings on head and body, which live under flower-pots or stones, and crawl about in gardens and backyards, belong to the Geopkilides. The formidable Scolopendridce or Centipedes, the bite of which is very venomous, are common. One species of ScolopendrCl attains a length of 9 or 10 inches, and smaller ones frequ~nt dwellings. 7 50 PUDUKK6TTAI STATE [CHAP. Mollu.ca.-The mollusca include the slugs, snails and mussels. The mollusca of the state have not yet been cs:>llected and identified. The snails include land, fresh-water and amphibian forms. The commonest genus is HeUx. The Bivalves are also very common in fresh water, especially the fresh-water mussels (Unio sp.) Annelida.-This class includes the earth-worms. The most common genus is M egascolex. Cru.tacea.-(Class Decapoda). This includes the crabs, etc. Crabs are usually to be found inhabiting holes near water. In.ecta.-(lnsects). The distribution and variety of the Insect fauna closely follow the floristic features of any region. No other group of animals enters into such intimate and complex relations with plants as insects do. About nine orders are included under this group each being fairly represented. ORTHOPTERA.-This includes the tiny grasshoppers, the locusts and mantids and that common house-hold pest the cockroach. The family Acrididre includes the painted grasshopper (Poecilocerus pictus) which is only found on the Calotropis gigantea (madar) and produces two broods in the year. The big grasshopper (Hieroglyphus banian) is found everywhere on such crops as Paddy, Sugarcane and Maize, feeding on the f~ljage and cutting the earheads. The common Grasshopper (Tryxalis turrita) is found throughout the state, and is scarcely a pest although it often occurs in large numbers. The small brown and green grasshoppers commonly met with are other species of Tryxalis and Grotogonus. The family Grillidre includes the Mole-Cricket (Gryllotalpa Africarw,) found in damp corners, predaceous on smaller animals and doing damage by burrowing tunnels into the ground in search of food. The Blattidae comprise insects such as the cockroaches (Periplanata Australasiae) and (P. Americana), found in towns, which have been introduced into India by shipping. They are well-known house-hold· pests, though they do little damage in the field. IIJ FAUNA 51 Another genus of cockroaches, the Stylopyga has been introduced. ‘fhe praying-mantis, a strange looking insect so called on account of the peculiar attitude that it assumes, with its front legs raised and folded, is commonly met with among the green foliage which it resembles. This is included in the family Mantida,e which are noted for their aggressive coloration. “Another mantid is the common Stick-insect, .·which resembles the straw or a twig on which it usually rests. ‘fhe Leaf-insect belonging to the family Phasmidae is also found in large numbers. DERMoPTERA.-The Earwigs form this group of insects; The ordinary Earwig (Nala Lividipes) is rarely a pest; on the contrary it is often beneficial, since it is largely carnivorous and has been recorded as an important predator on the larvae of fruit-flies and house-flies. NEUROPTERA.-‘rhis class includes the common dragon-flies and ant-lions the former being diurnal while the latter are nocturnal. The Ant-lions are characterised by their beautifully dotted wings and by their clubshaped antennae. They are beneficial in that they feed on ants as their name signifies. ‘fhe dragon flies feed on smaller insects. Both groups are very common and represented by a number of genera. THYSANOPTERA.-This class comprises the “Silverfishes” which damage books, papers, etc., and the Thrips which damage crops. ‘fhe ordinary” silverfish” met with is Lepisma sp. The .Chillies-thrips and Onion-thrips (Scirto-thrips dorsalis) (Heliothrips indicus) suck the juice from leaves and shoots and make the tender leaves curl and fade. The” latter are found often in company with plant-lice. ANOPLURA. -This cbss includes the human head-louse and the cattle-louse. The Pediculidae include Pediculus capitis and P. humanus, the former being the common head-louse. The cattle louse (Haematopimus tuberculatus) lives on the ears of buffaloes feeding on their blood. 52 PUDUKKOTTAI STATE [CHAP. RHYNCOTA.-These comprise all bugs from the tiniest plantlice and bed-bugs to the biggest water ones; most of them are found here. The Pentatomidae are easily recognised by the presence of the triangular scutellum and their peculiar odour. The common members of the family are :-Coptosoma cribraria, found on all Leguminous plants and on COlllpositre; Dolichoris indicus, the green-bug found on Cereals and Sunflower; Bagrada picta, the painted-bug found on cruciferous plants; and N ezera viridula the green-bug found on Cereals. The other bugs of this group found here are Aspongopus janus, Cyclopelta siccifo}ia, and Phezodorus rubrofasciatus. The Gorridae include the bugs found on Puls,es and Cereals. Clavigralla gibbosa and C. horrens are found on Red gram. The Paddy bug is Leptocorisa varicornis. The Lygaeidae embrace the tiny bugs found on Calotropis, Cholam, Cotton, Red gmm, and Chillies. Lygaeus panduras is the bug found on the above plants. Oxycarenus lactus is found on Cotton, Bendai (Lady’s-finger) and Gogu (Hibiscus cannabinus). Aphanus sordidus is found feeding on harvested seeds of Gingelly, Groundnut and Oumbu. Pyrrhochoridae include the Red Cotton Bug (Dysdercus cingulatus) feeding on malvaceous plants. Tingididae :-Urentius echinus is found on and damages Brinjals (Solanum melongena). Reduvidae.-The bug Conorhinus rubrofasciatus, the nymphs of which are found in dusty corners of houses and are predaceous on small house hold insects, is very important in that it is the carrier of the disease ” Kala-azar “. Clinocoridae.-Clinocoris hemipterus feeds on the blood of man, birds and bats. Gapsidae.-Disphinctus politus the betel-vine bug, and Calocoris angustatus the Cholam-.ear-head Bug are include_d in this group. Fulgoridae.-Eurybractys tomentosa found on Malvaceous plants, and Pyrilla perpusilla found on Sugarcane belong to this family. nJ FAUNA 53 Jassidae.-This class includes the Mango-hopper (Idiocerus niveosparus) which does serious damage to the mango flowers by sucking their juice so that they fall. Bugs belonging to the families Psyllidae, Aphididae (including the plant-lice) Aleurodidae (the coloured bugs) and Ooccidae (to which class belong the scale insects and lac) are found in no small numbers in the state. The cochineal insect (Dactylopius tomentosus) has been introduced and has destroyed quantities of Prickly-pear (Opuntia dillenii). LEPIDOPTERA.-This class includes the Butterflies and Moths. The moths comprise the following families:- Artiadae.-The white-winged moth Estigmene lactinea, is common. Its caterpillar is the hairy black caterpillar which feeds on Cumbu, Ragi and various low-growing plant,s. Amsacta aIbistriga is also a white-winged moth, with black dots and a red abdomen, the caterpillars of which, known as the red-hairy caterpillars, feed on Cnmbu, Ground-nut and pulses and are considered as a serious pest on Ground-nut. Pericallia Ricini is the common Castor-Moth, and Utethesia pulchella the Sunn-hemp-pod borer, found on Sunn-hemp and Heliotropium; it has white black-dotted wings is easily attracted to light and is common. Noctuidae: include the Loopers. Ghloridea obsoleta is the Pulse-Moth, Polytella gloriosae is the Lily-moth and Prodenia litura the polyphagous moth feeding on Tomato, Castor, etc. Ublemma olivacea the pest of Brinjal, and Achaea melicerta, the Castor semi-looper found on Castor, Pomegranate and Euphorbia, occur in large numbers. Lymantriadae.-Orgyia postia is the polyphagous pest found on Castor and Erythrina. Euproctis fraterna and E. scintillans founji on Hibiscus, Red-gram, etc., also oly … Madura Ramnad Pudukkottai …. … ~ Number of persons per 10,000 of the popula.tion bom within the a.r5. 9,939 9,657 9,376 9,625 9,675 9,078 “This apparent anomaly,” as the Census Superintendent points out, “is not real.” Under normal condition~, the proportion of foreign born in any region inoreases as the area of the region diminishes ……………….. As the area of investigation grows smaller, internal movements between smaller areas merged in a larger unit figure as separate migrations, and swell the figures of foreigners. Pudukkottai State is a small strip of independent territory with an area less than 7 per cent and population less I than 5 per cent of the combined areR. R.nd population respectively of the four adjoining British districts-‘fanjore, Trichinopoly, Madura and RamnR.d. ‘fhe British neighbours are the kith-n;nd kin of the State subjects and are living more or less under simila,r economic conditions. ThEr (general) loss in population during the last decade has affected alike both classes of people enumerated in the State, the Pudukkottai born losing 6’6 per cent and those born in the four adjoining British districts 5’7 per cent . 60 PUDUKKOTTAI STATE [CHAP. ” Statistics by talu,ks show that a large percentage of the British-born people in the Pudukkottai State were enumerated in the State taluk adjoining each British district.” District of bir~h Taluk. TriChinOPOIY.\ Tanjore. I 1fadura. ! Ramnad. I , i I i ! Alallgudi 1,896 , … … 8,130 5G7 776 i I I I Til’Umayam … … 2,284 I 2,909 1,868 5,769 Kolattur I … 5,867 1,555 432 I . .. 244 I I I Total … 10,047 I 12,594 2,867 6,789 Figures of persons found in Pudukkottai State but born in the other Madras districts and States and in areas outside Madras Presidency are as follows:- Tillllevelly Malabar, Travaneore and Coehin Salem and Coimbatore Madras, Chingleput, Chittoor, North Areot and South Areot Other districts and States … Ceylon Strait Settlements, Federated Malay States and Burma Mysore State French and Portuguese Possessions Other Provinces and States in India Africa l,082’l ~~~ Madril,S Presidency j ‘ 3,377. 589 6n. :::) 88 ~ Outside Madras 34 8 47 J ‘ PI.·esidency 1)~72. Europe 4 rrhe figures denoting the number of emigrants to places within the Madras Presidency as enumerated ‘in are as follows :– other 1931, Tanjore Trichinopoly Ramnad Madura l,900’tAd ‘ .. 11.'” d 2,594 l?IDI.ng in.a ras 2 062 ‘ dlstrlcts ‘231) Total 6,787. Othel’ M!td;ras districts an4;l)fl”d;(5) and ear-rings. “The ear ,becomes finally the most bejewelled part of a woman’s person.”* ,The women of many non-Brahmin castes dilate the lobes of their ears. An olai t of gold or gold set with precious stones is inserted in the lobe; some castes have in the place of the olai, a small cylinder of gold known as pucchikk~{‘dl(;. The ear is also bored and small studs called koppu are inserted. Coral, pearl or gold beads are often worn as bracelets. The following extract from M. Sonnerat’s Voyage to the East Indies and China written more than 150 years ago applies to the present day. “The rings spring on the leg and, when the wom~n ~alk, they make a noise with which they are much pleased. They .colour the palm of the hand and the sole of the feet with red made from the infusion of the leaves of Mindi t and draw a black circle round the eyes to indicate their vivacity. Some castes rub the face and body with saffron. Neck-laces of gold and silver hang on, and down, their stomach. Their ears are pierced in several places and fitted with jewels, and their love for these ornaments is so great that they even wear them in their noses.” With the advance of education women’s apparel is becoming at once simpl~J and more refined and ornaments are becoming rarer but more) Jlegant. Gold is supposed to be dishonoured by being worn on the feet except by members of a royal family. Flowers, especially those that have been presented as an offering to some deity, are worn in the hair. It is also common for women to pfait their ” Mr. W. Fra.ncis: The Mad~”‘a District Gazetteer. i Olai (lit. tll.e leaf of the palm). A strip of palm leaf is rolled up and inserted into the, dilated lobe of the ear. But among the well-to-do classes. a large gold stud, often set with stones, has taken the place of the palm leaf. t • Mindi I == henna (Lawsonia alba) Tamil-LDG .. II’….R. 72 PUDUKK6TTAI STATE [CHAP. hair into a long braid to the end of which they attach silk tassels while scented flowers are sown on to the plaits. Food.-Except for a few higher castes such as Brahmins and some sub-castes among non-Brahmins such as Vellalars, meat is a co~mon article of food. Mutton, fowl, fish, hares and birds are the common varieties of animal food; pork is less common, while rats, crabs, squirrels, etc., are eaten by the . lowest classes, some of whom eat beef also. In the poorer houses, the morning meal is taken between 7 and 8 a. m. and consists of cold rice (rice soaked in water and kept over night) with buttermilk, and some pickle, chutney, or sauce, or conjee (gruel) of ragi, cumbu, or cholam. At midday or in the case of the working classes during supper at 8 or 9 p. m., comes a course of cooked rice, vegetable sauce, or greens and pulse with soup or 1’aBam (pepper water),. the meal ending with a dish of rice and curd or butter-milk. Along with rice, dholl, ghee, vegetable oils, butter-milk and spices enter largely into the food of the middle and upper classes. Black-gram is an essential ingredient of all cakes. Pepper, mustard, coriander, turmeric and asafretida are the principal spices. Vegetables, peas, roots and greens of different varieties are much in evidence in the cuisine. The fruits .IDost commonly used are mangoes, citrons and limes. Salt, talIll1rind and chillies are largely used for seasoning. DrinRtl\g and smoking, though not universal, are common enough with many castes. Chewing betel or tobacco is more common. Games and Amuaementa.-The village drama (often known in· Tamil as 1511″L-6jUJ· in its refined, and G,aJ(!!j6;<ttl.,$.§j1 in=”” its=”” unrefined=”” form)=”” is=”” the=”” most=”” importa:gt=”” amusement.=”” plot=”” generally=”” taken=”” from=”” ramayo,na=”” or=”” mahabharata=”” other=”” classics;=”” life=”” of=”” rama,=”” wanderings=”” and=”” sufferings=”” pang,avas=”” their=”” consort,=”” patient=”” droupadi,=”” martyr=”” harischandra=”” nata=”” devotee=”” marka1}.9.eya=”” who=”” escaped=”” death,=”” tragic=”” fate=”” k6valan=”” n=”” allathailgalare=”” principal=”” themes=”” perennial=”” intellest.=”” play=”” staged=”” a=”” temporary=”” shed=”” rn]=”” people=”” 73=”” some=”” open=”” central=”” space;=”” audience=”” squat=”” air,=”” chewing=”” chatting=”” occasionally=”” snoring=”” under=”” soporific=”” i=”” effect=”” songs=”” sung=”” by=”” actors=”” roar=”” with=”” laughter=”” at=”” antics=”” bu:ffoons.=”” rfhe=”” performance=”” lasts=”” 10=”” p.=”” m.=”” till=”” about=”” day-break=”” continued=”” next=”” night=”” where=”” it=”” broke=”” off=”” previously.=”” plays=”” sometimes=”” last=”” for=”” several=”” nights.=”” less=”” expensive.=”” amusement=”” young=”” men=”” women=”” to=”” form=”” ring=”” dance.=”” there=”” manly=”” game=”” known=”” as=”” maniivirattu=”” iallikattu.=”” day=”” on=”” which=”” this=”” will=”” be=”” held=”” previously=”” advertised=”” tom-tom=”” all=”” adjacent=”” villages.=”” eight=”” o’clock=”” morning=”” number=”” bulls=”” horns=”” round=”” necks=”” owners=”” have=”” tied=”” pieces=”” cloth,=”” are=”” let=”” loose=”” sound=”” shouts=”” people.=”” those=”” taking=”” part=”” sport=”” endeavour=”” catch=”” stop=”” wild=”” career=”” remove=”” cloths.=”” succeed=”” heroes=”” entitled=”” money=”” that=”” within=”” cloth.=”” sort=”” bull-baiting=”” different=”” kalla=”” villages=”” succession=”” two=”” months,=”” beginning=”” 9n=”” succeeding=”” pongal=”” festival=”” january.=”” tamilnad=”” has=”” been=”” pastime=”” ages=”” past,=”” vivid=”” description=”” kalittogai=”” (a=”” collection=”” poems=”” belonging=”” sixth=”” century=”” a.=”” d.).=”” following=”” specimen=”” describing=”” poetically=”” called.=”” ‘=”” embracing=”” bull.’=”” “=”” knew=”” herdsmen=”” had=”” jumped=”” into=”” stall=”” desire=”” embrace=”” them=”” pricked=”” ………………………=”” .=”” 0,=”” maid,=”” see=”” (feat=”” strength),=”” here.=”” he,=”” son=”” buffalo-herd,=”” not=”” return=”” without=”” queuing=”” strength;=”” he=”” sprung=”” rough=”” back=”” fighting=”” bull=”” embraced=”” like=”” garland.=”” here=”” (another),=”” cowherd,=”” cease=”” fight;=”” dancing=”” (back=”” 74=”” pudukk6ttai=”” state=”” [chap.=”” the)=”” speckled=”” looking=”” man=”” punting=”” canoe=”” stream.=”” sporting=”” field=”” many=”” come,=”” herdsman=”” ha·s=”” iblack=”” ‘came=”” wind=”” crushed=”” out=”” strength,=”” thus=”” appearing=”” lord=”” (siva)=”” when=”” his=”” feet=”” neck=”” yama=”” rides=”” buffalo=”” deprived=”” him=”” life.=”” look=”” fight=”” strikes=”” my=”” mind=”” terror.=”” feat=”” strength.=”” shepherd,=”” lying=”” side=”” strong=”” white=”” black=”” spot=”” moon.=”” behold=”” strength=”” ,wearing=”” garland=”” kaya=”” flowers;=”” caught=”” hold=”” the·c!:..rs=”” the’=”” red=”” rushed=”” limitless=”” speed,=”” queued=”” mayon=”” horse=”” beautiful=”” mane=”” sent=”” enemies,=”” tore=”” mouth=”” beat=”” fist.=”” terror.”=”” •=”” mr.=”” francis=”” makes=”” observation=”” madura=”” gazetteer=”” :-.=”” “to=”” do=”” (to=”” capture=”” cloths=”” horns)=”” requires=”” fleetness=”” of’=”” foot=”” considerable=”” pluck=”” are.=”” successful=”” hour.=”” cuts=”” bruises=”” reward=”” skilful,=”” now=”” again=”” excited=”” cattle=”” charge=”” onlookers=”” send=”” few=”” flying.=”” consequence=”” prohibited=”” more=”” than=”” one=”” occasion;=”” but,=”” seeing=”” no=”” need=”” run=”” any=”” risks=”” unless=”” chooses,’=”” existing=”” official=”” opinion=”” inclines=”” view=”” pity=”” discourage=”” really=”” dangerous.=”” foot-ball,=”” steeple-chasing=”” fox-hunting.”=”” cock-fights=”” quail-fights=”” favourite=”” out-door=”” sports.=”” pigeon-flying=”” matches=”” also=”” held.=”” breeders=”” air=”” pigeons,=”” whose=”” flock=”” remain=”” wings=”” longest=”” decoying=”” good=”” birds=”” rival=”” winner.=”” ‘::=”” translation=”” professor=”” t.=”” srinivas=”” iyengar.=”” iiij=”” 75=”” boys=”” cards,=”” marbles,=”” hopscotch,=”” games=”” such=”” taoohipam=”” dice=”” played=”” cowries)=”” pulikattan=”” chess),=”” fly=”” kites=”” go=”” violent=”” kittippandu,=”” pillayarpandu,=”” both=”” something=”” rounders,=”” bali=”” player=”” others=”” while=”” holding=”” breath)=”” upp1lk6du=”” complicated=”” consisting=”” hopping=”” over=”” diagram=”” marked=”” ground).=”” playing=”” uppuk6du=”” straight=”” lines=”” ground=”” yards=”” apart.=”” party=”” runs=”” opposes=”” advance.=”” gudu=”” gudn.=”” players=”” divide=”” themselves=”” teams;=”” each=”” team=”” turn=”” after=”” another=”” across=”” line=”” try=”” touch=”” opposing=”” ~=”” they=”” can,=”” breath=”” time.=”” pulikkattan=”” (known=”” padinettarnpulli)=”” type=”” chess=”” pebbles=”” ‘pieces’=”” called’=”” dogs’=”” ‘goats’=”” and’=”” tigers’=”” other.=”” former=”” check=”” latter=”” getting=”” ‘killed.’=”” silambarn=”” single=”” stic~=”” play,=”” an=”” exercise=”” “art=”” off~hce=”” defence.”=”” leap-frog=”” tip-cat=”” (k~ttippullu,=”” sticks)=”” popular.=”” games.=”” often=”” amuse=”” group=”” dances,=”” aohaponga=”” kumrni.=”” common=”” k6lattarn.=”” performers=”” stick=”” hand=”” move=”” vario\ls=”” figures,=”” constantly=”” striking=”” her=”” ,sticks=”” against=”” rhythm.=”” girls=”” playa=”” tamarind=”” seeds=”” cowries.=”” hide-and-seek=”” game,=”” equally=”” popular=”” hopscotch=”” pandi.=”” ottay6=”” j’ettay6=”” common;=”” takes=”” handful=”” cowries=”” closirg=”” asks=”” whether=”” odd=”” even.=”” if=”” she=”” guesses=”” correctly,=”” gets=”” seeds.=”” otherwise=”” opponent=”” them.=”” su,…eitionl,=”” etc.-“=”” omens=”” superstitious=”” beliefs,”=”” writes=”” late=”” hemingway,=”” “are=”” deeply=”” regarded.=”” 76=”” pudukk6ttaistate=”” omen=”” hear=”” bell=”” ring,=”” cannon=”” off,=”” ass=”” bray=”” brahmani=”” kite=”” cry;=”” starting=”” home=”” to.=”” married=”” woman=”” husband=”” alive,=”” corpse,flowets,=”” water,=”” milk,=”” toddy=”” pot,=”” soil,=”” washerman.=”” jackal=”” fox=”” passing=”” right=”” left;=”” but=”” bad=”” sign=”” sembottu=”” bird=”” (the=”” indian=”” cuckoo,=”” copper=”” smith=”” bird”)=”” cross=”” one’s=”” path=”” left.=”” indeed=”” proverb=”” says=”” ‘go=”” step=”” forward=”” you=”” sembottu.=”” going=”” left,=”” crown=”” awaits=”” sees=”” this.”=”” heal’=”” sneezing,=”” directly=”” leaving=”” house=”” brahman,=”” widow,=”” shikari,=”” snake,=”” oil=”” cat.=”” bodes=”” ill=”” inmates=”” owl=”” vulture,=”” kite,=”” bembottu,=”” perches=”” roof=”” house,=”” bee-hive,=”” ant-hill,=”” snake=”” tortoise=”” found=”” inside=”” walls=”” crack.=”” …………….=”” foretell=”” specific=”” occurrences.=”” clay-building=”” wasp=”” (ku,lavi)=”” nests=”” foretells=”” birth=”” c~ild,=”” call=”” crow=”” indicates=”” arrival=”” guest.”=”” list=”” may=”” added.=”” chirping=”” lizard=”” particular=”” directions=”” luck=”” ill-luck.=”” dreams=”” believed=”” forebode=”” illluc1t=”” devils=”” supposed=”” possess=”” men,=”” still=”” women;=”” evil=”” influence=”” warded=”” sorcerers=”” make=”” incantations=”” tie=”” talismans=”” bodies=”” persons=”” afflicted.=”” influences=”” eye=”” magic=”” likewise=”” incantations.=”” certain=”” herbs=”” talismanic=”” properties=”” hung=”” waist-string.=”” child=”” given=”” nick-name=”” so=”” real=”” name=”” pronounced=”” used=”” m~gicians=”” injure=”” child.=”” various=”” motives=”” choice=”” names.=”” ancestor=”” re-incaj:nate=”” (usually=”” grand-father=”” grand-mother)=”” ames=”” commonly=”” religious=”” motive,=”” children=”” named=”” gods,=”” goddesses=”” ~dd=”” holy’=”” rivers,=”” simply=”” way’=”” illvoking=”” protection=”” iii]=”” 77=”” children,=”” afford=”” frequent=”” occaslons=”” pronouncing=”” names=”” securing=”” merit.=”” god=”” goddess=”” place=”” person=”” resides,=”” given;=”” born=”” tiruma,yam=”” called=”” satyamurti=”” venuvanesvari,=”” tirugokarnam=”” bear=”” golmrnesa=”” brahadamb:u=”” periyanayaki=”” vaittur=”” talavanam.=”” result=”” vows=”” performed=”” receive=”” appropriate=”” names;=”” pilgrimage=”” rameswaram=”” ramanathan=”” parvatavarddhini,=”” benares,=”” viswanatban=”” visalakshi,=”” visit=”” shrine=”” pamiyur,=”” naganathan=”” nagammal.=”” pet=”” reasons=”” :-no=”” father-in-law,=”” mother-in-law;=”” since=”” grand-children,=”” explained=”” already,=”” women,=”” avoid=”” use=”” instead=”” names,=”” raja=”” (king),=”” tangam=”” (gold),=”” chellam=”” (pet)=”” kulandai=”” (child).=”” rrhel’e=”” belief=”” before=”” died=”” saved=”” being=”” opprobrious=”” kuppuswami(lord=”” refuse).=”” j=”” ndian=”” christians=”” tamil=”” abstract=”” christian=”” prefixed=”” thereto,=”” john=”” asirvadam=”” (blessing),=”” joseph=”” sargunam=”” (virtue)=”” samuel=”” gnanavolivu=”” light=”” wisdom).=”” man’s=”” pains,=”” sorrows,=”” diseases,=”” etc.,=”” can=”” transferred=”” sufferer=”” animal=”” thing.=”” 1’hus=”” person,=”” ill,=”” beaten=”” sprigs=”” neem=”” margosa=”” tree=”” (azadirachta=”” indica)=”” trou~le=”” transferred.=”” occasion3.11y,=”” whole=”” community=”” relieved=”” troubles=”” blow.=”” riddance=”” occur=”” sankaranti,=”” pidai=”” (evil=”” influence)=”” preceding=”” year,=”” kanuppidai,=”” shaken=”” fresh=”” start=”” rrhe=”” danams=”” ‘gifts=”” brahmins’=”” examples=”” transference=”” evils,=”” donee=”” 78=”” pudukkottai=”” donor=”” along=”” gifts,=”” required=”” perform=”” expiatory=”” ceremonies=”” get=”” rid=”” ‘rhe=”” offering=”” worshipper’s=”” own=”” body=”” rite.=”” we=”” may,=”” example,=”” refer=”” presentation=”” ex-voto=”” ofierings,=”” silver=”” gold=”” eyes,=”” feet,=”” ears,=”” organs=”” offerings=”” gods=”” miniatu~e=”” cradles=”” images=”” ohildren=”” bangles,=”” borne=”” 01’=”” cured=”” sickness=”” through=”” intervention,=”” gods.=”” methods=”” resorted=”” order=”” future.=”” astrologers=”” consulted,=”” whom=”” rely=”” ,=”” special=”” treatises=”” nadi-sastram,=”” aruda-sastram,=”” (books=”” dealing=”” art=”” prediction).=”” future=”” revealed=”” casting=”” 10ts=”” deity.=”” samiyadis=”” (lit.=”” god-danoers)=”” attached=”” temples=”” village=”” godlings,=”” and,=”” inspiration,=”” reply=”” questions=”” put=”” temple=”” priest=”” odukku=”” drum=”” shaped=”” hour-glass=”” causes=”” devil=”” take=”” possession=”” himself=”” sonie=”” else=”” sitting=”” front=”” him,=”” possessed=”” then=”” becomes=”” oracle.=”” in”=”” telling=”” fortunes,”=”” korava=”” gipsies=”” europe.=”” reaction=”” impact=”” modern=”” conditionl.-extreme=”” instances=”” departure=”” past=”” customs=”” afforded=”” marriages=”” widow=”” remarriages.=”” sarda=”” act=”” british=”” india=”” declared=”” 14=”” illegal.=”” contravention=”” punishable,=”” invalid.=”” brought=”” force=”” state,=”” escape=”” penalty=”” ‘.mder=”” t.he=”” ae\=”” celebrating=”” marriage=”” \be=”” pudukk6ttal=”” state.=”” clear=”” tendency=”” even=”” among=”” castes=”” stood=”” sanctity=”” euiy=”” o.=”” pre-pubu’,y=”” maniages=”” postpone=”” 79=”” much=”” later=”” age.=”” remarriage,=”” though=”” visited=”” amount=”” persecution=”” incurred=”” become=”” communities=”” hitherto=”” practised=”” it.=”” ho\vever,=”” pmctised=”” it,=”” deprecate=”” imitation=”” others.=”” owing=”” t,o=”” economic=”” circumstances,=”” tend=”” elaborate;=”” thing=”” higbest=”” finish=”” dnt=”” were=”” ordinarily=”” spread=”” four=”” five=”” days=”” formerly.=”” expansion=”” female=”” education=”” tended=”” delay=”” consummation=”” child-marriages,=”” infrequently=”” itself=”” studies=”” over.=”” joint-family=”” system=”” weakening,=”” improvement=”” communications=”” western=”” ideas=”” rendering=”” outlook=”” our=”” university=”” individualistic.=”” attack=”” age-long=”” institution=”” comes=”” new=”” forces=”” operating=”” land=”” to-day.=”” changes=”” diet=”” dress=”” coming=”” about;=”” cannot=”” radical.=”” matters=”” snch=”” hair=”” dressing=”” shaving,=”” rapid=”” break-away=”” old=”” standards.=”” rrop-knots=”” (kudumi)=”” beards=”” becoming=”” rarer.=”” vvomen=”” fast=”” discarding=”” ponderous=”” jewellery.=”” longer,=”” “animated=”” savings=”” banks.”=”” perfumes=”” sirnilar=”” toilet=”” luxuries=”” greater=”” use,=”” social=”” bans=”” losing=”” rigidity.=”” excommunication=”” foreign=”” travel=”” past.=”” importance=”” unapproachability=”” untouchability.=”” conditions=”” public=”” service,=”” civic=”” life,=”” help=”” undermine=”” system.=”” railway=”” motor-bus=”” complete=”” destruction.=”” ameliorative=”” activities=”” darbar,=”” throwing=”” educational=”” institutions=”” depressed=”” classes,=”” helped=”” develop=”” self-respect=”” adi-dravidas=”” ‘superiority=”” complex’=”” 80=”” purely=”” aspects=”” great=”” change=”” about.=”” urban=”” changed=”” considerably.=”” indigenous=”” cricket=”” foot-ball;=”” dramas=”” setting=”” stage=”” appurtenances=”” cinemas=”” talkies.”=”” cottage=”” industries=”” disappeared=”” cheap=”” mill-made=”” goods;=”” creating=”” grave=”” problem=”” indeed-·=”” rural=”” unemployment=”” amongst=”” mainly=”” agricultural=”” depending=”” harvests=”” precarious=”” rainfall.=”” hoarding=”” putting=”” unproductive=”” uses=”” slowly=”” disappearing=”” co-operative=”” movement.=”” section=”” ill-religion.=”” i.=”” hinduism.-various=”” worshipped=”” iii=”” guardian=”” woods,=”” ravines=”” hills=”” indwelling=”” spirits.=”” invocation=”” alone=”” ·considered=”” sufficient=”” appease=”” deities;=”” propitiated=”” sacrifice=”” animal-·the=”” cock,=”” goat=”” buffalo.=”” grain=”” cooked=”” food=”” mixed=”” blood=”” offered=”” “on=”” altars.=”” ritual=”” p:1rtly=”” partly=”” magical=”” accompanied=”” beating=”” tom-toms,=”” drinking=”” dancing.=”” worship=”” serpent=”” (naga)=”” plants=”” aud=”” trees=”” tulasi=”” basil=”” (ocimum=”” sanctum),=”” bael=”” vilva=”” (aegle=”” marmelos),=”” asvatta=”” peepul=”” (ficus=”” religiosa),=”” perhaps=”” relic=”” totem-cults.=”” come=”” identified=”” murugan=”” karttikeya=”” (subrahmanya=”” aryans)=”” venerated=”” ornament=”” siva=”” couch=”” vishnu=”” (anantasayanam).=”” t’lllasi=”” emblem=”” vishnu,=”” bael,=”” siva,=”” asvatta,=”” three=”” hindu=”” trinity=”” (brahma,=”” siva).=”” agananuru=”” earliest=”” anthology=”” ancient=”” collected=”” ivth=”” vth=”” d.)=”” mentions=”” mostly=”” deities=”” proper.=”” 81=”” oblations=”” pitris=”” spirits=”” ancestors),=”” showing=”” honour=”” universal=”” n,ll=”” classes.=”” memory=”” sumangalis=”” (i.e.,=”” predeceased=”” husbands)=”” honoured=”” homes.=”” d.eaths=”” worshipped,=”” pattavans,=”” family=”” 0’£=”” deceased,=”” idea=”” preventing=”” doing=”” harm.”=”” *=”” martyrs=”” pattavans=”” built=”” honour.=”” similar=”” honours=”” paid=”” sati,=”” places=”” rite=”” was=”” malaiyidu=”” (malai=”garland),” because=”” garlands=”” souls=”” satis.=”” dvijas=”” twice-born=”” castes)=”” seldom=”” yagams=”” (sacrifices);=”” domestic=”” fire-rites,=”” linger=”” aupdsana=”” fire=”” (fire=”” worthy=”” upasana=”” worship),=”” strictly=”” speaking=”” should=”” kept=”” burning=”” perpetually=”” fed=”” daily=”” cleaned=”” rice=”” new-moon=”” full=”” moon=”” kindled=”” temporarily=”” occasions=”” sraddha=”” made=”” whenever=”” grihya=”” rites=”” performed.=”” important=”” brahmans=”” \vorship=”” 8andhya,=”” consists=”” chiefly=”” purifying=”” body,=”” handfuls=”” water=”” sun=”” (conceived=”” symbol=”” divine=”” effulgence)=”” repetition=”” gayatl’i=”” mantra.=”” as’=”” panchayagna=”” (devayagna),=”” giving=”” pindas=”” (rice=”” balls)=”” (pitruyagna),=”” feeding=”” animals=”” (bhaf.ayagna),=”” (manushyayagna),=”” studying=”” vedas=”” (brahmayagna.),=”” regularly=”” except=”” orthodox=”” tho=”” satisfies=”” craving=”” adoration=”” service=”” personal=”” worshipping=”” set=”” up=”” …=”” hemingway:=”” trichinopoly=”” ga~etteet.=”” 82=”” innumerable=”” supreme=”” forms=”” sustainer=”” universe),=”” giver=”” wisdom,=”” healer=”” ills=”” destroye’r=”” desire),=”” devi=”” mother=”” surya=”” sun),=”” ganesa,=”” ganapati=”” eillaiyar=”” remover=”” obstacles),=”” subrahlnanya=”” knowledge).=”” koil=”” means=”” palace,=”” (ko=”” kon=”king,” il=”house;” of.=”” malayalam~=”” koilagam=”palace,” illam,=”Nambudri” house).=”” king=”” gaily=”” decked=”” silk=”” gold,=”” rode=”” e.1aborately=”” decorated=”” wooden=”” cars=”” occasions,=”” idol=”” bathed,=”” dressed,=”” bedecked,=”” a~d=”” bejewelled,=”” placed=”” gorgeous=”” car=”” splendid=”” carvings=”” dragged=”” prin.=”” cipal=”” streets=”” temple.”=”” temples.=”” salagramam=”” (fossil=”” ammonite)=”” representing=”” ungam=”” symbolising=”” siva.=”” “smartas,”=”” thurston=”” remarks,=”” “use=”” stones,=”” viz.-(l)=”” (2)=”” banalinga,=”” stone-=”” essence=”” (3)=”” stone=”” (jasper),=”” ganesha,=”” (4)=”” bit=”” metallic=”” ore=”” representing,=”” parvati=”” (5)=”” piece=”” pebble=”” crystal,=”” represent=”” sun.=”” these=”” panchayatana=”” ptlja.=”” t=”” cultivated=”” worships=”” diff,erent=”” symbols=”” manifestations=”” god.-=”” –rig=”” veda,=”” i-164-46.=”” cekam=”” 8atvipra=”” bahudha=”” vadanti)-there=”” only=”” wise=”” prof.=”” banalingam=”” either=”” black.=”” oval=”” aga.te”=”” w.=”” crooke=”” “things=”” india.n.=”” described=”” “sma.ll=”” \=”” 83=”” intellectual=”” hindus=”” devoted=”” study=”” darsanas=”” systems=”” philosophy),=”” vedanta.=”” vedanta=”” prastanas,=”” (authoritative=”” works)-the=”” upanishads=”” vedas,=”” sutras=”” (aphorisms)=”” bhadarayana,=”” g:.ita,=”” discourse=”” between=”” sri=”” krishna=”” arjuna.=”” prastanas=”” taught=”” sanskrit=”” patasalas,=”” scholars=”” proficient=”” rewarded=”” gifts=”” darbar=”” during=”” dasara=”” festival.=”” schools=”” claim=”” sankara,=”” ramanuja=”” madhva=”” acharyas,=”” large=”” centuries=”” “heretical”=”” sect=”” ains,=”” samanas)=”” flourished=”” asceticism=”” ains=”” rigorous=”” brahmana,=”” monks=”” retired=”” natural=”” caves=”” systematic.=”” mental=”” training,=”” fasting,=”” finally=”” eschewing=”” drink,=”” starved=”” death=”” {sallekhana}.=”” cavern=”” sittaullavasal=”” hill=”” hermitage.=”” rrhere=”” frescoes=”” rock=”” cut=”” sittannavasal,=”” remains=”” structural=”” settipatti=”” tirtankaras=”” ainas=”” (settipatti,=”” virakkndi,=”” annavasal,=”” etc.)=”” rocks=”” crenimalai=”” near=”” ammachattram)=”” .bear=”” witness=”” once=”” flourishing=”” culture.=”” .jain=”” museum.=”” outward=”” expression=”” bhakti=”” devotion=”” very=”” developed=”” ix=”” xiii=”” centuries.·=”” singing=”” (bhajana)=”” essential=”” features=”” devotional=”” religion=”” together=”” r”lading=”” reciting=”” deeds=”” incarnations,-rama,.=”” krislqla,=”” murugan.=”” bamayana,=”” maluibltarata,=”” bltagavata=”” pw·ana.<;=”” versions,=”” lyrical=”” outpourings=”” saiva=”” saints,=”” appar,=”” sundarar,=”” 84=”” [chai’.=”” sambandar=”” ma~ikkavachagar,=”” tevq:ram=”” tiruvachagam,=”” vaish~ava=”” saints=”” nammalvar,=”” tirumailgaialvar,=”” a~q.al=”” tir’uvaimoli=”” prabandams,=”” hymns=”” subrahma~ya=”” aru~agiri,=”” tirupugal,=”” entered=”” largely=”” population.=”” sects=”” attempt=”” proselytise,=”” nor=”” organisation=”” conserve=”” fa.ith=”” followers=”” advaita=”” school=”” offer=”” homage=”” gurus=”” kumbakonam=”” kauchi=”” kamakoti=”” pith=”” a)=”” sriilgeri.=”” founded=”” sailkara.=”” guru=”” kumbako~am=”” pitha=”” ruling=”” family,=”” accorded=”” visits=”” state;=”” mutt=”” sriilgeri=”” receives=”” high=”” spiritual=”” heads=”” ahobilam=”” vanamamalai=”” mutts=”” vaishnava=”” disciples=”” ‘state,=”” madhvas=”” owe=”” allegiance=”” t.o=”” mutts-the=”” vyasaraya=”” mutt,=”” uttaradi=”” sumatindramutt.=”” sects,=”” especially=”” non-brahmans,=”” pay=”” mutts,=”” pandara=”” sannidhis,=”” seated=”” tanjore=”” district.=”” chettis=”” vallanad=”” midst=”” nattukkottai=”” instruction=”” kilamatam=”” padirakkuq.i=”” matam=”” ramnad=”” rrheosophical=”” society=”” prominent.=”” evangelical=”” reform=”” movements=”” brahma=”” samaj=”” arya=”” headway=”” revivalist=”” movement=”” inspired=”” ramakrishna=”” vivekananda=”” success.=”” ..=”” welding=”” fonns=”” tamils=”” ones=”” .aryans=”” resulted=”” aptly=”” sir=”” monier=”” williams:=”” the.=”” hinduism=”” ended=”” llij=”” 8f)=”” religions=”” presenting=”” phases=”” suited=”” minds.=”” all-tolerant,=”” all-compliant,=”” all-comprehensive,=”” all-absorbing.=”” material=”” aspect,=”” esoteric=”” exoteric,=”” subjective=”” objective,=”” rational=”” irrational,=”” pure=”” impure.=”” compared=”” polygon=”” irregular=”” multilateral=”” figure.=”” practical,=”” severely=”” moral,=”” imaginative,=”” a.nother=”” sensuous=”” sensual=”” thp=”” philosophical=”” speculative.=”” refli”=”” ceremonial=”” observa.nces=”” find=”” all-sufficient,=”” dnny=”” el1flacy=”” works=”” faith=”” requisite,fr’!ied=”” wander=”” pale,=”” ………………..=”” delight=”” .it.=”” med:it~ti1lg=”” nature=”” man,=”” relation=”” matter=”” 1i.nq.-spirit,=”” mystery=”” separate=”” existence=”” origin=”” evil.=”” :rn»y=”” indulge=”” love=”” speculation.”=”” feels=”” tha.t=”” differences=”” construction=”” human=”” intelligence=”” levels=”” perception=”” persons,=”” nd=”” concepts,=”” affording=”” scope=”” varying=”” emotional=”” moulds.=”” :-=”” -(gita=”” ix-23).=”” devotees=”” endowed=”” reverence=”” (sraddha)=”” too=”” me=”” …………=”” (though=”” methods).=”” believes=”” wherever=”” greatness,=”” power=”” glory,=”” god’s=”” splendour.=”” {f~f~~~ffi~=”” ~r~(‘ff{cr=”” crt=”” ……=”” (‘f~c{cfrcf~=”” (q=”” ~iw+jcr~=”” ii=”” x-41).=”” totem=”” s~ill=”” allowed=”” continue,=”” higher=”” classes=”” participating=”” worship.=”” male=”” divinities,=”” dreaded.=”” associated=”” major=”” attendants=”” offsprings=”” destructive=”” manifestations.=”” 86=”” [cha.p.=”” demons=”” have·=”” committed=”” suicide=”” suddenly.=”” a-re=”” admitted=”” neither=”” heaven=”” hell,=”” condemned=”” hover=”” company=”” afflict=”” mankind.=”” majority=”” dwell=”” trees·,=”” fro=”” down=”” uninhabited=”” wastes,=”” inhabit=”” wells,=”” skulk=”” shady=”” retreats=”” ruined=”” happens=”” fancy=”” dispossess=”” soul=”” votaries,=”” case=”” consciousness=”” t.ffi=”” pers()ll=”” ceases=”” screaming,=”” gesticulatinr,.=”” pythldnising=”” demon’s=”” acts.”=”” swh=”” cases=”” exorcism=”” plij8.-ris=”” priests=”” f~”j.essionaj=”” magicians.=”” consist=”” meat,=”” gralh,=”” to.~….::ay,=”” cigars,=”” bread.=”” afflicted=”” trouble,=”” such·=”” blight=”” crops=”” epidemic,=”” feast=”” held,=”” enraged=”” deity=”” represented=”” pot=”” (karakam)=”” leaves=”” flowers,=”” carded=”” sheep=”” fowl=”” ar,e=”” sacrificed.=”” ‘1’he=”” ultimately=”” carried=”” border=”” village,=”” broken=”” pieces,=”” spirit=”” rellloved=”” process=”” place.=”” karakam=”” seven=”” pots=”” above=”” another.=”” godlings=”” lower=”” described.=”” aiyanar=”” -when,=”” puranic=”” churning=”” ocea.n=”” (amrithamathanam)=”” asuras,=”” opponents,=”” ambrosia=”” came=”” up,=”” undertook=”” serve=”” ·whenever=”” habitatien=”” sirkar,=”” sash=”” ill.=”” sastriar=”” quiet=”” fears=”” issuing=”” notice=”” devil,=”” pointing=”” remote=”” resorts=”” specially=”” selected=”” abode=”” sacrificed=”” original=”” tree,=”” tree.=”” ·people=”” 87=”” assumed=”” m6hini=”” bewildering=”” beauty.=”” absent,=”” wanted,=”” heard=”” this,=”” form,=”” gratified=”” desire,=”” sasta=”” born,=”” <lalled=”” hariharaputra,=”” i.e.,=”” vishnu.=”” wives=”” p{lrana,=”” push=”” kala=”” vehicles,=”” elephant.=”” skin,=”” head=”” sceptre=”” show=”” deities.=”” preserver=”” peace.=”” in.front=”” rude=”” terracotta=”” brick=”” mortar=”” horses=”” elephants=”” size=”” arranged=”” avenue.=”” patrol=”” night.=”” shrines=”” picturesque=”” chamcteristic=”” south=”” india.=”” brahmins=”” meat=”” him.=”” ml:tnnarswami,=”” said=”” partake=”” subrahmanya.=”” t·here=”” connect=”” mannargudi.=”” katteri=”” lntlan,=”” male.=”” legend=”” parvati,=”” wife=”” offended=”” curse=”” laid=”” kshudradevata=”” inferior=”” deity,=”” earth.=”” implored=”” follow=”” descended=”” earth=”” kaneri=”” irulan.=”” according=”” account,=”” hunter=”” fought=”” pidari=”” well-known=”” violent.=”” katteri.=”” corruption=”” piq.ai.=”” hari,=”” “remover=”” evils.”=”” posture=”” $t=”” drum,=”” trident=”” skull=”” fifth=”” brahma.=”” k=”” attavarayan.=”” displeasure=”” ordered=”” descend=”” excavate=”” tanks=”” flower-gardens,=”” kattavarayan=”” 88=”” created=”” watchman=”” gardens.=”” adventures,=”” including=”” accounts=”” amours=”” idaiya,=”” brahmin=”” chetti=”” mistresses,=”” book=”” “frhe=”” story=”” kattavarayan.”=”” karuppar=”” dark-blue=”” colour=”” pathinettampadikkaruppar=”” karnppar=”” 18=”” steps=”” alagarkoil=”” neal’=”” madura).=”” sangilikkaruppar=”” chain,=”” what=”” kombalayam=”” seat=”” bough=”” parts=”” connected=”” iron=”” chain.=”” m”un-adian=”” mun-6di=”” seen,=”” herald=”” temple,=”” n~me=”” meaning=”” literally=”” head-servant=”” fore-runner.=”” lion’s=”” teeth.=”” munis=”” abnormal=”” powers=”” acquired=”” tapas=”” (austerities)=”” alive=”” seek=”” favour.=”” droupadi=”” dharmaputra=”” worshipped.=”” short=”” account=”” droupadi’s=”” ~t.ejj£u.jgl=””> or (fire walking’ performed in connection therewith may be given. It is a festival lasting 18 days on which the Malutbharata is read, and such as have made }1 vow to walk through fire must abstain from women and lie on the bare ground. On the eighteenth day their heads are crowned with flowers and their bodies decked with saffron, and they come dancing to the fire, stir it to increase its activity, rub their foreheads with its ashes and walk either fast or slow according to their 7.eal over a very hot fire, extending to many feet in length. Some carry their children in their arms and others bear lances, sabres or stan(l.ards. Droupadi married five brothers at the same time. Every year she left one and passed to the arms of another, but first took care to purify herself by fire. Such is the origin of this singular festival. III] THE PEOPLE 89 Viran or Madurai-Viran is said to have been a watchman in the service of Bomma N ayak. He fell in love with a princess of the Madura N ayak family and suffered for it. His spirit is worshipped as that of a hero. ‘It is said that the godling once became subject to a magician and, when he was asked how he would prove his subjection to him, .offered him the use of his legs. . rfhe magician declared thereupon that the godling would afterwards be called Nondi-Viran or the’ lame Viran.’ Viran used to be specially invoked by Kallars before their cattlelifting expeditions. A woman who dies before her husband (SumangaJ,i) is worshiped as Puvddaikkdri (wearer of auspicious things, or one with the smell of flowers), one who dies unmarried IS worshipped as Kanniamman, and one dying. as a widow is occasionally worshipped as Kulamari. Madan, Samban, Pethannan, Sinn an, Malukkan, and Mutyaluravuttanare spirits of persons who died violent or unnatural deaths. Of these Maq,an is supposed to have the face of a bull with the body of a man. He is said to be very fond of the burning ground, and is therefore occasionally called SJUlalai-M adan. Ecchil-pei, which is supposed to be always hungry, Kolli-vai: pistisu, which is supposed to emit flames from its mouth and corresponds to Will of the Wisp, and M6hini-pisasu, which is supposed to be alw&.ys seeking sexual connection, must be classed as evil spirits. The Kannimars are manifestations of Bhagavati or Parvati. wife of Siva, and are enumerated as 1. Brahmi or Sarasvati. 2. Mahesvari or parvati. 3. Kaumari. 4. Va,ishJ).avi or Lakshmi, 5. Varahi. 6. Mahendri or Indrani. 7. Chamundi or Kali. They are abo called in Sanskrit Saptamatrika’ 8. The other minor goddesses are :- 1. Ellamma or Ellai-amma, the boundary goddess. [There are some that interpret Ellamma to mean Sarvtimbti or the all powerful-goddess.] She is supposed by many to be no other 12 90 PUDUKK6TTAI STATE [CHAr. than Renuka, and the first account that is given below· of the origin of Mariamman is taken to apply to her. In her temples may be seen the figureR of-I. Jamadagni, her husband, 2. P6ttu Raja (= bull-king), her herald, 3. MaUaka Chetti, a hero who helps her i:p. battle, 4. Parasuraman, her son, 5. 1L.u9i- .fiJT-I!J-;i;~”‘Ili-, “Angels of Life,” who, having themselves died violent deaths, catch in a net those that die such deaths and bring them to Ellamma, who herself died such a death, 6. Matangi, the Paraiya woman, to whose trunk Renuka’s head was joined, 7. Vignesvara and 8. Bhadra Kali. 2. Sellamma or the “dear goddess. ” 3. Ekatta, the sole mother. 4. Tant6ni Ammal-the self-created goddess. 5. Ponni Ammal-the golden goddess .. 6. Angalamma (live-coal goddess). Angala Parameswari was created by Siva to help Virabhadra, leader of a host of demons, in preventing Daksha, son of Brahma, from performing a sacrifice, and slaying those who were assisting him in doing so, because Daksha had not invited Siva himself, . and Siva’s wife, Sati or Dakshayani, (Daksha’s own daughter) to take part in it. Another account of Angala Ammal is that she was the spirit of a Brahmin girl, given in marriage to a Chandala (outcaste) who had learnt the Vedas. The girl, when she le-arnt the truth, is said to have set fire to her house and so perished. Her husband is said to have become the chief of the1devils and to be known as Periyatarnbiran. There is another account of Periyatambiran, according to which he was the deity whom Daksha had intended to enthrone in the place of Siva. M ariamman.-There are two or three different accounts of Mariamman. According to one she was originally Renuka, the * See under Mariamman. t See Ziegenbalg’ s Genealogy of the South Indian Gods. R.’&ff6_~P .”lIff is referred to as 6-~6u in the well-known Tamil book, “Nandan Charitram.” The phrase “Angels of Life” is taken from Dr. Oppert’s Original Inhabitants of Bharatavarsha, III] THE PEOPLE 91 wife of Jamadagni and mother of Parasurama. Her husband, suspected her of having been unchaste in thought. He therefore ordered his son Parasurama to cut off her head. As a reward for his ready obedience he promised Parasurama a boon, and he thereupon asked for his mother to be restored to life. The fathe_r directed him to join her trunk and body together and repeat a prayer that he taught him. But Parasurama in his haste, by a very singular blunder, joined the head of his mother· to the body of a Paraiya woman, called Matangi, who had been executed for some crime. The result was the goddess lYIariamman. The gods gave her the power of curing small-pox. She is represented with a winnow and a broom-stick, as befits a Paraiya. She is supposed to live in the neem or margosa tree, {Azadirachta indica) and a person suffering from small-pox is not allowed to scratch himself with anything except the twigs of this tree. According to another account, Sakti, the female divine essence, was sent by the Gods to crush the Asuras against whom they had been unable to prevail in battle. She marched against them, afflicted them with severe attacks of small-pox, and thns vu.nqnished them. A third account is that she was a Brahmili girl, who unwittingly married the son of a Ch!1ndala (un touchable) woman of the name of Pecchi*. Some pall the ‘ seven Kannim{trs her daughters, and Uff(j)JffoiilIlLUffIUGJr, ~ male deity represented as wearing a petticoat, her son. This gdd is said to be al ways in a state of excitement induced by hemp, drugs, wine, etc., and is therefore called Ganjaveriyan, Sarayaveriyan, etc. M~riamnHm is extensively worshipped in Southern India. She is held in great venemtion and is known as Amma or Tai ( = Mother) and Periamma ( = the great Mother). As the goddess of small-pox, she is called M a1’imuttu, Mahamayi, Nallamuttu, J.lfuttydlamma and Sitalammal. Near her temple are fonnd the figures of Virabha,dra, Matangi, Kattavarayan mentioned above and 8i-8;(!1jLJ’.ff15.ai/Jj-8;/liffUff, her door-keepers who carry big el u bs. ‘:’ This resemhlel:l the account that is given above of Angalamman. 92 PUDUKKOTTAI STATE [CHAP. Special seats of her worship in the Pudukk6ttai State are seven in number, viz., Narttamalai, Vaittikk6il, Konnaiyur, Tennailgudi, r.riruvappur, Kannanur and Ilaiyanur to the east of Tirumayam. At the first three of these -places, hook-swinging was practised till it was stopped by Sarkar order in 18’j6. Those who imagined that they had received a great benefit from the goddess or wished to obtain them, made a vow to suspend themselves in the air. A strong post about 10 feet high was fixed perpendicularly on the ground, on the top of which a long pole was fixed in such a manner tha,t ij; would revolve as on a pivot. One end was weighted and to the other end a kind of chair was at~ached in which sat the devotee, who was hoisted up and swung by hook fastened in his flesh. Among the forms of self-torture still practised to please this Goddess may be mentioned walking on wooden shoes with spikes sticking out of them; dragging a car four or five feet high by means of ropes attached to hooks fastened in the flesh; measuring the whole distance to a place of pilgrimage with the length of the body by lying down and rising alternately; rolling all the distance to a place of pilgrimage; holding an arm constantly erect until the blood ceases to circulate in it; wearing a ‘ mouthlock, ‘ which is an instrument usually made of silver and worn with a pin stuck through both the cheeks between the teeth so as to keep the mouth open; and passing a silver spike through the tongue. Vow I.-V ows are commonly made at the shrines of deities by all classes. The higher classes make offerings to celebrated shrines outside the State such as Tirupati, Vaithisvarankoil, Palni, Swamimalai and rrirucchendur and to several shrines of Venkatesa and -Subrahmanya, within the State. A very common vow made by those desirous of offspring is· that, if a child is born to them, they will shave its head for the first time at the shrine of the deity invoked or will hang a cradle there. The votive offerings may be ears of paddy jewels, gold or silver representations of the parts of the III] THE PEOPLE 93 human body supposed to have belm cured by the deity, or simply milk or sugar carried in a kavad’l:. Festivals :-N umerous festivals are held all the year round. The New Year’s day falls in April for Tamils, and in March or April for Mahrattas, Kanarese and Telugus. The Dasara or Navaratri is a ten days’ festival devoted mainly to the GoddeRs Devi. * It is a season of great devotion combined with mirth and amusement. Worship is peJ;formed in every house~ hold; and the womenfolk and children amuse themselves with displays of dolls and statuettes in wood, marble, clay, soapstone, etc., and singing, and dancing Kurnmis before them .. It is the principal festival in the State and is a great socio-religious function. Special worship is performed in all the temples and His Highness the Raja participates in the worshIp. Charity is dQled out on a large scale. Brahmins are fed in thousands, and presented with rice doles and cash. Sanskrit and Tamil Scholars throng to the capital from different parts of South India and exhibit their erudition. On the last day, they ara’ given Sambhavanas or money presents varying according to the degree of their proficiency and scholarship. The ninth day . , is known as Saras’vati puja or AYI.ida p1.ija, a day devoted to worshipping the go’ddess of wisdom and all weapons, instruments, tools, etc. The scholar ‘worships’ his books, the carpenter his tools, the chauffeur his motor car and so on. On the tenth day, the festival closes with a State procession of His Highness to the shrine at Tirugokarnam. This is known as Vijaya yatra or the march to victory in commemoration of the victory of the Gods over the Asuras or the demons. A few arrows are shot off in the presence of the Raja and the deity to symbolise the victory. r:rhe D·ipavali (literally “the garland of lights”) • During this festival, Devi, the Mother of the Universe, is worshipped in her triple aspect of Power (Durga), Wealth (Lakshmi) and Wisdom (Sarasvati). As Durga, she is worshipped in the first three days, as Lakshmi in the second three, and as Sarasvati in the last three. Special worship is performed to all the other Gods also during this festival. 94 PUDUKKOTTAI STATE [CHAP. festival in October-November is intended to commemorate the destruction of the monster Narakasura by Sri Krishna. The festival is observed by taking oil-baths early in the morning which is considered equivalent to bathing in the Ganges, putting on new clothes, and letting off crackers, and other fire-works. The Sankaranti or Pongal is another very popular festival celebrated in January on the day of the sun’s transit to Capricorn. Rice newly harvested or supposed to be so is boiled in milk with dal (pulse) and sugar, and after it has been offered to the gods, espeeially to the Sun is partaken of. N ext day cattle are decorated and their horns painted with green and red and they are fed with rice boiled with sugar and milk. On the third day the Jallikattu or manfivirattu described above is celebrated. Sri Ramanavami, the birthday of Rama, which occurs in March-April, Krishna Jayanti or J anmashtami the birthday of Krishna in August, Sival’atri a day holy to Siva in February—March, and Vinayaka ckaturti in August-September, holy to Vinayaka or Ganesa are other festivals popular among all the higher classes. The new-moon days, of which those in Thai (JanuaryFebruary), and Adi (July-August) and (Mahalaya amavasya) (August-September) are very important, and the days of the transit of the Sun from one Zodiacal sign to another are all sacred to the spirits of the departed, who are propitiated with offerings of sesamum and water. Upakarmam or Avaniavittam is a festival peculiar to the” twice-born” castes. It is a survival of the old custom of commencing the study of the Vedas at the beginning of the monsoon season. On this day Brahmins and other “twice-born” castes put on new ceremonial threads (Y agnopavita) and go through the formality of beginning to read the Vedas. The padinettam perukkll or eighteenth day of Acli is an important festival observed by all classes. It takes place when the rivers of the ·Cauvery delta are in flood. The eleventh days of the lunar fortnights (ekadasi) and the full-moon days are III] THE PEOPLE 95 days of fasting. The days of the asterism K’rittika are holy to Subrahmanya. Kamanpandigai festival of the Hindu God of love, Kama, occurring in March, is observed generally by the lower classes to commemomte the destructio·n of Kama by Siva. In the months of Masi (February-March) and Arpisi (OctoberN ovem ber) an early morning bath in a tank or river is considered to have special religious efficacy. Vaikasi (May·-J une) is specially meritorious for charity. ‘rhe dark fortnight in September (Mahalyapaksha) is sacred to the souls of the dead. ]Y[drgrLli (December-January) is a month given to the worship of the gods which is conducted just before sunrise throughout the month. ii. Muhammadanism.-The Muhammadans in the State observe the five principal acts enjoined in the Quran. They are (1) the reoital of Kalima or short confession of faith-‘ There is no deity but God and Muhammad is the apostle of God.’ (2) Bulat, the five prescribed daily periods of prayer and preparatory pnrification, (3) Roza, the thirty days’ fast of Rarnzan, (4) Zakat, legal alms, and (5) HaJj’ or the pilgrirrlage to Mecca. There are secondary duties such as obedience to parents, circumcision and tho shaving of the head and body. ‘rhe following are some of the principal Muhammadan feasts and fasts :- (1) Muharram, days of mourning in the first month of the Muhammadan year, in commemoration of the martyrdom of Ali and his two sons. (‘2) Bara-Wafat-the anniversary of the day of the death (or, according to some, the birth) of the Prophet. At this festival sandal is placed in a vessel, carried in procession and distributed. (:3) Ramzan (with Id-nl-fitr). Fasting in Rarmmn month is one- of the essentials of Muhammadan religion. All pious Mussalmans ahstain from food and drink from sunrise to sunset in th~1t month. The Prophet used to say of this month that ” in it the g~1tes of pamdise are open, the gates of hell are shut (Lnd the devils are chained by the leg.” On the day of IJ,-ul-jitr, 96 PUDUKK6TTAI STATE [CHAP. the feast of the breaking of the fast, which is the first day of the month follo)Ving the Ramzan, the people put on their best clothes, distribute a)ms and give themselves up to revelry. (4) Baqr-id or – the feast of sacrifice. Every Mussalman should keep ·the feast by sacrificing an animal and preparing his meal from its flesh. The Baqr-id and the Id-ul-fitr are the two great feasts of Islam. The title of Pir is given to Muhammadan preceptors, and, after death, the Pi1·S are venerated as Wali.9, Owlis or Saints. The sepulchres of Walis are called Dargahs or shrines, where flowers, sweetmeats and fruits are red. There are in the Pudukkottai State dargahs of Walb a.t KattubavapaHivasal, Andakkulam, Vayalogam and elsewhere. (See the Gazetteer below). The Mussalmans in the State belong to one or other of the classes or tribes, known as-Pathan, Sayyed, Sheik and Labbai. Pathans who claim Afghan descent number nearly 1,000. Sayyeds who are reputed to be descended from the Prophet and hence held in high esteem, number 770 and the Sheiks about 2,000. Labbais are the offspring of Arab traders and Hindu women. They speak rramil and are generally known as Marakkdyars or Rdvuttars; the latter, meaning ‘horse-soldiers,’ is the more familiar name. They number about 74 per cent of the total Mussalman population and are enterprising traders. The relations between Muhammadans and Hindus are normally friendly. iii. Christianity.- CHRISTIAN MISSIONS :-(a) Roman OathoZ’ic. The earliest references to the Christian Missions are contained in the letters of the Madura Mission which, besides furnishing an account of Jesuit activities in Southern India, supply :tmple information about the social and political conditions of the times to which they refer. The first allusions to Pudukk6ttai territory relate to a Kallar chief Meycondan of N andavanampatti on the border of the State. The letters refer to him as a likely convert III] THE PEOPLE 97 and a generous prince. AVllr in the Kolatttir taluk was the first place in the State to be occupied by the Jesuits of the Mission. It appears that it was granted to them in the 17th century by a chieftain of the Perambur-Kattalur tract referred to in the Mission letters as the chief of Kandelur. Here a fine Church, which still exists, was built, and the celebrated Missionary Rev. T. Venantiu8 Bouchet carried on his labours. After the fall of the Perarnbur-Kattalul’ palayam, Avur came under the Kolattur and Pudukkonai Tondaimans, and apprehensions were entertained of persecution by the new rulers. These fears however proved groundless. It was in the first year of the rule of Raghunatha Raya Tondaiman (1686-1730) , . at Pudukk6tt~i that, A vur was finally fixed as “a new Catholic ‘central settlement in the tract to the north of the Marava country;” and one of the princes of the KolattUr lineRamaswami Tondaiman by name-is said to have “developed a marked respect and veneration for the Christian religion, its teaching, its ceremonies and symbols and especially for the symbol of the Cross.” In 1713 Avur secured official recognition as a sanctuary and asylum for Christian debtors; and official guards were set about this time over the Church and its precincts on festival occasions to prevent disturbances. rfbree years later, that is in 1716, during the war with the Nayaks the Church at AVllr was destroyed by the rfondaiman soldiery in a moment of general panic and confusion on the pretext that the building might be converted by the forces of Chokkanatha Nayak into a fortress. But that the unhappy incident was not inspired by any feelings of hatred, or spirit of persecution is evident from the circumstance that in the ten years (1717-1727) that followed, Pudukk6ttai territory served as a .place of refuge for Fr. Bertholdi and other Christians who were subjected to ill-treatment at rrrichinopoly and other places in the neighbourhood. About 1732 occurred the invasion of the Pudnkkonai territory by Chanda Sahib. Avur was then occupied by the 13 98 PUDUKK6TTAI sTATE [CHAP. enemy, and the well-known Tamil schol8tr and Missionary, Rev. Fr. Beschi, who was in temporary charge of the place was seized and ill-treated. He was subsequently released when Chanda Sahib learnt who he was. . In the years 1745 and 1746 the outlook for the Christians was gloomy. In the first of these years an attempt was made to exact from them a contribution for building a car for a Hindu temple at Pudukk6ttai. In the next year the Tondaiman paid a visit to Tirumayam, and hearing that the Christian population in the place had corrupted the old religion and manners of the country issued a general mandate for the destruction of all the Churches in his territory. But the order was fortunately reconsidered and cancelled. In the meanwhile the Jesuit Missionaries incurred unpopularity owing to their methods of proselytisation. These were condemned by the Pope in 1744, and the Society of Jesus was itself suppressed in 1773. For another twenty years or so, however, some ex-Jesuits stayed on: tin Pudukk6ttai territory and continued the work. , In the year 1794, A vur became a bone of contention between the Pondicherry Foreign Mission and the Portuguese or Goanese Mission. The former took its stand on Papal authority, and the remaining ex-.r esuits joined its ranks. The Goanese Mission claimed jurisdiction through the extinct Madura Mission, contending that the A nh Church was an offshoot of the Madura Mission which had itself been “attached to the Portuguese Mission Province and depended ecclesiastically on the Padruado Archbishop of Cranganore on the West Coast.” Four Syro-Malabar pri~sts, or catenars as they were called, also arrived on the scene determined to assert their rights. . They were soon left in undisturbed possession of the field, the Pondicherry Mission retiring from the area under the orders of the Madras Government. One of the Catenars was Periya Yagupar (Jacob) whose activities extended over A.vur, III] THE PEOPLE 99 Trichinopoly, and Malaiya4ipatti. He is reputed to have built several chattrams and a car at .A.vur. Meanwhile the Jesuits were reorganised in 1$14, and Fr. Granier of the order settled in 1838 at Trichinopoly.· The , . possession of A vur which was so near to it became once again a matter of dispute, this time between the Jesuit MissIon and the Goanese. In 1846 the differences between them became so acute that each side attempted to o·ust the other by resort to violence; and the then Raja and Political Agent of the State had to interfere. The situation became still more unpleasant in 1857 when the jurisdiction of the Goariese Mission over· these areas was distinctly recognised by the Pope. The differences were however composed and the two missions afterwards worked for more than seventy years without any (riction. In 1930 .A.langu4i and Tirumayam taluks were taken awf’J.Y from the jurisdiction of the Jesuit Fathers of the Trichinopoly Diocese and handed over to the Portuguese (Padruado) Diocese of San Thome de Mailapore, Madras. In these two taluks there are four parishes namely, Pudukk6ttai, Sammanasur, Kott&ika4u and Venkatakulam with about 11,000 Catholics. In l1he Kolattur taluk, Trichinopoly Diocese has two , parishes, namely, Nanjtir and Avur with 10,000 Catholics. (b) Protestant.-According to a letter dated 1849 of Mr. Parker, Political Agent, the Protestant Missionary congregations at Pudukk6ttai were originally established by Rev. John Casper Kohlkoff of the Church of England ‘b<:Jtween whose father and himself, 110 year!; of Missionary labour were divided.’ In the thirties of the last century the work waf, in the hands of a society of European and Indian workers at Madras called the India~ Mission Society. One of their catechists-‘ an energetic man’ established a footing in the town and opened some schools in the villages. At the instance of Mr. Blackburne, the Political Agent, the Mission also received grants of land from the State, 100 PUDUKKOTTAI STATE [CHAP. In 1845 the Indian Mission Society made over its work to tpe American Mission at Madura, arid for the next three years catechists and teachers of the latter body were sent to Pudukkottai to carryon the work. By the end of this period the number of Protestants and Protestant Mission schools in the State had increased to 190 and 13 respectively. But owing to paucity of hands, the American Mission was unable after a time to spare the men required for the work, and therefore in 1848 it made an offer of the Pudukk6ttai territory to the Leipzig Lutheran Mission which this body willingly accepted. “The Mission was formerly an enterprise of several Lutheran Churches in Germany, France, Russia and Scandinavia. One of the stationa where the Swedes worked and took special interest in was Pudukk6uai. In 1901, when the Church of Sweden Mission and the Leipzig Mission divided the workingfield between them, Pudukk6ttai was given to the Swedes.” Until 1855 no Missionary was stationed in Pudukk6ttai, and the work that was carried on w~s at best spasmodic, desultory and irresponsible. The first Missionary to live here was the Rev. K. A. Ouchterlony” a young Swede, born in Stockholm though of Scottish parentage.” With a true Missionary spirit he devoted himself to his new field, and with admirable faithfulnes·.s and a cheerful spirit he carried on his hard and often thankless work. In his humble dwelling Ouchterlony not seldom recei’ved visits of the then Raja who took such a liking to him that he jokingly used to call him his Court Chaplain, often invited h.im to his palace, and gave him a harmonium for use at the divin,~ services. The history oJ the subsequent years may be briefly chronicled. A Mission Bungalow was built in 1870. A Primary ~chool which the Missjon maintained in the town was ~aised to the sta,tus of a Lower Seoondary School in 1884 and to that of a High School in 1906. It has since been provided with convenient ~nd comJIlodious quartl~rs fQr the bQ~r<.let’s! III] THE PEOPLE 101 For a long time the Mission held divine service in the school building and in a small chapel within the Mission componnd. By 1905 the chapel had become too small for the town congregation, and a Church to hold about 400 persons was built in that year, with funds raised partly in Sweden and partly from local contributions. It was consecrated “on the 6th of November 1906, the year as well as the date beir;tg of significance in the history of the Protestant Church, because in that year two centuries had elapsed since the first Protestant Missionaries had landed in India, and on the 6th of November 1632 the Swedish hero King Gustavus Adolphus fell on the battlefield of Lutzen in defence of Protestant faith and rights.” In 1021 the rramil Evangelical Lutheran Church was founded, and it was entrusted to the care of the established. congregations of the Swedish Missions .along with the elementary schools. Pudukk6ttai and Tirupattlir with surrounding villages form one pastorate under an Indian pastor. Next to Pudukk6ttai town, K6ttaikarampatti has the hugest congregation in the State, with its own church. rrhe Pudukk6ttai Village Mission was started in the year 1926 by Rev. and Mrs. P. F. Summerson, with Pudukk6ttai town as its centre. It is chiefly doing evangelistic work. Other sects :-rrhere are now a few families in the State belonging to the Malabar Syrian church. They are mostly officers in State Service and their families. SECTION IV.-CASTES AND TRIBES. General tendencies.-Many of the so-called lower com· munities now show a tendency to exchange their traditional caste names for designations that appear to them more respec-table. A section of the Pariahs in the Madras Presidency “offered their thanks to Lord Pentland and the Madras Government for giving them the name of Panchama. rrhey would not welcome it now. The question of names has been much in the attention of the leaders of these communities in 102 PUDUKK6TTAI STATE [CHAP. the past ten years and to this is attributed the popularity of I the term Adi-Dravida.”· A still more recent title is Harijan. The educated among the Adi-Dravidas often, append the title Pillai to their names; but the latest style is to call oneself; for example, C. Swami Esq. Idaiyans (shepherds) and ‘a few other classes wish to be called Y lidavas ; Patnulis (silk-weavers), Sourashtra Brahmins; Kammalans (artizans), VisvakaNna Brahmins after Visvakarma, the divine artizan (lit. “worldmaker;”) and so on. If the census figures given against the different castes and classes in the subsequent paragraphs show in many cases marked variations compared with the previous censuses, the differences may be . explained by this tendency to adopt more stylish titles which was very marked during the last two census periods. However, the caste system which, has survived for ages shows no very marked signs of decay. “Caste prejudice is not a II:Ionopo]y of Brahmins. ‘rhis has beeu frequently said but will bear repetition. It is in fact more prominent at the lowest levell)f the community than at the highest. The washermen who, attend to the needs of Adi-Dravida::; must marry amongst • I’ themselves; the ordinary Adi-Dravidas will not provide a bride , or even eat at the wedding feast. Adi-Dravidas, will not drink from a chuckler’s well and so on. PaHans and Paraiyans do not live in the same village …….. ” t The Brahmins.-t (11,769) The Brahmins are divided into Smartas (Advaitins), Vaishv.avas and Madhvas, according as they follow one’ or other of the three great original expounders of the Vedanta, Sri Sailkara, Sri Ramanp.ja and Sri Madhva. They are divided into exogamous septs or G6tras tracing descent from one or other of the Rishis and also into Sutras or sects • Mr., M. W. M. Yeatts, I. C. S., Superintendent of the Madras Census Operations. t Mr. M. W. M. Yeatts 1. C. S. in the Madras Census Report, 1931. t Figures in brackets after the name of a caste or tribe indicate thQ number of persons belon~in!S to it according to the oensus of 1931, III] THE PEOPLE 103 according to the Brahminical canons to which they own allegiance. Some of these Sutfll,S are- (1) Asvalayana Sutra of the Rig–yada. (2) A. Apastamba Sutra, Batidhayana Stitra, Bllliradvaja Sutra, Satyashada Hiranyakesa Sutra and Yaikhanasa Sutra of the Krish:t;ta (black) Yajur Veda, B. Katyayana Sutra of the Sveta (white) Yajur Yeda, and the (3) Drahyayana Sutra of the Sarna yada. In the State, Asvalayanas, Apastambas, and Baudhayanas are commonly met with. ‘fhe followers of the Vaikhanasa Sutra are mostly priests in Vish:t;tu temples. The subdivisions, which we shall find most convenient to follow, in dealing with the Brahmin community, are the five divisions known as the Pancha Dravidas, viz., 1. The Dra vidas or Tamil Brahmins. 2. The Andhras or Telugu Brahmins. 3. The Karnatakas or Canarese Brahmins. 4. The Mahanl,shtras or Desasthas or Marathi Brahmins. and 5. ‘fhe Gurjaras or Gujarati Brahmins of which class there seems to be no family in the State. ‘rhe ‘ramil Brahmins of the State are again subdivided into (1) VaQ.-amas. (2) Brahacharanams. (3) Ashtasah3.srams. (4) Vattimas. (5) Yaish:t;tavas. (6) Gurukkals or the priests – of the Siva temples. (7) Nambiars or Bhattars, who are Vaish:t;tavite priests, and (8) Prathamasakhins. Among these subdivisions, there is no intermarriage. Vattimds are the ~1 adhyamas or men of the middle-country that is Central Provinces. The YaQ.-amas, or “Northerners,” are divided into Chola VaQ.-amits or VaQ.-amas that came to the Chola country first, and northern VaQ.-amas who came later. The subdivisions of the Brahacharanams, the Ashtasahasrams and the Vattimas are generally named after the villages in which they originally settled. 104 PUDUKKOTTAI STATE [CHAP. Prathamasakhins are found in the village of Talinji in Kolattur rraluk. They fonn an exclusive community, called “Midday Paraiyas,~’ because a Rishi is said to have laid a curse upon them in consequence of which they became Paraiyas for a period at noon daily. The Vaishl,lavas worship Vishl,lu and his consort Lakshmi or Sri as the supreme deities. They wear on their fore-heads a caste-mark of two white lines symbolic of the holy feet of Vishl,lu with a red or yellow line representing Lakshmi between tliem. The Vadakalais draw the white lines more or less in the shape of a U and the Tenkalais in the shape of a Y. On the occasion of Samasrayana, the ceremony of initiation, they bear on their shoulders the impress of the discus and the conch, the emblems of Vishl,lu. There are two major sects among them,- the Vadakalai and the Tenkalai. The Tenkalais chant Tamil verses in their rituals in place of Sanskrit mantras and prayers. Both recite the Divya Prabandha consisting of the hymns in praise of the Lord, sung by the Al vars or the Vaishl,lavite Saints. Both believe in the doctrine of Saranagati, or surrender to the will and grace of God, as the sure means of attaining Salvation or mo’ksham. The Vadakalais hold that to achieve Saranagati the first step is to submit to the guidance of a spiritual preceptor (acharya). They attribute equal rank and power to Vishl,lu and Lakshmi, and regard the latter as the interceder with the Lord on behalf of suffering souls. But the Tenkalais rank her second to Narayal,la or Vish1,lu, though above all the other Souls. They also say that God in His infinite mercy will Himself take care of erring Souls even without their asking; that is, they preach the doctrine of absolute dependence on God and Salvation by faith and not by works. (ii) Telu.gu Brahmins. The Telugu Brahmins in’the State are divided into (1) the Niy6gis or Laukikas, who came from the North as officers, civil or military, nl] THE PEOPLE 105 (2) the Vaidiks, of whom many seem to have come south originally as Purohits and some as officers. They are subdivided into Murikinag.u or Mulakana4-u Brahmins, Velina4u Brahmins, Vegi or V MlginaQ,u Brahmins, Karnakamma Brahmins, Teliilgana Brahmins, etc. and (3) the K6nasima. or K6nasamu,dram Dnividas, etc. These are Tamil Brahmins who settled in the Telugu country, adopted the Telugu language and customs and then returned to the Tamil land. (iii) and (iv) TheCanarese and Mahratta Brahmins are divided into Smartas and Madhvas. The Madhvas stamp their body and forehead every day with the emblerris of Vishl}.u. The principal ceremonies or samskaras prescribed for the Brahmins are namakaranam (givil}g a child its name), annaprasanam (giving’ it rice for the first time), choulam (shaving its head), upanayanam (investing it with the sacred thread), and Vivdham (the wedding ceremony). Formerly the parents of the bridegroom had t.o pay a large sum to the paren ts of the bride as is even now the case among Gurukkals and Bhattars, but among other classes a very high price (in some cases amounting to thousands of Rupees) has to be paid for the bridegroom. In olden times the proper fun~tions of the Brahmins werelearning the Vedas, teaching the Vedas, performing sacrifices for themselves and others, receiVIng gifts, and bestowirig such gifts on others; and in consideration of their performing these, they were given grants of land free of tax. Nowadays they have largely monopolised the superior and clerical grades of Government service to an extent that has compelled Government to take special measures in order to secure a substantial leaven of other communities and castes. In addition they predominate in the learned professions, but have also taken to trade, and business of all kinds. 106 PUDUKKOTTAI STATE [CHAP. The Valaiyana.-(27,916} These form an important section of the population of the State. They are supposed to have been so called from ‘Mlai, a net, because they originally netted game in the jungles. Their usual titles are Ambalak{Lran, , Veq..an and Servai. They are divided into several endogamous I sections, of which the chief are the Valuvadis, Saraku Valaiyans and Veq..a Valaiyans. Among the Valaiyans, adult marriage is the rule, and the consent of the maternal uncle is necessary. The M,li is tied by the sister of the bridegroom. Divorce is permitted on payment of the price paid for the bride; the mal~ children go with the husband while the divorced wife keeps the girls. Widows may remarry. They cremate their dead except those who have died of small-pox; these they bury. A household is regarded as ceremonially polluted for 16 days after death has occurred in it, and for 5 days after. any gil’l in it has attained puberty. The usual occupations are snaring birds, fishing, agricultural and manual labour, and collecting honey and medicinal herbs. They will eat almost anything, including rice found in ant-holes, rats, cats, dogs and squirrels. The Valuvadia.-(3,304) Valuvadi is a name assumed by prosperous Valaiyans as a mark of superior social status. Valuvadis are found at Perunga!ur, Vadakaq..u and Mailgaq..u. They worship the god of the Sastankovil near Tirumayam and SubramaI.lyaswami of N agaram in the Tanjore district. The follo~ing note is taken from Thurston’s Oastes and Tribes of Southern India, (1909) “Valuvadi, was originally a term of respect, appended to the name of the Nagaram Zamindar. Some Valayans in prosperous circumstances and others who became relatives of the N agaram Zamindar by marriage have changed their caste name Valayan into Valuvadi. Thirty years ago there is said to have been no Valuvadi caste.” The Kallara.-(22,124) Like the Valaiyans, these form, a large proportion of the population of the State. They are divided into a number of endogamous sections called Na4uEl In] THE PEOPllE 107 such as Ambu Naq.u or Anbil Naq.u, to which the family of Ris Highness the Raja belongs, Alailguq.i N aq.u, U njanai N aq.u, S6ttruppalai Naq.u, Sengattu Naq.u-East and West, Kulamailgilya Naq.u, Pappa Naq.u, Palaiyur Naq.u, Valla Naq.u, Vadamalai ‘Naq.u, rrenmalai Naq.u, Kasa Naq.u, Visailgi Naq.u, Kil Senkili Naq.u, Mel Senkili Naq.u, Perumanadu, Kolattu.r Naq.u, Virakkuq.i Naq.u, and others numbering in all about fifty. In the eighteenth century the KaHars were notorious robbers. But agriculture has converted most of the KaHars in the State into peaceful citizens. The Ambu Nattu KaUars follow Brahmin usages and do not permit the re-marriage of widows or divorced women. Among other sections of the Kallars divorced women and widows are permitted to remarry. Caste problems and disputes are settled by the elders of the nadu, but sometimes the Periathanakaran or “the chief man” is the arbitrator. The dead are generally burnt and pollution is’ observed for sixteen days after a death. Each Nadu has a separate temple, where the Nadu assembly meets. Every Nadu has seveml exogamous divisions-·LJL~LuGLJ:u.T. Some of the Nadus and their exogamous divisions will now be m,entioned. (a) Arubu Nadu has over twenty-five exogamous septs, such as Tondaiman to which His Highness the B.aja belongs, Malavarayan, Pallavarayan, Raugiyan, Mannavelan, Raja!i, Tennathiraiyan, KaJiilgarayan, Kaliyaran, MakaJi, ValailkoI,ldan, Panrikonran, Kaduvetti, Th6ppai, Sammatti, Adaiyava!anjan, etc., fonnd in the villages of Vadatheru, Tenthern, KarambakkuQ.i, Pilaviduthi, Vadakkahi.r, Panthnvak6ttai, Narailgiyanpatti, etc. These follow, as has been already said, the customs and manners of the Brahmins. ‘1’he following are said to be the exclusive privileges of Ambumittu Kalla women :-(1) C!fJ(j) LJo1J6Ild;(,5-(a cover6d palanquin.) (2) t:?totl (Yd;a;ff(j)-(the practice of women covering the body from head to foot when they go out.) (3) (]/Jl(]G\J(i)-(a kind of ear-tings.) (4) a;C5.$LD~n-(a necklace of black glass-beads.) (/5) U<f~<‘f and=”” .$(!!j6v&rrab-(green=”” black=”” glass=”” bangles)=”” and,=”” (6)=”” uab.$~~-(bodices).=”” 108=”” pudukkottai=”” state=”” [chap.=”” the=”” jewels=”” worn=”” by=”” women=”” are=”” similar=”” to=”” those=”” of=”” higher=”” classes,=”” such=”” as=”” bangles,=”” necklaces=”” ear-rings.=”” i=”” (b)=”” alangudi=”” nddu=”” also=”” has.=”” about=”” twenty-five=”” exogamous=”” divisions=”” tondaiman,=”” vanq..an,=”” irungulam,=”” koppanan,=”” kaq..avaran,=”” nattaraiyan,=”” kaliilgaran,’=”” etc.,=”” who=”” .=”” ,=”” reside=”” in=”” twelve=”” villages,=”” including=”” alailguq..i,=”” pauattuviq..uthi,=”” suranviq..uthi,=”” kilattur=”” melattur.=”” tradition=”” is=”” that=”” people=”” this=”” naq..u=”” came=”” originally=”” from=”” kohimalaihills=”” salem=”” district.=”” (0)=”” unjana~=”” nddu·.=”” na<j,u=”” foundin=”” five=”” hamlets=”” perambur,=”” maruthampatti,=”” nailgupatti,=”” pakkuq..i=”” saranakkuq..i=”” territory=”” which=”” beloriged=”” first=”” perambur=”” afterwards=”” ko!attur=”” chiefs.=”” anjunilaippattu=”” sa1″ddrs,=”” were=”” appointed=”” rulers=”” help=”” them=”” consolidation=”” their=”” conquests,=”” belonged=”” n=”” aq..u.=”” (d)=”” s6tt’ruppdlai=”” consists=”” fifteen=”” subdivisions,=”” pattukkatti,=”” punaiyan,=”” arailgiyan,=”” ko~daiyan,=”” ka!i,=”” k6ppuliilgan,=”” residing=”” villages=”” s6ttuppalai,=”” kallukkaranpatti,=”” va!avampatti,=”” s61aganpatti,=”” etc.=”” (e)=”” kasa=”” ndd1t.=”” section=”” seems=”” be=”” confined=”” almost=”” entirely=”” rranjore=”” district,=”” only=”” one=”” family=”” belonging=”” it=”” reported=”” found=”” state.=”” (f)=”” kila=”” senkili=”” nmu=”” divided=”” into=”” eighteen=”” septs=”” ulakailk~ttan,=”” s6!agan,=”” teilko~aan,=”” thirani,=”” vanniyan,=”” pa:la~dan,=”” vattachi:=”” kacchiran,=”” thirteen=”” or=”” near=”” northern=”” part=”” taluk,=”” ulakailkattanpatti,=”” kin=”” uk6ttai,=”” ainarippatti,=”” villipatti,=”” kallupatti,=”” oq.iyur,=”” acchapatti,=”” thacchailkuruchi,=”” mailganur,=”” kosupatti,=”” kottampatti,=”” caste=”” panchayats=”” these=”” naq..us=”” meet=”” at=”” visalikk6vil=”” visalur.=”” (g)=”” mel=”” &lu=”” kahars=”” a=”” little=”” ,vest=”” kil=”” mentioned=”” above.=”” (n)=”” members=”” kulamangilya=”” &lu,=”” bear=”” surn3jlles=”” w:’llldljujff-,=”” k6ppanan,=”” teva,n,=”” iii]=”” 109=”” kalithfrttan,=”” peivetti,=”” kolipettan,=”” malukka.n,=”” mailgulan,=”” puthukkutti,=”” malaiyittan,=”” live=”” eleven=”” kolattur=”” alal\guq.i=”” taluks,=”” punguq.i,=”” vagavasal,=”” muhur,=”” veehani,=”” sembattur,=”” puttamblir,=”” vaittur,=”” muttampatti,=”” vattanakurichi.=”” said=”” kulamailgilya=”” naq.u,=”” panailkaq.u=”” naq.u=”” (north=”” south),=”” siruvayil=”” suriyur=”” east,=”” kanadu=”” formed=”” division=”” they=”” separated,=”” settled=”” different=”” arid=”” became=”” separate=”” naq.ns.=”” stated=”” late=”” have=”” been=”” contracting=”” alliances=”” with=”” kavinadu=”” ahd=”” aq..u=”” kahars.=”” (i)=”” sengattu=”” nad’li,=”” twenty-seven=”” septs,=”” snch=”” vai;1dan,=”” ariyan,=”” k6ppan,=”” panrikutti,=”” avandan,=”” pettacehi,=”” acchamariyan,=”” pacchaiyan,=”” vatldaiyan,=”” manamkondall,=”” living=”” seven=”” alailguq.i=”” k6vilur,=”” kuppakuq.i=”” kol=”” unthirak6ttai.=”” (j)=”” pappa=”” ddn.=”” aq.u=”” mostly=”” pattukk6ttai=”” rraluk=”” tanjol’e=”” district=”” two=”” families=”” kilakkurichi=”” village=”” taluk.=”” many=”” among=”” vegetarians=”” will=”” not=”” eat=”” non-vegetarian=”” honses.=”” (k)=”” pdlaiyur=”” endogamous=”” seotions,=”” manailkattan,=”” seplan,=”” athi,=”” rayan,=”” s61agan,=”” ailgarayan,=”” eto.,=”” palaiyur,=”” mayanur,=”” kulav6ippatti,=”” muttupati;1am,=”” vetlj}.avalkuq..i,=”” veilkatakulam=”” kilaiyur.=”” (l)=”” vadarnalai=”” ddu=”” thirty-five=”” seotions=”” bearing=”” surnames=”” mailgalan,=”” maj}.daiyan,=”” palaj}.dan,=”” tettuvai;1dan,=”” kaq.avaran=”” kaliilgarayan=”” abo=”” nt-=”” u=”” q..ayalippatti=”” mariammank6ilat=”” rremmttvul’.=”” portion=”” kunnaj}.dark6il=”” belongs=”” vaq..amalai=”” southern=”” tenmalai=”” nadu.=”” 110=”” puduuottai=”” stare=”” (m)=”” just=”” south=”” vaq.amahli=”” no.q.u=”” no.q.us=”” ®(!5ld~l1jrr(ji=”” (irumalainddu)=”” inscriptions=”” adjacent=”” temple=”” kunno.l}.dark6vil.=”” mukkani=”” amman=”” k6vil=”” al}.dakkulam.=”” t~e=”” joint=”” meetings=”” vaq.amalai=”” tenmalai.=”” naq.us=”” held=”” kunno.:r;t.dark6vil=”” templethe=”” boundaries=”” given=”” following=”” stanza=”” :-=”” 6jj=”” ;b=”” d@)=”” (3=”” 85rr=”” l=”” qs’)=”” .-=”” 6l}w=”” (!!jt6j=”” (!5lf!ib6i1=””> plTJ85 ifLJD/D Gprr(!!j8JITwMi fSoirw JiPlTd- iTfL.iTn..!1rrUJ GUIT’~LD~G85rr6it 6IP4=d-pw GUIT’ ;DUIT’,<6IB prr~(3U1″ ;D.9)IIB Gp~~l1JrrL GL-~ Q/6I1>85. * en) Valla Nddu KaUars are divided into thirty-six divisions, such as rrambiran, Araiyan, So.manthan, Soriyan, Munaithirayan, MaQ.usugi, Akattiyan, Mailan, etc., living in twenty villages to the east of Puduk~6gai, such as Tiruvidaiyappatti, Kotthakottai, Mal}.iarnbalam, Vandnlk6ttai, Vallattirakottai, Mo.njanviQ.uthi, etc. Their caste panchayats are generally held in the Siva temple at Tiruvarailkulam which is the temple of their ~aQ.u, and they all subscribe for and bear the expenses of one ucchi-sandhi or mid-day service in the temple every day. Co) Vdl’dppU1′ Nddu consists of about twenty-two divisions, such as Karuppatti, K6neri, Makali, TOl).Q.aimanpiriyan, Nettaiyan, Sethuran, Kidathiriyan, Tambiran, etc. These inhabit seven sub-nadus, namely, (1) Varavala-naQ.ll comprising Varappur and ‘rhekkutheru, (2) ‘rhuraippala-naQ.u comprising ~ro:r;t.Q.aillJanural}.i, AthiranviQ.uthi,etc., (3) Perambur-n,l.Q.u which consists of the village of VeHalaviQ.uthi, (4) Panrisul-naQ.u containing the villages of Valaukol).Q.anpatti, Sevalpatti, Avip- • The Stanza is rather doggerel than verse. Its meaning is-Vathanli.kottai. prosperous·Kulandainagar. Pirambllr. Killanur. and Kuhtir are the boundaries of Tenmalai Nadu whose people worship the golden feet of Lord Siva who holds mount Meru as his bow. III] THE PEOPLE 111 patti, etc., (5) Melamadaikkottai naq.u comprising the villages of Idaiyapatti, Krisl1J),anpatti, Karuppattividuthi, (6) Punnapanrikuthi-naq.u comprising Malaiyur, POllnanviduthi, AriyaI}.di n.nd THtlllinpatti villages, and (7) Naval-llltq.U eomprising Sembattividuthi, Sevakanpatti, Unjinaipatti, Melaviduthi, Pappanviduthi, Paehikkottai and Mailkottai. (p) Virakkudi N ddu comprises twenty-two subdivisions such as Kaduvetti, Sempllli, Viramadan, Kllrippan, Matharan, Malavan, VaI}.daiyan, Kaniyan, etc., inhabiting about twelve villages including VaI}.danviduthi, Kilatteru, TirumaI}.ancheri and Ponnanviduthi to the east of Varappur N aq.u and north of Tanava Naq.u, (q) Tdnava Nddu. rrhis consists of Vadakaq.u village. {r} and (8) Siruvayal N ddu, North and South. The caste panchayats of north Siruvayal Naq..u meet in the Kiranur temple a.nd those of south Siruvayal Naq..u in Narttamalai Siva temple. It appears that the joint meetings of Senkili N aq..u, east and west, Malai N aq..u, north and south, and Vada Siruvayal N aq..u used to be held at the Visalur temple. (t) Visangi Naau. This clan resides in the northern portion of the Kolattur T.a.luk and were onCf\ notorious for dexterity in cattle-lifting and for the commission of grave crimes, especially, robbery and dacoity. These KaHars live in thirty-s!.( villages and claim as their subdivisions, .Tenmalainaq.u, Vadamalainaq..u, Pirambunaq..u, Erimangalanaq..u, Tirumangalanaq..u, Sirnvayalnaq..u, Kasanaq..u, Korkainaq..u, Paiilganaq..u, Orattanaq..u, Konurnaq.u, Senkilinaq..ll (east and west), Nirvalanaq..u,- rrennamanag,u, Irumbamiq.u, Vallambanaq..u, Kavinaq..u and Kulamangilyanaq..u. They are divided into 156 subdivisions such as Panchavaran, PandrMn, Tettunindan, So!atiraiyan, lIatiraiyan, Munaitiraiyan, Vallatiraiyan, Tennatiraiyan, Tenkondan, Kadavaran, etc. The depredations of this section of KaHars were not confined to the State or the adjoining British districts, but extended to the remotest parts of the Presidency. They gave great trouble 112 PUDUKKOTTAI STATE [CHAP. to the Tanjore Rajas, and, until recently, KaHars of this section were employed as watchmen in the rranjore district. A house where a watchman of this section was employed was supposed to be immune from their depredations. Generally speaking, however, the class have nQw abandoned a life of crime for the less precarious occupation of agriculture, particularly the cultivation of ground-nut. (Il) Eavi Nadu is the tract of land about Tiruvappur. (v) Ti’l’nrnallgala Nddu.·-See under Visailgi NaQ.u above. It comprises the KaHars of Sengalur, Rajapatti and LakkaQ.ipatti villages ill Kolattur rraluk. (w) Peru/fI,gal1’tr N ddu consists of the KaHars living in tho, tract bounded by the Vanippur Nu.9.u on the East, Kulamailgilya Nalj.u on the West, Kil Surya NaQ.u containing Vadavalam on the South and PanaugaQ.u Nalj.ll on the North. The KaHal’s of this Nalj.ll are divided into fifteen exogamous septs, such as Seplan, Senthiran, Pambali, etc. There are still other N aQ.lls such as Vagaivasal N alj.u, Paravakk6ttai Naq.u, PUI.lyanisi Naq.u, MannarguQ.i Naq.u, M9.dukkur Nalj.u, Singavala NaQ.u, Kulavaippatti Nalj.u, Aludaiyark6vil NaQ.u, Minpusal Nalj.u, Kuppaittevan N,1lj.U, K ‘Tuvikkarambai Nalj.u, Valuvadi NaQ.u, and Tulasi NaQ.u. The Paraiyans.-(15,633) rrhe ParaiYRlns have been associated with the land for an exceedingly long time. They live apart from other casteR at a distance from the village proper 111 quarters called Paraiccheri. They are said to be expert in determiningdisputecl field-boundaries! ‘rhe • Those who do so are known as ‘7i.J&.><:rulT~ or “houndary runnel’S,” Wearing as g!trlands round their necks the flesh of sacrificed sheep n,nd beating drums tied round their waists, they run on and on till they come back to the point from which they started. “They are very expert in this matter, unerringly pointing out where boundaries should run, even when the Government demarcation stones are completely overgrown by prickly-pear, Ol’ have been l’emoved ……………… the only satisfactory explanation of this is that the connection of the Paraiyans with the soil is of much longer standing than that of other castes “-(Thurston). III] THE PEOPLE 113 knowledge of medicine and astrology possessed by Paraiya priests or soothsayers, known as Vttlluvar8· shows that they were onee a cultured race. Many of them wear the sacred thread. during marriages and funerals and at the festivals of village deities. ‘l’hey trace their descent from Brahmin priests. They have eighteen endogamous subdivisions., amon!{, , . which are S6liya Pal’aiyans, Aya Paraiyans:, . Amm4 Paraiyo.ns,: P{tsikatti Paraiyans and KudiraikkaraPamiyrtns (syCeA). ‘rhey are not permitted to enter Brahmin villages nor do they allow Brahmins to enter their villages. If a Brahmin by mistake enters a Paraiya street; Paraiya women follow him with mud-pots, which they break behind him, and then embracing him sing dirges until he leaves the street. rrhe Paraiyas are employed as agricultural labourers, ordinary coolies, Talaiyaris or watchmen, Vettiyans or grave-diggers and T6ttis or scavengers. The S6liya Paraiyans claim to be superior to the other Paraiyans, calling t.hemselves the descendants of Tiruvalluvar the author of the Kurral. They are said to have come frord the North. They wear the sacred thread during marriages and funerals, practise infant marriage, prohibit widow marriage and enforce strict chastity among their women. Women excommunicated from this section are admitted into some other sections of the Paraiyas. Pollution after the attainment of puberty lasts for 30 days. The dead … _——_._ ………… _ ….. _—_._ …. __ …… _._ …………••. __ ._—_ … _—- ::: These wear rosaries of Rudraksham (Elaeocarpus ganitrus) heads and carry a collection of almanacs and lnanuscript hooks on astrology. They are. soothsayers and prepare horoscopes and write charms for people who are ill. They do not mix with the other Paraiyans, and refuse to admit them into their houses. As evidence of the anCient status oC the Paraiyas, we may mention that at Melkota, an important Vaishnava shrine, the Paraiyas have the right of entering the temple on three days in the year specially set apart for them; and that in the Tiruvarankulam Brahm6tsavam, it is a Paru.iya, described in an ancient copperplate ILS •• UJ,,’8&x<:IIJ,tD UMr&’>(!!J’-9- … <:j6JiJ&”.LJ m..”!-PII fIIIL-tiQj61r(iJu, UfIIIJ)f/J!U … , that has to break a. cocoanut before the car starts on the car-festival day. 15 114 PUDUKK6TTAJ .. E;TATE [CHAP, . are mo~tlyburnt. Caste disputes are Re~tled by the Periathanakkaran (the village headman) and the elders of the \’illage, from whose decisions appeals lie to the Pattaraikti.ran, a higher bfticer, who is required to be ot the Right-hand section • and then to tho U~qp.mCbetti •• of Vaittur, whose decision is nnal.The 80Jiya Paraiyans ar~ bbl. to be divided into seven Nadus, viZ.; 1. Ponllamara.vati . Nt\de 2. Maruugai Nadu (Marubgapuri); 3. Tala.ikka. Nadtt (Konnll7ur); 4. Kulisai Nadu (Iluppur); 5. lIttva. .Natut'(ManaPP{lr); 6. Konadu· (Tanjore); and- 1.. Thurnva Nadu (l’richinopoly). The Ammapparaiyans are so called because the childr~n of a woman of this division called her .ll/WUltr (Amma) and not Aya as Ayapparaiya children do, nor “‘~,ili1T (Atta) as other Paraiya children do. The rules regulating their conduct are similar to those of Soliya Paraiyans. Ther~ is a section of Paraiyans, known as Kutthadipparaiyans OF dancing Paraiyas. These have. Nadus assigned to them and the dancers of each tract confine themselves to it. Map..;y of the Paraiyans of the State follow the example of TirnvaUuvar, from whom they claim descent, and weave (coarse) cloths called ufi¥)jDlLJ6M 1fi1-(i). • In olden times there were two grand divisions of the people, known a.s Va.Ia.nga.i or the Right-hand section and the Jdangai or the Left-hand section. To the Right-hand section belonged I. The ldaiyars. 4. ,The Washermen. 2. The K6maUis. 5. The Ba.rbers. 3. The Odda.rs. 6. The Paraiyans. a.nd many other castes. The Pattamikkara.n and the D6sam’ Chetti mentioned in the text were men 01 the Right-hand division. It a.ppears. that these Righthand castes. collected 8ubser.iptlons and conducted the manda,gappacUs on the seventh day of the festivals of the temple at Viralima.1ai in the months of Tai (Janua.ry–February) and Vaikasi (May-June). (Mandagappadi is a ceremony in which the deity is taken in procession and Instal1ect temporarily in one or more mantapa.ms or pavillions where it is worshipped, ga.rbmde.d and so qn.) , •• The word D88am means country. He is usually the hea.dma.n who snay be said in a. manner to correspond to ~. unofticia.l Justice of the Peace. III] THE PEOpLE 115 The Pallan.-(24,921) These are employed almost exclusively. in the cultivation of paddy, and their women are experts in planting and weeding. They are divided into several endogamous sections, bearing names such as AyyappaHans, AmmappaHans, AppappaHans, UJ,avuppaHans, KadakappaHans, Kaladis, Devendra PaHans, etc. [See the Gazetteer Chapter below under Melattaniyam.] AppappaUans and AyyappaUans are so called, because the children in these sections call their fathers Appa and Ayya respectively. A similar reason is given for the name AmmappaHan. KadakappaHans . derive their name from the baskets (kadakams) that they make. U!avuppaHans are ploughmen. Kaladis are wanderers or ” people who leg it.” Many of them are supposed to be professional thieves. The Panars live, like the Paraiyars, in streets of their own, and a perpetual conflict about caste privileges goes on between these two castes, who belong respectively to the Left-hand’ and the Right-hand section. The whole of the State is divided into seyen Pall an-subdivisions or n{Ldus, viz.- 1. Vadasiruvasal Nadu (In and about Kiranur). 2. Tensiruvasal N adu (To the south of N adu No.1). 3. Kulamailgilya Nadu (In and ,about Semba,ttur). 4. Kavinadu (In and about ‘rirug6karI,lam). 5. Pal’augi Nadu (In and about VinLlimalai). 6. K6nadu (Other parts to the north of the Venar). 7. Kanadu (Parts to the south of the Venar). To arbitrate in disputes there is an Urkkudumban (‘ the village family man ‘), appeals against whose decisions are taken (first) to Nattukkudumban, the corresponding authority for the , nadu, and, if necessary afterwards, to Elunattukkudumban, the head man of all the seven nadus together, at Pudukk6ttai. ‘rhe 86liyappaUans are a subdivision of the Devendra section of the PaHans and are so called, because they came from the Ch6la country. ‘rhey are regarded by the other Pallans as inferiors. 116 PUDUKKOTTAI STATE [CHAr. The Idaiyars.-(25,251). rl’his name is derived from idai or ®O/»)L-rniddle, it being supposed that the Idaiyars originally lived with their cattle in the pasture lands between the hilly regions and the arable tracts. It appean; from ancient rramil classics that they came to Southern India long ago. They are mostly worshippers of Sri KrishJ).a and are thus VaishJ).avites. According to the local legend there were originally about H, thousand families of Saiva Idaiyars in and about rriruvarailgU!alll in Vallanadu, who claimed descent from TirumuQ.ikam}.a 1’irumalaikk6n: or ‘the shepherd named Tirumalai, that discovered the god’ that lay concealed at the place 1’iruvaraJ).gulam. [See the Gazetteer under Tiruvaranglllam]. The Vallanadu Idaiyars are said to be their descendants. rrhesc shepherds conduct the morning service at the Siva temple at 1’iruvaraJ).- gulam and celebrate a rnandagappad-i on a day of the grand annual festival there. The Idaiyans, to some extent, imitate Brahmin manners and cllstoms. Thus during marriages they wear the sacred thread and light the holy fire. They burn the dead and widows are not permitted to remarry in roost of the subdivisions. Vallanadu Idaiyars are the Idaiyars who live in and about rrirnvarangu!am. These are divided into a number of Karais, the members of a Karai have the same tutelary deity. They are said to be divided into eighteen sections, such as Karaikkal, Vall an,l,du , KaHar, Kokkikatti, S61iya, PeJ).Q.ukknmeikki and Aruttukkatti. KaHar Idaiyars are said to be so caJled from the founder of the division being supposed not to have been born in the usual way, but to have emerged from under the ribs of his mother. The widows of the Aruttukkatti Idaiyar caste lIlay lIlarry agHlill. In the POJ).Q.ukkumeikki caste, women inherit the property, and their husbands go and live in the houso of their lllothers-in-Ia,v. The Kokkikatti Idaiyans tie a kokki or hook to the mH,rriage t!”1li. rrhere are exogamous sections within most of these divisions, named [tfter pla.ces such as Kara.mbakkndi, Velliakk6npatti, Mohur in the Pattukk6ttai Ta.luk, etc. 1lI) THE PEOPLE 117 The Vellalars.-·(16,761), The name is said to be derived from vellam-flood, the VeHalars being literally “lords of the Hood.” “Vena!~\,fs” therefore means men skilled in controlling water for irrigation. They are generally admitted to occupy the highest rank l1lIlong the Non-Bnihmin castes. They are divided, it is said, into eighteen * endogamous sections, snch as T01).Q.aimaI.IQ.alalll VeHtl.!ars, Karktttta VeHtLlars, Soliya. VeHt\!ars, Koilgu VeHtilars and Pal.lQ.arams. TOl.lQ.aimal.lQ.alam VeHtL!arS, of \vhom thero are many in the Png.ukkottai town, are yegetarial~s. Kara!a VeHalars and tsoliya VeHa!a,rs eat flesb. Kil.rtl!n. VeH{\,!ars are divided into KanaHars and Konattars e:1Ch of which divisions has many exogamous subdivisions. Among Karala n.nd Soliya. VeHttlars re-marriage is not permitted and the dead are usually burnt. There is another class of Karala VeUalars, called SiruvasalDllttu VeHa!ars, living at Marndur, Alailgug.ippatti, Ka1).l,lailgug.i, Mailgattevanpatti, Naiyar, VeHanur and Kovil Virakkug.i. rrl18Y have no connection with the Kanag.u VeHtila,rs or the Konag.u VeUalars. Mr. Hemingway stntes that Soliya VeHalars are found all over Southern India and that they are generally regarded as of doubtful descent, since persons of lower castes, who wish to be considered VelHt!ars, usually claim to belong to this subdivision. rl’he Soliya VeHalars are divided into several exogamous G6tTarns or septs, such as Kadai gotram (or the quail sept), ” It is stated in the Trichinopoly Gazetteer that there are not less than twenty endoglLmous subdivisions of the Ve!!tl.!ars including the K1inia!ars, the Pal.l~l (puthumai-puthu=new). While quite young, children have their_heads f01]Ilally shaved and their ears bored. When a child is seven years old,. a further ceremony is performed at which twenty-seven lamps representing the twentyseyen stars are lighted on a plantain leaf, worshipped and . thrown a~?ay. This ceremony takes place in the month ~f Kai-tigai (November-December) for boys and is called Kartig9.ippudumai, and in the asterism of Tiruvatirai in the month of Margali (December-January) for girls, when it is called ‘I’iruvatiraippudumai. The NattukkoHai Chetti boys receive their u.padesa1!l- or initiation from their spiritual Gurus, of whom there are two, living at Padarakku~i and Kila,matam respectively. 120 PUDUKKOTTAI STATE [CHAP. The women of this caste receive their initiation from their spiritual preceptor at Tulavlu. ‘l;hey attach great importance to omens good and bad. When they leave their villages to go ~nd trade in distant places, they halt in a neighbouring village, sometimes for a month and more, until they see the wished-for good omen which they take to be a divine direction to start. , , , A1’iyul’ Chettis.-Ariyur Chegis seem to be ,a division of the N attukkottai Cheni caste. rfheir spiritual preceptor lives near ArantMlgi. There are two endogamous sections among them, the right hand section who are vegetarians and the left hand , , section who eat meat. Ariyur Chettis also live near Ponnamaravati. These have a spiritual preceptor of the l’a:Q.9.iya Na9.u outside the State for their men and a Saiva preceptor at Tirukkalambur for their women. They are divided into the following seven exogamous divisions or N aQ.us, called after villages in the State. 1. Ponnamaravati. 5. Kallampatti. 2. Sembuti. 6. Pudur. , 3. Alavayal. and 7. Varpet. 4. Ammankuricchi. , It is said that the Ariyur Chettis first settled in the neighbourhood of Pon.namaravati, that their God was the God of the temple at Piranmalai, that there was a VeUala ruler at Valarama:Q.ikkam named Nandan,’ that an Ariyur Chetti who bore the name of MaliChetti became his minister, that a section of these Chettis thereupon settled at Valarama:Q.ikkam and that the God (Si va) of the temple there then became their family God. Sundaram Chettis.-Possibly these are the same as the Sundarattan Chettis mentioned by Mr. rrhurston. They take their name, as already mentioned, from Sundarappatta~am or Sundaram near Ponnamaravati, where they are said to have first settled. According to tradition, the original forefathers of the , Ariyur Chettis, the Sundaram Chettis and the Nattukkottai , Ohettis were brothers. of whom the ancestor of the Ariyur III] THE PEOPLE 121 Chettis was the eldest and the ancestor of the Nattukkottai Chettis, the youngest. Vallanad Ohettis.-The women of this section are not permitted to cross to the southern side of the Vellei.r. There are a,bout eight hundred families or thalaikkattu8 in this section. rrhey probably migrated from Vallam to other places in order to carryon their profession as money lenders. There is a tradition tha,t they belonged to KaverippattaI).am, that they fled from there in a body and were pursued, for some unknown reason, that they sought the protection of the Kallal’S of Ambu Naq..u, who being una~le to give them all the help that they required, called in the Vallanaq.. Kallal’S and with their help repelled their pursuers. rro commemorate their indebtedness to them, they distributed their settlements in KalasamaI).galam (Pudukk6ttai) into nine divisions corresponding to the nine Kllppams of the Ambunattukallars; a,nd called themselves ” generally Valla,naq.. Ohettis.” There is another cla,ss of Vallanaq.. Chettis living at Kotta,- ma,ilgalam, Mailgci.du, Ma,nnavelanpatti and elsewhere who call themselves ‘Pillais ‘(§QJ::l~) or descendants of the Vallanaq.. Chettis proper, but do not consider the god at Tiruvarailgu!a,m ,LS their tutelitry god. These will take food in the houses of the Vallallaq.. Chettis proper, but the latter refuse to eat with them. The Vallam Ohettis.-According to Mr. Thurston, these a,re known in the Madura, District a,s Vallam or Tiruvappur Ohettis. It ma,y be conjectured that they originally came from Va,lla,m, settled for a while a,t 1’iruvappur, a, suburb of Pudukk6ttai Town, a,nd finally migrated to Madura. Like the Nattukkottai Chettis, they shave their heads clea,n, but unlike them they wear ear-rings. They are a,gricultllrists and petty traders and also go to Burma and other places as accountants and agents of Nattukk6ttai Chettis. The Vand(lk6ttai Ohettis a,re otherwise called Gadiakkara ClJettis from gadiyam, a herd of pack-bullQcks, the tradition ,,, 122 PUDUKK6TTAI STATE [CHAP. being that they used to carryon pack-bullocks the articles required for the Palace at Pudukkottai, before wheeled carts were common. Though they live near VallanaQ.u, .they are in no way related to the Vallanad Chettis. They are divided into two exogamous gotras or septs, called Nagaparipalaka gotra and Siva g6tra. Vellan Ghettis.-These are merchants who travel about buying and selling. rrhey say that they came originally from Alliturai in the Trichinopoly District. Their present homes are Mattur, Pudukkottai, Kolavaippatti and Vennavalkudi. Another section of VeIl an Chettis seems to have come from rranjore. These are subdivided into (1) the Terkattiars, or southern men, whose God is at Nodiyur near Vallam, and (2) Vadakkattiyars, or northern men, whose God is at Vaidisvarank6il in the rranjore District. A Saiva PaI;1daram near Vallam is their spiritual Guru. V iraltir Ohettis.-These are found in Viralur, Raj a! ippatti , RamakkavaI;1dapatti and eleven other villages. They are said to have once numbered one thousand families, and one of their rules required that they should live within sight of the Viralimalai temple. But owing to a dispute one-half of them left Viralimalai and settled near Ratnagiri in the Trichinopoly District. These are now called Ratnagiri Chettis. Brides of the Viralur Chetti class wear a cloth called ~ff16(1)lP LlJ!i;fj)lTB;Jn.6lSl/D, which will be described under Seniya Chettis. Viralur Chettis specially venerate and worship the God Subrahmania of Virali- , malai, Mariamman of Virahir and Niliamman of Unaiyur in the Maruligapuri Zemindari. Seniyan Gh:ettis.-These are found mostly at Seniyappatti in Kodumbalur vattam. They are said to have come from rrrichinopoly. Though not vegetarians, they will not eat mutton on account of a tradition that one of their ancesters was kept alive by sheep’s milk. They are Vaishanavas, but worshIp Markandeya, their family God, on the Sivaratri day in the month of M cisi, (February-March) when they smear their III] THE PEOPLE i23 bodies with vibhuti or holy ashes. They wear the sacred thread and have Brahmin priests. The ~rA<wj1f! wff;,fi}uij,,-lsoljv=”” cloths,=”” which=”” the=”” viralur=”” chetti=”” brides=”” are=”” bound=”” to=”” wear=”” at=”” their=”” weddings,=”” woven=”” by=”” these=”” seniyars.=”” red=”” cloths=”” of=”” somewhat=”” peculiar=”” texture,=”” measuring=”” 15=”” cubits=”” ‘2t=”” and=”” supposed=”” have=”” magical=”” powers.=”” namyanapumm=”” chetti~.-these=”” said=”” come=”” about=”” seventy=”” years=”” ago=”” from=”” n=”” t~rayaj).apuram=”” near=”” palni=”” hills=”” settled=”” kodumbalur.=”” they=”” no=”” connection=”” with=”” any=”” other=”” class=”” chettih.=”” kafukk<ira=”” ohettis.-these=”” found=”” perungalur,=”” icchiyaditthannirppandal,=”” pudukk6ttai=”” tiruvappur.=”” saivites.=”” divided=”” into=”” two=”” sections,=”” meat-eaters=”” vegetarians.=”” this=”” class,=”” it=”” is=”” that=”” following=”” four=”” sections=”” branched=”” off=”” :-(1)=”” vadamba=”” chettis,=”” (‘2)=”” 80liya=”” (3)=”” manchaputra=”” ohett’is=”” (4)=”” mulagurnari=”” chettis.=”” sacred=”” thread=”” like=”” brahmins.=”” senaitthalaivars.-rrhese=”” karambakkudi,=”” koppanpatti=”” some=”” places.=”” kammalans=”” 04,380).·–‘=”” kammalan’=”” a=”” general=”” name=”” given=”” five=”” classes=”” craftsmen,=”” goldsmiths,=”” carpenters,=”” sculptors=”” or=”” stone-masons,=”” blacksmiths=”” coppersmiths,=”” claiming=”” be=”” descended=”” respectively=”” manu,=”” maya,=”” silpa,=”” thvashtra=”” daivagna,=”” sons=”” visvakarma,=”” architect=”” gods.=”” hence=”” style=”” themselves=”” visvabrahmins.=”” mentioned=”” above=”” intermarry=”” take=”” food=”” together.=”” kammala=”” women,=”” unlike=”” those=”” many=”” non-brahmin=”” castes,=”” upper=”” portion=”” smartha=”” women.=”” ‘rhe=”” nattu=”” (a=”” kind=”” nose-screw)=”” distinctive=”” ornament.=”” kammalas=”” claim=”” in=”” way=”” inferior=”” brahmins,=”” marriages=”” closely=”” follow=”” brahmanical=”” ceremonial,=”” including=”” homa=”” (oblations=”” 111=”” fire).=”” adult=”” 124=”” pudukkottai=”” state=”” [chap.=”” kamnullas=”” widows=”” not=”” permitted=”” re-marry;=”” put=”” brahmin=”” widows,=”” may=”” jewellery=”” chew=”” betel.=”” saivites,=”” special=”” deities=”” pillaiyar,=”” k{unatchiamman=”” seven=”” kannimars.=”” each=”” has=”” an=”” elected=”” attamaikkaran=”” kuriasthan=”” settle=”” disputes.=”” over=”” them=”” all=”” anjuvfttu=”” n{lttamaikkaran,=”” lot=”” representatives=”” subdivisions.=”” houses,=”” betel=”” first,=”” because=”” explained=”” make=”” tools=”” for=”” kammalaris.=”” telugu=”” neither=”” tamil=”” nor=”” them.=”” mother=”” tongue=”” rrelugu=”” practices=”” resemble=”” udaiyana.-(nattamans=”” 12,408)=”” udaiyans=”” known=”” othe·rwise=”” as=”” attambadis=”” (lit.=”” villagers).=”” attamans=”” seem=”” only=”” subdivision=”” udaiyans,=”” though,=”” iii=”” census=”” reports=”” 1901=”” 1911,=”” treated=”” separate=”” castes.=”” report=”” gives=”” number=”” 855,=”” nattamans=”” 11,160,=”” while=”” 1911=”” 12,814,=”” does=”” mention=”” u=”” daiyans=”” separately.=”” observed=”” trichinopoly=”” gazetteer,=”” arid=”” identical,=”” malaiyamans=”” sudarmans,=”” areendogamous=”” subdivisions=”” one=”” same=”” caste.=”” exogamous=”” divisions=”” called=”” kanis.=”” threads=”” funerals;=”” very=”” industrious=”” agriculturists.=”” regular=”” caste=”” panchayats.=”” before=”” arranging=”” marriage,=”” bride’s=”” party=”” go=”” bridegroom’s=”” house=”” dine=”” him,=”” test=”” his=”” health=”” seeing=”” how=”” much=”” he=”” can=”” eat.=”” titles=”” udaiyan,=”” muppan=”” naynar.=”” manv=”” christians.=”” tn]=”” people=”” 125=”” ahambadiyana.-(1l,416)=”” word=”” ‘ahambadiyan’=”” corruption=”” ahamudaiyan,=”” means=”” “owner=”” house.”=”” according=”” own=”” traditions=”” descendants=”” illegitimate=”” early=”” setupati=”” hamnad.=”” therefore,=”” say,=”” ahamudaiyans=”” “=”” illen=”” full=”” pride”=”” o\ving=”” aristrocratic=”” birth.=”” usual=”” ahambadiyans=”” servaikaran,=”” pillai=”” tevan.=”” employ=”” purohits=”” marriages.=”” among=”” polygamy=”” lllay=”” rather=”” common.=”” :-=”” (1)=”” afijur=”” (five=”” villages)=”” ahambadiyaris.=”” (2)=”” kottaipparru=”” (attached=”” fort)=”” ahambadiyans,=”” who=”” also=”” tanjur=”” ahambadiyans.=”” rajakula=”” (palace)=”” afijukottai=”” fortresses)=”” (5)=”” kilasimai=”” (the=”” eastern=”” country)=”” (6)=”” kottaikkadu=”” (forest=”” surrounding=”” etc.=”” reside=”” villages=”” vaittur=”” muttampatty,=”” eraiyur,=”” vattanakuruchchi=”” meikkudippatti.=”” rrhey=”” ayy~mpet=”” tanjore=”” district=”” ancestor=”” pallavarayan=”” line=”” rulers=”” state,=”” named=”” first=”” village=”” vaittur,=”” after=”” original=”” home.=”” occasionally=”” pa1,ldaravadai=”” worship=”” tutelary=”” god,=”” virabhadran=”” ..=”” they’=”” several=”” septs,=”” vallataraiyan,=”” peyvetti,=”” peyadi,=”” vattacchi,=”” solagan=”” kasturi.=”” kahans=”” six=”” forming=”” kulamangilya=”” nadu=”” assemble=”” mariamman=”” kovil=”” tennangudi=”” disputes=”” dis.cuss=”” questions=”” common=”” importance.=”” kottaipparruahambadiyans=”” septs=”” such=”” peruchchati,=”” malukkan,=”” tanibiran=”” kundl’andan.=”” th~y=”” said,=”” 126=”” tirumayam=”” taluk=”” afterwards=”” spread=”” villages.=”” .among=”” headman=”” living=”” tanjur.=”” re-marry.=”” there=”” similar=”” division=”” endogamous=”” maravans.-(5,617)=”” mostly=”” southern=”” western=”” parts=”” state.=”” account=”” says=”” maravars=”” originally=”” lived=”” the.=”” rajendramailgala=”” nadu.=”” (in=”” modern=”” ramnad=”” zamindari)=”” once=”” when=”” ruler=”” land=”” wanted=”” marry=”” marava=”” girl=”” contrary=”” .custom=”” maravas=”” fled=”” what=”” now=”” forms=”” pierce=”” large=”” holes=”” lobes=”” ears.=”” marriage=”” young=”” women=”” mere=”” boys.=”” worship,=”” under=”” pattavars,=”” men=”” fell=”” battle=”” fighting=”” bravely.=”” valk6ttai=”” ko~daiyan=”” k6ttais.=”” belong=”” former=”” section.=”” 18=”” kilais=”” branches,=”” we=”” pichchar=”” pichchai=”” kilai,=”” marakkal=”” v=”” iran=”” tondaiman=”” kilai.=”” most=”” branches.=”” eighteen=”” referred=”” were=”” doubt=”” exogamous,=”” but=”” practice=”” deity,=”” whatever=”” branches=”” belong,=”” form=”” community.=”” law-abiding=”” peaceful=”” cultivators,=”” madura,=”” tinnevelly.=”” ordinary=”” title=”” .=”” tavan.=”” 8alijas.-(6,764)-in=”” r:l’amil=”” districts=”” balijas=”” usually=”” vadugans=”” (=”the” northern=”” people)=”” kavarais.=”” trace=”” descent=”” nayak=”” kings=”” madura=”” tanjore.=”” admitted=”” others,=”” consider=”” mixed=”” community=”” iii]=”” 1~7=”” recruited=”” rapus=”” reddis,=”” rammas,=”” velamas=”” telugucastes.=”” fact=”” seems=”” th~t=”” followed=”” vijayanagar=”” armies=”” south=”” governors=”” ‘were=”” leaders=”” established=”” madura.=”” been=”” soldiers=”” profession;=”” agriculturists=”” traders.=”” reddis=”” say=”” could=”” easily=”” enumerate=”” varieties=”” rice,=”” cannot=”” give=”” names=”” split=”” up.=”” gazula=”” bangle-makers=”” balijas;.=”” balijasbear=”” nayak.=”” j=”” anappans=”” saluppans,=”” telugus;=”” described=”” hawkers=”” cultivators.*=”” kusavans=”” (potten=”” )-(4,970).=”” orign=”” salivahana,=”” famous=”” mythological=”” potter-king.=”” a~’e=”” three=”” territorial=”” sections-the=”” chara=”” rusavans,=”” ch6la=”” rusavans=”” pandya=”” kusavans,=”” ‘also=”” t=”” nadus,=”” arttamalai=”” nadu,=”” kadavangudi=”” neighbourhood=”” vitalimalai)=”” rrrichinopoly=”” imitate=”” customs=”” manners=”” thread,=”” perform=”” h6mas,=”” priests=”” condemn=”” post-puberty=”” re-marriage=”” widows.=”” velan.=”” purposes=”” arbitration=”” ealled=”” ranadu,=”” r6nadu,=”” siruvasal=”” (see=”” rahars)=”” kavill!1du.=”” kurumbars.-(5,3t14).=”” reputed=”” earliest=”” settlers=”” country.=”” supp<‘sed=”” ‘:’=”” another=”” jetties.=”” mallaka=”” chetties=”” set=”” professional=”” wrestlers=”” gymnasts.=”” holy=”” do=”” condescend=”” degrading=”” work.=”” solavaguppu=”” palanimangala=”” mudikattu=”” area=”” viralimalai=”” reported=”” divided,=”” itlt<;=””> nadus, but into ten. lirs (villages.) 128 PUDUKKOTTAI STATE rCHAP. to be the representatives of the ancient Pallavas, once so powerful in Southern India, and if so, must have gradually drifted from To:r;tdama:r;tdalam which they once occupied, or come to Pudukkottai direct over the Palni hills from the Rumba country in the Canarese land, which is supposed to have been * their original home. rrhere is no doubt that the Kurumba language, is a corruption of Oanarese t. The Kururnbars are a pastoral people who own large flocks of shE;lep and weave , cumblis (blankets) and are found in Sellnkudi, Aranippatti and Mangudi. They are divided into several exogamous sections called VaguppttS or groups of villages. Over every such group of villages there isa headman who is both priest and judge, and presides over the Vaguppu’s tribal meetings. The patron deity of the Kurumbars is Vfralakshmi, to whose temple at Sellukudi Inam lands were granted by the Tondaiman ruler known as Bhoja Raja. They style themselves GavUJ).dans and Nayakans. The· Ambattans (Barbers) (5,052). These are divided into’ seven endogamous sections, namely, Vaduga Ambattans, Kalla Ambattans, etc. A Brahmin pu,r6hit officiates at their ma.rriages, and most of them discourage the re-marriage of widows. They have four endogamous nadus, each with its periatana7clairan (headman), who has control over a number of heads of families. rrhe Ambattans are both Saivites or Vaishnavites. In the Vaishnavite section, those that have been branded by their Brahmin guru with the Chank (conch) and Chakra (discus) abstain from meat and drink. Saivite and Vaishnavite barbers intermarry. They may not shave PaHans or Paraiyans. Ambattans are generally known as Pariyaris (=pariharis or curenl), because Ambattan women are the village midwives and Ambattan men the village surgeons. :;, Coorg, Nilgiris, \Vynad and other places. There is a portion of Malabar which is now known as J(tlTUmbanad. + Another Canarese-speaking class in the State is known as the Kannadiyans. They are diligent and enterprising traders and are Lingayats. IIIJ ‘l’HE PEOPLF 129 The Vannans (Washermen) (4,309).-These occupy a low social status among the non-Brahmin castes. Among them when a girl attains puberty she is taken, as in many other eastes, to a hut specially built fOl: her at some distance from her honse, \vhere she is required to live for fifteen days. On the sixteenth day she leaves the hut and returns to the house, but ha,s to stlty for fifteen days more in a corner of the verandah. It is only on the thirty-first day that she is permitted to re-enter the house. Divorces are easily obtained in this caste as in several others, and divorced persons are permitted to re-marry. For the lower classes of Sudras there are separate washermen, called Podara Vannan. The Andis.-This name is applied generally to a class of non-Brahmin beggars recruited from all classes of Sudras. But all .Andis are not beggars; for example, Plikkara .Andis / / / make garlands of flowers, and U r Andis are Andis settled in / villages as agriculturists or accountants. The Andis that beg are called K6vanandis, as they are supposed to possess nothing except the loin-cloths (C8IMT6lJ=W) that thoy wear. The J-,inga,clhcl,ri Andis will be described later under Pandarams. The Muttiriyans.-(8,OOl) These are otherwise known as Ambnlakarans. As has been observed by Mr. Thurston, there seems to be some connection between Ambalakarans, M uttiriyans, U ralis, Vedans, Valaiyans and Vettuvans. But its exact nature remains to be ascertained. They observe the same customs and manners as the Ahambadiyans. rfhe names Ambalakdran and .1I1utracha or .J.l11.darasan may indicate that they once el!-joyed a higher status than they do now. There is no evidence, however, to connect them with the Muttiriyan noblemen of whom we find mention in inscriptions of the Pallava period. ‘}’he special god of Muttiriyans is said to be Karuppannaswami of the Kollimala,i hills in the Salem district. rrheir usual titles are Muttiriyan, Ambalakaran, Servaikaran and Kavalkaran. 17 130 PUDUKKOTTAI STATE [CHAP. The Pandarams. *-The name Pandaram IS used both as the name of a caste and as that of a class of mendicants recruited from the Sai vi te S(ldras, \Y ho profess extreme piety and wander about begging. The Pandarams proper are usually landholders and priests of many non-Brahmin classes. Mr. Francis, in the Census Report of 1901, says that the Pandarams are really superior to , the Andis since they are usually Vellalas by c~ste, ‘\-vhile the , Andis are recruited from all classes of Sudras. I-.Jingadhari Pandarams, amongst whom those that speak rrelllgu are known as J an gam Andis, wear the figure of the lingam suspended from the neck in a metal box. But these Lingayat Pandarams differ in many respects from the Lingayats proper. The Shanans (Toddy drawers).-(2,439). t They have hitherto been held to occupy a low position among the nonBrahmins, though they claim to be Kshatriyas and trace their descent from the Pandya kings. They call Bhadrakali their mother or foster-mother, and say that she taught them their usual occupation of toddy-drawing. The Uppiliyans.-(1,452). These derive their name from their traditional occupation, the manufacture of salt and saltpetre. Tbey are said to be also called Karpurachettis from selling camphor as well aR saltpetre. ‘J.1hey are considered , superior only to the Valaiyans, the U ralis and the Pallis. Their usual title is Nayakan. The manufacture of earth-salt ceased on the passing of the Pudukkottai Earth-salt suppression Regulation in 1888; and they are now engaged in cooly-work especially earth-work. It is said that an Uppiliyan has to remain unshaved all his life if he cannot get a virgin for his wife. The Kuravans.-(1,562). They are divided into five endoga,mous sections, namely, 1. The Uppukkuravans, who … In the census of 1931, Andis, Dasaries, and Pandarams have been grouped together. Their number is 5,487. r Many Shanans now prefer to be cal1~d N adat·s, III] THE PEOPLE 131 once made salt (uppu) but are now petty traders m cattle, dried fruit, etc. ;lasket-weaving and the rearing of pigs, are prohibited among tbe on pain of ex-communication. 2. T e basket-weaving Kuravans. It is supposed that these were the original Kurayans, and that the other sections of the Kuravans were later recruits to the caste. They will eat alrp.ost anything including cats. 3. The N arikkuravans are Kuravans who eat jackals as their name implies (Nari=jackal). They sell needles. 4. ‘rhe Panrikkuravans breed and sell pigs (panri) and are employed as scavengers. 5. The Dombas are acrobats. All of these, except the Panrikkuravans are nomadic. The vernacular of the Kuravans is Telugu. The Chakkiliyans (Cobblers}.-(1,024). These are divided into four endogamous sections named Reddi Chakkiliyans, Anupa Chakkiliyans, Mora Chakkiliyans and ‘rottiya Chakkiliyans. Of these, the vernacular of the first three seems to be ‘relugu, and that of the last class Tamil. ‘rhey are of very low social status. _’rhe Paraiyans and the Pallans take food with them. The ordinary washerman will not wash for ·them. Their clothes are washed by a.special class of Vannans known as Podara washerman. Their marriages are arranged for them by their Nattanmaikkarar (headmen). The Patnulkarans.-· * (1,210). These are silk-weavers said to have come from Soun1shtra or Gujarat. The Kaik61ans and the Saliyans were the indigenous Tamil weavers. attakkuttar, the well-known poet, is said to have been a Kaik6lan. The Nayak rulers of Madura are said to have imported the Patnulkarans from the north, being dissatisfied with the cloth woven by the ‘l’amil weav~rs. The Patnulkarans of the State are found chiefiy at ‘l’iruvappur, a suburb of the town of Pudukk6ttai. They are noted for their skill. Their usual title is (}hetti. They do not generally claim, like their fellow • Souro,shtras. 13~ PUDUKKOTTAI STATE [CHAP. caste-men III some other places, to be styled Sourashtra Brahmins, or like them take the Brahmin titles of Aiyar, A’iyangar and Bhagavatar. The Patnulkarans are mostly Vaishnavites and speak Patnuli, a dialect of Gujarati. The Razus.-( 1,644) r:rhe Madras Census Report for J 901 says of them.-” The Razus are, perhaps, descendants of the military section of the Kapu, Kamma and Velama castes thaL followed the Vijayanagar Governors. At their weddings, the Razus worship a sword, which is a ceremony that usually denotes a soldier caste …. But they eat fowls which a strict Kshatriya would not do, and their claims are not usually admitted by other Hindus. They have three endogamous subdivisions, M urikinadu, N andimandalam and Suryavamsam of which the first two are territorial.” They weal’ the sacred thread, and their marriage and other cnstoms are like those of Brahmins. r:rhe women of well-to-do Razu families observe gosha. Kandy Raja15.-These are the descendants of the relatives of the last King of Kandy, who were sent to Pudukkottai as State prisoners in 1816, after the deposition of the king in 1815. rrhe last King of Kandy was closel’y related to the N ayaks of. Karukappulampatti in the rrirumayam rraluk, and all Nayaks related to him are called generally Kandy Rajas. r:rhe Kandy Rajas are found in Pulampatti, Vellaikkurichchi, the town of Pudukkottai and some other places. rfhe women of this caste wear toe-rings of gold which are considered an emblem of noble birth. The caste is divided into a number of exogamous sections. Widow-marriage is not permitted, and unchaste women are expelled from the caste. Lala Kshatriyas.-rfhe Lalas call themselves Kshatriyas and claim to be descended from some Rajputs of Jaipur, who halted in the State when on a pilgrimage to Rameswaram, and were persuaded to remain here to assist the ruler of the State in extending his dominion and consolidating his conquests. They seem to have helped the Raja in his wars with the Palayakar of Marungapuri, and to have been granted service-tenure III] THE PEOPLE 133 lands near the western border. Formerly whenever the Raja went out, they used to escort him on horseback, and, at Darbars, they sat on his right in their military uniform. Theil’ manners and customs resemble those of the Brahmins. The Oddas.-(1,172). These are a Telugu people who are supposed to have come south in the time of the N ayak kings of Madura and Tanjore 3,nd are now employed as scavengers and on earthwork such as digging or repairing tank and channels. They are a hard-working class. The Pallis.-In the Trichinopoly Gazetteer it is stated that, since the word Palli is also used to denote a Palla woman, the Pallis prefer to call themselves Vannians (or Kshatriyans of the Vahni or fire-race) and that they elaim to be superior to the Brahmins and have taken to wearing a sacred thread on all occasions. The Pallis seem however to be a low agricultural caste, while the Vanniyans are connected with the Visanginattu Kallal’S with whom they intermarry. One section of the Vanniyans are called Pandarattar Vanniyans and another K6ttayapuram Vanniyans. The Tottiyans.-These are mostly found in the neighbourhood of Viralimalai. Some Zamindars of the Madura District belong to this caste. Tottiyans speak Telugu and no doubt came in the wake of the Vijayanagar armies po Madura. They are divided into nine endogamous divisions. rro settle their castedisputes they have a Periyatanakaran or headman who conducts inquiries sitting on a blanket or kambli, hence perhaps the Tottiyans are called Kambalattans. Their spiritual preceptor lives at Conjeevaram; and many caste disputes are referred to him during his tours for decision. Tottiyans use the title N ayakan and their village headman Ur N ayakan. The Tottians do not admit the superiority of the Brahmins and do not worship the usual Hindu gods. Their caste deities are Jakkamma and Bommakka, supposed to be the spirits of two of their women who committed sati long ago. Many of the Tottiyans are believed to be adepts in the black art, and able to control evil 134 PUDUKKOTTAI STATE [CARP. spirits. Among the Tottiyans young boys are married to grown-up women. * There is a section of the rrottiyans known as Kittt’u (jungle) Tottiyans with whom the other r:rottiyans have no connection. These are said to have contracted an alliaIice with it Muhammadan family and to have been served with beef by them. Thereupon, they fled into the jungles-hence their name. The Vallambanll.-rrhe Vallainbans are ‘found in this Presidency mostly in the Madura district and the Pudukk6ttai State. They call themselves Vallam totta Vellalas or the VeHala$ who were driven out of Vallam, a village near Tanjore. They are found in the south-east portion of the State, and are divided into two t territorial subdivisions, namely, Palaiyanadu Vallambans and Kilmidu or Kilanilai nadu Vallambans. The Vallambans are themselves devil-worshippers and call festivals III the temples of Siva and Vishnu peyattam (or devils’ dances.) The Uralis.-(9,378): The Dralis are practically confined to the Trichinopoly and Madura districts and Pudukk6ttai State .. They claim to be Kshatriyas who originally migrated from Ay6dhya (Qudh). The story is that the forefathers of , the Uralis had illicit intimacy with servant girls, quarrelled on this account with their wives and other relatives, came to South India bringing their mistresses in seven palanquins, and married these mistresses and thus became the progenitors of the oeven , endogamous sections of the U rali people dwelling in seven areas, namely (1) Vadaseri N adu, (Ratnagiri in the Trichinopoly district); (2) Pillur Nadu; (3) Malaiyaman Nadu called Sengudi Nadu in the TrichilOpoly Gazetteer; (4) Kaduvankudi Nadu “”” A parallel is to be found in Russia where, not very . long ago, grown up women were to be seen carrying about boys of six to whom they were betrothed” -Quoted by Mr. Thurston from “Marriage Customs in Many Lands.” + In the Trichinopoly Gazetteer it is stated that there are three other subdivisions, namely the Mel nadu (or Jayankonda nadu) , Chengi nadu and Amaravati nadu. 1111 THE PEOPLE 135 , (Viraiimalai); (.5) TalaikkaNadu (Unaiyur lU the Maruilgapuri Zamindari); (6) Paluvanji Nadu and (7) Maruilgai Nadu, (Marungapuri).· rrhe first three of these are called Vadaseri U ralis and the last four N attuseemai U raiis. rl’he word Ura1i means territorial lord, and they ca~l themselves Muttu Rajas disputing the right of the Ambalakarans to this title. Their ordinary title is Gavundan. They claim to be superior to other non-Brahmin castes, and it is said that they will take food with members of no other caste but will accept food from the Velhihi.s, but will not eat it along with them. The Karumburattans.-(6,629}. The’Karumburattans are found only in the Madura, district and the Pudukk6ttai State. They rank fairly high among Sudnls for they will not take food, . , for example, with the Valaiyans,.Kammalans, Uralis; or Melagars. rThey are divided into five endogamous sections, corresponding to the following districts :- Vadas~ripatti N adu, near the Pudukk6ttai town, Kiliyur Nadu, in Kolattur taluk, Perunkudippatti Nadu in Kolattur taluk, NilaYAppatti Nadu, in Tirumayam taluk and Palaiyur Nadu in Alangudi taluk. They are found mainly in the southe~n parts of the Tirumayam taluk and are employed in various capacities by the N attukk6ttaiChettis. The Melakarans.-(3,060) These have a high opinion of their own social status,claiming to be KaHans, Ahambadiyan& and so on, and stati:og’ that their profession is merely an accident. They are divided into two classes, (1) the pipers . proper and others forming the periyamelam-(band composed of clarionet or nagasaram, pipe, drum, and cymbals) and (2) the Nattuvans to whose nautch-music, (the chinnamelam), the Deva Dasis dance. The Dasis, the women of the Melakarar caste, are professional dancing girls. The rules of the caste require that married women should not wear bodices 01′ petticoats or wear Kammals (ear-rings set with gems). 136 PUDUKK6TTAI STATE [CHAP. The Sattans.-The correct name of this caste is said to be Sattadavar*. They are non-Brahmin Vaishnavas who do not wear the holy thread like the Brahmin Vaishnavas. r:rheir ordinary titles are Aiyar and Alwar. Most of th~ Sattans of the State are attached to the Vishnu tempJe at Tirumayam. They perform such minor offices in the temple as making garlands of flowers for the gods and lighting and feeding the sacred lamps. They follow· the customs and practices of the Tenkalai Vaishnavas. The Tadans (Dasaris).-Theyare Vaishnava beggars whose vernacular is Telugu. The wordst Tridan and Drisari literally mean servants or slaves; and the story goes that a rich Ohetti, who had been for a long time childless, made a vow that, if he should have a son, he would devote him to the service of his God Vishnu, that he \vas subsequently blessed with many sons and that he dedicated one of them to the God. These beggars carry conch-shells which they blow to attract attention and gongs which they strike as they go on their rounds. The Occhans.-These are found mostly in the western parts of the Tirumayam taluk. They were, formerly temple mUSICIans. But they are at present pujaris in Pidari and other Amman temples. Their insignia are the U dukkai or hour-glassshaped drum, and the silambu, or hollow brass ring filled with bits of brass, which rattle when it is shaken. ‘fhe renowned Tamil epic poet Kamban is traditionally believed to have belonged to the Occhan caste. In their puberty, marriage and death , ceremonies, the Occhans closely follow .the Pallis or Vanniyans. ‘” Sdtdni is the shortened from of Sattadavan, the uncovered man. ” They are prohibited from covering three different parts of their bodies, viz, the head with the usual tuft of hair, the body with the sacred thread, and the waist with the customary strip of cloth” (Mr. C. Hayavadana Rao quoted by Thurston). They behave like the Vaislmava Brahmins. Thurston calls them Sdtdnis. +Ddsan and Trlda.n (which is the Tamil form of D(~san), have the sense of serva.nt or slave. III] THE PEOPIJE 137 ‘rho Occhans have their caste organisation, and in all places where they live, they are under the contrel of the head man (Periyathanalmran ). The lIamagans.-(634) rriwse are a caste of cultivators. rrhey are confined to the districts of Madura and rrrichinopoly and to the Rlldukk6ttai State. Many Ilamaga~ women. have boy husbands, who have a nnmber of childr~Il fathered upon them while they are still young. The Senaikkudaiyans.-These are aomestic servants and petty traders and cultivators. Their usual title is Pillai. They seem to be different from the Sen’aikkudaiyans of British India ,\’ho are described by Mr. Thurston as Ilai Vaniyans or betel-vine cultivators. The Vaniyans.-(1,535). rrhese extract oil from gingelly, ground-nut and other seeds. rrhey, are divided into two classes, Orrai Chekkcins or Vanians using single bullocks, and Irattai Chekkdns or Vanians using tw’o bullocks to work their mills. They are said to be divided into 1,001 exogamous septs. r1’heir usnal title is Ohetty. rrhey follow the customs of the Brahmins. The Sembadavans.-The Sembadavans make nets and fish in tanks. 8embadavan is derived from 8em=good and badalXln= boatman. They sometimes call themselves Gulla Velldlas, (after. f)uha, the boatman who rowed Rama, I..Jakshmana and Sita across the Ganges on their way to the Southern forest). The Pillafperans:-These are not recognised as a separate caste by Mr. Thurston, or in any of the Census Reports. They are a caste like the Vallambars to whom they claim to be superior. They are vegetarians, while the Val1ambal1s are meat-eaters, and they therefore will not take food with the ValiambH,ns. It is sard that there are about fifty families of this caste in the State. They say that they came to the State more tha~1 a centl.lry ago from Mallai (or Ma’lul,balipuram) by way of Mailai (Mn.ihip{ll’), Conj.eevaram and Arantal1gi. CHAPTER IV. AGRICUL TURE. Introdu.f_tory:-Agriculture forms not· only the chief industry in th~ State, but also the mainstay of a large number of its inhabitants. Out of a total population of 4,00,694 the number. of el,rners and working dependents, as returned in the Census of 1931, was 258,435 of whom 131,433 followed agriculture or pasture as their occupation. ‘rhe following table shows the extent of lands of every description in the State in Fasli 1344 (1934-· 35). Total area of the State Deduct.- Game preserves … Porambokes and unclassifi@d lands Assessed wastes Occupiedlands .. – Inam Ayan .’ .. Acres. 32,239 … 2,11,796 41,707 Acres. 7,54,291 —-.- 2,85,742 … 1,37,570 … 3,30,979 — 4t68,549 The area under cultivation in Fasli 1344, was 4,58,578 acres; 3,’28,974 acres were held under ryotwari tenure, and 1,27,598 acres under inalll tenure, while 2,006 acres were assessed or unassessed lands occupied without patta. All the Porambokes and assessed wastes to the extent of 2,53,503 ~cres were open to the free grazing of cattle. t Alangudi, by virtue of its fine loamy soil, is better suited for agriculture than ‘l’irumayam or Kolattur where the soil 1S largely rocky Or gravelly and irrigaticm is less adequate. Classification of lands:-Besides the two classes of agri13ultural lands, wet and dry, there is -a third class called achukaitu. “la1ids \vhich though not recognise\:l· at the Revenue $ettlep:lent is considered by. the l”yots as 3: separate class, AGRICULTURE 139 rrhe achukattu lands are the same as the rnanavari or rain..:fed lands of the Madras Presideney. Before the Revenue Settlement of 1910, only those lands that had a recognised source of irrigation, such as a tank or channel ,vere classed under’ wet. ‘1’he achukattll. lands, having no such source of irrigation, were some of them fit for wet cultivation owing to wa~~r percolating from tanks or other fields on a higher level .or to the rain water being retained in the fields by the high banks. IThe former class of achukattu were settled in 1910 as inferior “et lands, and the latter as dry. There were before 1910, 11,875 aeres of achukattn lauds of which 9,834 acres were classified as inferior wet lands and 2,041 as dry lands. Good wet lands are found in the ayaeuts of the best tanks, and the best dry around Karambakkudi and Vin1limalai. But even the best of the wet fields must be considered inferior to those in the Cauvery delta, owing to the absenee of perennial streams anq ‘~f the alluvial silt that they deposit. ! Soils:-‘rhe main types of ·soils found in the State are the red (Bevval) and the black (l(arisal) soils. ‘rhe former preponderate largely over the latter. These soils are sub-divided and named in different ways in different parts of the State. There is a rieh chocolate loam called paduga’i in the ayacuts of Kavinad, Vallanad and other large tanks enriched by tank-silt and green manure but decidedly inferior to the silt-fertilised. alluvium of the Cauvery delta. KaTisal is black loam; its value is’ considerably 19wered when it is mixed with clay. The red variety of soil ]s lIlet with everywhere and is called sevval when loamy, nWllal when sandy, and saral when gravelly. In parts of ‘1’irumayam and Kolattur ‘1’aluks, a saline soil known as Kalar occurs which is ill-suited to cultivation. r1’his salinity or alkalinity is due to the presence of the soluble carbonates of Sodium and Potassium which ean be removed as follows:- (1) by growing green manure crops such as sunn-hemp or daincha anaploughing them in, (2) by applying silt and ploughing it in, an bv QTowin~t crans such as Ra£’i and Tobacco which thrive • .’ 14u PUDUKKOTTAI STATE [CSAP. well on such soil and in course of time remove the, injurious salts, and (4) lastly by impmving the drainage of the ifields. These soils are, however, rarely cultivated. Cultivation:-The methods of agriculture practised in the State generally ,resemble those obtaining in the’ adjoining districts-subject n’o doubt to minor variations depending on’ local condition~. As elsewhere,there are three sorts’ of cultivation, viz., wet, dry and garden’, The ,principal crops under each head akWet. Dry. Garden, Paddy. Varagu. Maize. Plantains. Ragi Chillies. Sugarcane. Cholam. Flower-plants. Yams and Turmeric. Cumbu. Tobacco. Betel vines. Groundnut. Tomatoes. Ragi. Gra.ms. Radish and other Ging1ly. root crops. Cotton. Vegetables. Plantains. Fruit trees. In the summer, cucumber, gourds, ragi, plantains and gingelly are grown on wet lands. The principal wet crop is paddy, and the principal dry crops Varagu, Ground-nut and Ragi. The K6dai vellarnai, or summer cultivation, commenCes in Masi (February-March) and ends in Adi (July-August). The Kala, vellamai, wh~ch is more extensive, begins under norm~l conditions in Adi” and extends over four to sif( months. When conditions are unfavourable, wet lands are sometimes used for dry crops, or paddy is raised with well-water alone; or again two short-term varieties of paddy are ,grown instead of one long-term variety; or Kala}}1; cultivation is begun late, and extended into K6da~:; or, if the worst comes to the worst, the K6dai operations are abandoned altogether. Broadcast sowing:-Paddy is sometin:;tes sown broaacast and sometimes raised in seed beds and subsequently transplanted. 1, IV] AGRICULTURE 141 r:rhe form~r method is adopted if water is scarce, the latter if it is plentiful. Superior paddy is, with rare exceptions, always transplanted, but inferior varieties are sown broadcast, especially the hardier varieties known as KUT’li/vai (A. D. T. 3) which are able to resist drought. Double-crops:–Double-crop cultivation which presupposes an excellent soil and an unfailing supply of water is the exception rather than the rule in the State, and is only found to any extent under the larger tanks such as Kavinad, Vallanad and N eerpa!ani. Only 20 per cent of the lands under first and second class irrigation sources, and 7t per cent under third class sources are officially stated to be under a double-crop in normal years. Paddy:-The superior varieties of paddy are Ga1″udam samba, Nello’fe samba, (A. D· T. 5) Kichili samba (G. E. B. 24) Sadai samba (Co. 6) Pattanan~ samba, KaTthigai 8amba, Thotta samba, Vella1~ samba, Pallaya samba, Kaivirai samba, Sel’umanian and the A. D. ‘r. 2 variety. Inferior varieties are Kuliaclichan, ATian, Samppili, PoonkaT, Arllvathanku1’llVai, Ku,1″uvai (A; D. T. 3) [1nd Karunkll’nwai. Kichili samba (G. E. B. 24) is becoming very popular with the ryots. It has slender stems which are strong and not liable to be laid fiat by rain and wind. It is hardy and resists drought . and pests. Under ordinary conditions it yields 4~ . Kalams per acre and is of 41- months duration. Nellore smnoa (A. E. B. 65) is shorter in duration than the local variety by about 15 days and its rice is also superior to the local variety. The short duration or KU’f”l.wa’i paddy (A. D. ‘1\ 3) is in external appearance like the NeZZrwe samba and matures in 90 days. ‘rhe rice is white. The varieties recently introduced or tried are Co. 1 to 9 and A. D. ‘r: 5 and 8; the strains Co. Ito 9 are resistant to the piricula1’ia disease. 142 PUDUKKOTTAI STATE [CHAP. r:rhe sambas are long duration paddies, i:naturing in from five to seven months and -requiring constant irrigation. The lea/fs, 01’ short-duration varieties, mature in from two~ to four months. The grain of the former, being less coarse, and easier of digestion is consumed by the upper classes, while the latter which are eheaper arei eaten by the poor. rfhe names of the grains in several cas~s describe their shape, siJ!<e, etc.=”” thus=”” garudan=”” samba=”” has=”” red=”” and=”” white=”” streaks,=”” like=”” those=”” on=”” the=”” body=”” of=”” or=”” kite.=”” sirumanian=”” (siru=”small,” mani-=”gl’ain)” is=”” small=”” round.=”” aruvathan=”” kuruvai=”” matures=”” in=”” 60=”” days=”” (aruvathu=”60).” among=”” ka1’s,=”” arian=”” deserves=”” special=”” mention.=”” it=”” can=”” stand=”” any=”” amount=”” water;=”” its=”” seedlingg=”” thrive=”” even=”” when=”” completely=”” submerged.=”” how=”” produced:-the=”” kala=”” cultivation=”” paddy=”” begins=”” july=”” august,=”” .18=”” soon=”” as=”” south-west=”” monsoon=”” current=”” brought=”” sufficient=”” rain,=”” •=”” rfhe=”” first=”” stage=”” operations=”” preparation=”” nathangal=”” nursery.=”” either=”” pnluthi=”” kal=”” tlwli=”” kal,=”” dry=”” wet.=”” puluthi=”” kdl=”” prepared=”” by=”” ploughing=”” nursery=”” so=”” to=”” reduce=”” soil=”” fine=”” dust=”” (puluth’l)=”” .=”” resorted=”” for=”” crops,=”” which=”” be=”” begun=”” very=”” early,=”” before=”” reglilar=”” rains=”” lutve=”” set=”” in.=”” .nurseries=”” do=”” not=”” require=”” much=”” watering.=”” rrheir=”” seedlings=”” resist=”” drought=”” well=”” that=”” they=”” may=”” safely=”” left=”” their=”” beds=”” a=”” couple=”” months=”” should=”” transplantation=”” delayed=”” lack=”” rain.=”” ordinarily,=”” are=”” :tit=”” removal=”” after=”” month=”” so.=”” tholi=”” wet=”” corresponds=”” seru=”” nath(£ngal=”” delta,=”” reploughing=”” selected=”” plot=”” at=”” shol’t=”” intervals,=”” while=”” submerged=”” under=”” inches=”” water.=”” manured=”” green=”” leaves=”” into=”” it,=”” until=”” bed=”” becomes=”” soft=”” pulpy=”” mass.··=”” then=”” levelled=”” drawing=”” wooden=”” board=”” llleasuring=”” about=”” 8=”” ft.=”” 2=”” over=”” it.=”” [fhis=”” operation=”” known=”” parambadithal=”” performed=”” yoking=”” pair=”” oxen=”” iv]=”” agriculture=”” 143=”” bo[l,fd=”” a,nel=”” driving=”” them=”” driver=”” stands=”” bo:1.l’d=”” applying=”” hir=”” weight=”” level=”” rurfaeo=”” llu1’f;ei’y.=”” \vet=”” nurseries=”” plentiful=”” rain=”” fi=”” iled=”” tanks.=”” ‘rhe=”” seed=”” sown=”” varal=”” virai=”” (dry=”” seed)=”” sa,)’a=”” ‘acha=”” (soaked=”” seed).=”” ‘1’he=”” soaked=”” allowed=”” rtflucl=”” ,vater=”” twenty-foul’=”” hours,=”” covered=”” with=”” stmw=”” flnd=”” gunny=”” rags=”” strained=”” through=”” wicker=”” baskets.=”” ‘this=”” process=”” brings=”” partial=”” germination=”” seeds,=”” tho=”” tiny=”” sprouts=”” make=”” tht~il’=”” appearance=”” being=”” knowll=”” ryot=”” kombu=”” parl=”” vam=”” ormula1’,=”” lato=”” thero=”” no=”” time=”” lost.=”” prep~trcd,=”” though=”” ready=”” three=”” foul’=”” weeks,=”” able=”” excessive=”” submersion.=”” socd=”” thick=”” nursery,=”” a,t=”” rate=”” 40=”” 50=”” j\[a,dms=”” meflsul’es=”” h,=”” na,dugfli=”” (16~=”” cents=”” a,bont=”” t=”” acre).=”” one=”” naduga,i=”” yields=”” plant=”” an=”” ~\’cre.=”” vvhen=”” thy=”” used,=”” kept=”” submerged;=”” if=”” used=”” dminecl;=”” otherwise=”” will=”” rot.=”” simple=”” contrivanco=”” employed=”” locally=”” drain=”” see17di=”” consists=”” a,=”” bundle=”” stra,w=”” palmyra=”” leaves,=”” drawn=”” across=”” cut=”” furrows=”” allow=”” wa,ter=”” stagna,ted=”” pools=”” puddles=”” esca,pe.=”” generally,=”” remain=”” fourth=”” ta,ke=”” mature.=”” }(llru1,'(d=”” ::\,1’e=”” transpla,ntation=”” four=”” [lfter=”” idonth=”” [tnd=”” half.=”” hain=”” immediately=”” sowmg=”” beneficia,}=”” therefore=”” called=”” pagaimalai=”” hostile=”” min.=”” clever=”” device=”” sometimes=”” adopted=”” keep=”” submerged,=”” ti1e=”” bea,t=”” dislodge=”” rootlets=”” luwe=”” had=”” establish=”” themselves=”” soil.=”” 144=”” pudukkottai=”” rtate=”” [chap.=”” r.re=”” there=”” should,=”” favoumblo=”” yor.r,=”” hr.ve=”” been=”” min=”” give=”” tr.nks=”” r.=”” good=”” supply=”” rrbe=”” seycal8=”” fields=”” planted=”” arc=”” ploughed=”” mannrec1,=”” r.nc1=”” seedlings,=”” pullec1=”” up=”” from=”” llursery=”” tied=”” bundles=”” cr.llec1=”” ’11=”” udis,’=”” tn”lnspla,nted=”” bunches.=”” rrhe=”” me=”” hr.nd-weeded=”” two=”” times=”” irrigr.ted.=”” depth=”” wr.ter=”” increr.sed=”” height=”” crop.=”” harvest=”” usllr.lly=”” thai-lvfasi=”” (j=”” r.nuary-mr.rch).=”” crops=”” cnt=”” close=”” ground,=”” bnndled=”” an:s=”” (sheaves)=”” kodlln{ja1:,s=”” (bundles=”” ‘which=”” conveniently=”” grarped=”” bet\veen=”” arms),=”” :1,ud=”” carried=”” kazam=”” threshing=”” floor,=”” where=”” tbey=”” thresbed,=”” ber.ting=”” r.nd=”” secondly,=”” cattle=”” round=”” them.=”” thaladi=”” hr.nd-thl’eshing=”” best=”” far,=”” p6radi=”” cr.ttle-treading=”” poor=”” quantity=”” grain,=”” im’ge=”” admixture=”” chaff.=”” out=”” reserves=”” his=”” next=”” season.=”” ryots=”” state,=”” neighbours=”” adjoining=”” districts,=”” follo\v=”” time-honoured=”” \vr.ys=”” cultivr.tion,=”” anu=”” often=”” use=”” high=”” mte=”” 36-45=”” madras=”” measures=”” per=”” nadn,r;ai=”” seedbed.=”” sta,te=”” agricultural=”” department=”” endeavouring=”” show=”” tbe=”” adva,ntages=”” using=”” fl=”” lovv=”” seed-rate,=”” economic=”” tntnsplh,nta,tion=”” coupled=”” ploughing-in=”” manure=”” ~mch=”” daincha=”” (sesbal1ia=”” aclileata),=”” sunn-hemp=”” (orotalaria=”” jllncea)=”” kolinii=”” (tephtosia=”” plijpurea)=”” red-gmm=”” (oajan.u8=”” indiclis).=”” also=”” advocating=”” light=”” iron=”” ploughs=”” a,nd=”” application=”” artificial=”” manures,=”” such=”” superphosphate=”” anc1=”” sulphate=”” ammonia,=”” iil=”” conjunction=”” bulky=”” orgr.l1ic=”” manures=”” quick=”” hea,vy=”” yields.=”” crops.-dry=”” cultivation,=”” especially=”” fts=”” extensively=”” intelligently=”” alailgucj.i=”” taluk,=”” affords=”” interesting=”” examples=”” rotation=”” mixed-cropping.=”” oumb?),=”” fl,nd=”” varagu=”” grown=”” al=”” ternflte=”” years,=”” since=”” exhr.ust=”” ag:ricultuhe=”” 1415=”” oumbu=”” along=”” thuvarai=”” (dholl)=”” rcd-gram.=”” ~hree=”” six.=”” gumbu,=”” gronnd-nut=”” oil-seeds=”” h,re=”” together,=”” mature=”” six=”” montbs=”” respectively=”” htst=”” t::tke=”” longer=”” ripen,=”” h::tl’vested=”” succession.=”” useful=”” practice=”” sow=”” ::tud=”” red-gram=”” same=”” fif’ld,=”” 8ince=”” v;;”ragu=”” requires’=”” more=”” water=”” thangmm,=”” season=”” plentifn=”” i=”” gives=”” ::t=”” harvest,=”” scn,reity=”” raiil=”” does=”” prevent=”” gram.=”” varagu:=”” (paspalurn=”” 8gn’l’bicnlatam,)=”” most=”” important=”” ~md=”” crops.=”” erop,=”” usually=”” red-gram.=”” grain=”” forms=”” ll1::till=”” food=”” classes.=”” shorter=”” variety=”” ‘l’ayaz=”” vd1’o,{=”” ii,=”” {om=”” dnmtion,=”” rlowly=”” spreading=”” summer=”” crop=”” lands,=”” gram.-horse-gram,=”” hu’gely=”” cultivated=”” the’=”” l\:olattnr=”” ta,lnk,=”” october=”” harvested=”” january.=”” u(‘cl-gra:m=”” cumbu=”” varagu.=”” hla,ck-gl’ams=”” ~tre=”” sparsely=”” cnltivated.=”” alangudi=”” ‘l’alnk,=”” rec1-gmm=”” freqnently=”” green:-mannre.=”” cholam=”” maize.-oholam=”” occasiona,lly=”” ‘ljiocha-i=”” (dohchm;=”” la,b-ia,b);=”” 1hi”,e=”” (zea=”” mays)=”” usua,lly=”” snmmer=”” 01’=”” a,s=”” ga,rden=”” wells=”” pmctieally=”” throughout=”” yea,r.=”” ragi.-(elells1:ne=”” cn’l’arana):=”” ragi=”” ntised=”” gftl’del1=”” lands.=”” va,rieties=”” vilakeppai=”” (fnrrow=”” mgi)=”” c1eserves=”” only=”” elry=”” state=””> t·ransplanted. Tho se£cdl or tmnspla,nting field is ploughed a,t the setting-in of the south-west monsoon, a,nd as a, fnrl’Ow is cut by the plough, the mgi seedlings which have l’el)1a,inecl in the nursery for about twenty days are dibbled singly along it a,t interva,ls of a foot or ten inches. As the next furrow is formed, the soil overtlirned by the plough fa,lls on the seedlings in the first furrow and covers their roots. A new ]9 146 l)UDUKKOTTAI STATE [CHAP. strftill known ftS E. C. ,1593 evolved by the Millet speeialists of the Madnl,s Agricultural Department has been tried sncec.ssfully in the State Farm as a sumHler crop. Cumbu, etc.-Cnmbu (Penniseturn typh01:deum) is grown with gram. 8amai (Panicllm miliare) and Tenai (8etana italica) are sown on pOOl’ lands in small quantities. r:rhe Africll,ll Bajri or Navnag-ar cumbu is being tried. Oil seeds.-The Ground, Earth or Pea-nut (Arachis hypo,qaea) forms an important crop under this gronp; and it wa.s grown on 35,400 a.cres in the State in 1934-35. It suits sa.udy soils and Padugai land, that is a.lluvial land consisting of a. mixture of fine sand and silt, is equally good. It is cultivated as a dry crop from June-July to December-January. ClIltivah’on Details.-Ground-nut (Arachis hypogea) rrhe ryots are una.nimously of opinion tbat ground-nut is a crop that exhausts the soil and eannot be cultivated on the same la,nd for a series of years without the liberal use of manure. Land eropped with it year after year they consider, is apt to get foul. In the report of the Royal Commission on Agriculture in India (1928) however, it is suggested that the leaves of groundnut could be used as gre&ll manure without interfering with the commercial value of the crop and yhat this” would furnish an additional reason for extending the area· of this valuable crop.” (paragraph 8G). So far as un irrigated land is concerned, there are hardly any cerea’! crops hut varagu, (Paspaln11l scorin:culatllm) and Tenai (Setaria italica) with which ground-nut c”an be cultivated conveniently, and it is sown either mixed or in rotation with tellai or varagu.. Tenai is considered a much more exhausting crop than varagu, and hence ground-nut is not sown a.fter it unless manure is liberally applied. rl’he ryots prefer to alternate the crop with either Ournbu (Pe1711iseium typh01:de1l1n), 01′ the spiked Millet or ragi (Eleusille comcana) inRtead of with varagu in a rotation, but the cumb’i(. harvcRt comes off 80 early a8 to leave the land bare for a considerable IV] AGRICULTU HE 141 portion of the year a.nd yet so late that a ground-nut crop sown afterwards is apt to suffer for want of raill}. Ground-nut following a Oholam crop is said to be predisposed to the attacks of vel’ puchi (8phenoptera sp.). On irrigated, dry lands ground-nut grows best if sown after cumbu or ragi has been harvested. A liberal application of tank or channel silt, ashes and ether manure is a conspicuous feature in, ground-nut cultivation. Lime is also regarded as essential for ground-nut. Va’rieties.-Several varieties of gl’Ound-nut are now grown but the commonest and most important is tenned Ii Mauritius” l’he varieties are classified according to the habit of the plant and size of the nut, (pods); Some have an erect habit, some have spreading branches which lte flat on the ground; some have large pods, while others have small ones; others bear fruit early and produce nuts centred round about the tap root in clusters. Ground-nut was once a very paying crop and between the years 1920 and 1930 the trade in ground-nut constituted 72 to 74 per cent of the total export trade in oil-seeds by sea and rail from the Madras Presidency including the Pudukkottai State. rrhe area under this important crop in the Stata has decreased from 45,900 acres in 19~4-2.5 to 15,400 acres in 1934-35 no doubt owing to the fall in. price. rrhe Agricultural Department have very recently introduced the drought-resisting ” saloum” variety. Gingelly.–(Sesammn indicum) is grown in the State on a very small scale and on the dry poor soils. It is sometimes sown on paddy fields as a second crop: It contains 40 per cent by weight of oil. rrhe area under plantains and sugar-cane is now increasmg rl’hese crops pay the ryots better than paddy. Sugar-cane.-Sugar-cane . (SacchanmL otjicinarurn) is now grown in Satya,mallgalam, Meitu, Pasumalaipatti, Kalamavur, SittannaY{H;:l,), ‘l’ha.bl1lpatti, Kulipirai, Eday{tthur, AlavaYH.l, Koppanapl1tti, Ka.nllangudi and Puliyur. l’he chewing varietieH called Namam and Bonthan or Basathall: are largeLy raised 148 1>tJDUKKOTTAI STATE [CHAP. in these villages. The ryots of Kannangudi and Puliyur grow the reed variety and manufacture jaggery therefrom. Plantains.-(Musa paradisiaca) rfhese are cultivated in Kudumiamalai, Viralur, Vellanur, Puthambur, Sembattur, Sathiamangalam, Melur, Pillamangalam and Karaiyur. In addition to the dwarf variety (Mauritius), the big varieties, called MonthalZ and Rasthali are largely grown for sale in the capital town and in the Chettinad. Tobacco.-(Nicotiana tabacurn). ‘rhe cultivation of this crop has becoma very intensive in Arimalam, Sevalur, Kulipirai, Rangiyam and Puthambur. The cured stuff finds a ready market locally. The variety grown is only fit for chewing: There appears to be considerable scope for tbeextension of the area under tobacco, large quantities of which are imported into the State. The matter is engaging the attention of the Government. The crop has recently been introduced in Poovarasakudi. Tomato.-(Lycope’f’Sicllrn. esculentwn) is a new garden crop much valued for its vitamin-contents and grown in Kodumbalur, Viralur, Kothakottai, Edayapatti, Koilpatti, Pallathividuthi and in town gardens. The variety” Ponderosa” is found to be the best. The local demand for the fruit is steadily increasing. Tapioca.-(Manilwt zdilissirna) Mctrct;velli kilangu, comprises the sweet and early varieties. rfhe red and the white varieties were successfully tried in the State Farm and then introduced in the· villages of Annavasal, Alangudi, KeelappattiRasiamangalam, Kottaikadu, Vayalogam, Selliyampatti and Mullankuruchi and are. becoming very popular since the ryots find in them a good and nourishing food. Betel vine.-(Piper betel) is confined to a few villages such as, Sembattur, Aunavasal and Perunchenai, and is cultivated by Muhammedans (Ravuttars) Indian Christians or PaHans. There are two vat:ieties, the “white-leaved” and the .’ dark greenleaved.” The latter is of an inferior quality anc,l is largely used. IV] AGltlCUVrUltE 149 ‘rhe betel vine is trained on standards of Agatti (8e8bania graiHliflol’a). Vegetables such as brinjals, chillies and drulIlsticks are usually grown in the betel-gardens and bring in a small additional income to the cultivators. The drum-stick sterns are useful as supports to the betel vines. Groves and plantation$.-rrhere are no extensive gardens of fruit trees in the State. rrhere are however small plantations, hero and there, especially along the river-courses, of eocoanut (Cocos nu cifera) and palmyra (Boms8 us flabellifel’) palms. Small topes (gardens) ,1re found in Kadayakkndi, Ma.laiyidu, rrirukkalambnr, Ponnamaravati, Valayapatti, Yemtdi, Karaiyur, Idayathur, Nerunjiklmdi tmd Tiruvidaiyappatti. The State Agricultural Department has successfully introduced the Travancore variety of cocoanuts in the vtllages of Regunadhapnralll, Tirumayam and Virachilai. They yield large nuts which ,1,l’e much appreciated by the ryots. The various industries for which the cocoanut and palmyra afford materials have been little developed in the State. The Government hope to encourage the manufacture of palmyra jaggery (coarse sugar). Mango. (Manrtifera indica) orchards are not uncommon. Good grafted varieties of mangoes have been successfully introduced in the villages of Karambakkudi, Manathichithy, and in Kadftvmnpatti, in the Ananda Bagh, and in the Kokumari and Sivagnanapuram topes. ‘rhe graft varieties produced here have earned a name even outside the State. Sendamangalam, rrirukkattalai, Immanarnpatti and Veppangudi also produce fi ne mangoes. Jack-Of greater importance are the jack (Artocarpus integl’l/olia) trees which grow in Karambaklmdi, Kottaikkadu and many other places in Alangudi Ta,luk. The commercial va-lue of the jack is great; the timber is utilised in house-construction, the tender fruit (the female inflorescence) is cooked as a vegetable (infructescence) and the ripe fruit, which some-times grow to such H, large si,,;e as to sell at Us. 2 each, are much in dema,nd for the sake of the sweet fleshy flakes which are edible. 150 PUDUKKOTTAi STATE [CHAP State Ellterpl”ilJe.-rrhe State has done a good deal in the way of fOl1ning plantations. The Forest Department is in charge of some exteilsive topes of mango a.nd other trees. The Govel’llment also own H, number of casnarina (CaSlIarill(i, equiset’ljolia) topes along the banks of the Vellar and the Perungalur stream which supply fnel to the capital. There are also H, few eashew-nnt (AnacanZinrn occidentale) pla,ntations. The roasting of cashew-nuts is a useful and profitable cottage industry, which at the suggestion of Dr. D. Spencer Hatch, the Government are trying to encourage. Manures.-rrhe usual manures are green leaves, cattle manure, town and village refuse and ashes. Vi1’al-i (Dodonaea viscosa) is grown extensively on dry lands and its leaves are cut annually for five t~ ten years. Other green leaves used as manure are those of Cassia siamea, CalJsia aU’l’iculata (Avami) Pongan1.ia glab1Yt (P’ll:ngai), ‘l’ephrosia pU1’P1I1’ea (KolinJi), Thespesia popu.lnea (PooVantSll), }.!Iorinda tincto’l’-i(t (N olla) Calotropis g’igantea madar (El’Itkkan) and Red-gram, the Cadjan pea (Cajanus indicus). Ryots, especially in the villa.ges of Ilanjavur, Viralur, Sendakkudi, 1’hanjur, Keelayur, Kodumbalur, Annavasal and Melathur, are coming to recognise the advantages of growing green manure crops in their fields and ploughing them in, so that the atmospheric nitrogen found fixed in the bacterial nodules of the green manure leguminous crops such as the Daincha (Sesbania aculeata), and Iiolillji (Tephrosia purpurea) and Sanappu (Orotalaria juncea) is added to the soil. So the growing of green manure crops is more beneficial than applying green leaves. It is also cheaper; the cost of raising . them is only Rs. 2 per acre. A vast quantity of cowdung is made into cakes n,nd burnt as fuel. This matter is engaging the attention of the Goyernmellt but the problem is, of course, where the ryot if’ to fiud an alternati\’e source of fuel-supply (CL Hepol’t of the HQyal Commission on Agriculture in India-1928-pal’HIgraph 82), IV] AGRIC”CLTURE 151 Hasty critieiRll1 of the ryot’s wastefulness in thus lllisa,pplying valultble rnanuni” ignores .the real ditliculties involved. Even “,hen cowdung is stored for nsc as manure, however, care is not taken to conserve the valuH,ble urine by spreading litter or earth. (to be removed daily) on the floor of the byre, or to form propel’ pits protected from the heat of the sun for the reception not only of the cowdung but of village refuse of all sorts, with great advantage alike to the fertility of the fields and·to the sanitation of the village. Pests and Diseases.-Pests may be divided into two main classes-Insect pests and¥ungus pests. “Ve shaH first consider the insect pests that affect some of the more important crops. Paddy.-(Oryza Sativa). The stem-borer (Sc1u13nobiu.s ince1’tellus) is a caterpillar which bores into the paddy stem, kills the shoot and causes white ears. The grub of the Rice-Hispa (Hispa arrnigeTa) mines into the leaf-tissue w1111e the beetle scrapes the green foliage. rrhe H.ice grass-hopper (Hieroglypkus banian) feeds on the foliage and cuts away the ear-heads. The caterpillars known as case \vorms (Nymphula dep1l71ctalis) cut thf, leaves into pieces to make eases in \-vhich they live, and feed on the paddy blades. rrhe maggot of the paddy gall-fly (Pachyd7’plosis Q1’yza) bores into the stl’m, ~1ttacks the bud shoots and causes galls known as ‘silver shoots’ . Cholam.-(SoTghu1n v,ulga1’e) is affected by the Oholarn stem-borer (Ohilo zonellus) which bores through the stem, killing the young plants and damaging the older stems.· The Blackhairy caterpillars (Estigmene lactinea) and the H.oot-lice (Aphi.Q sp.) affect Oholam, Ragi, Varagu and Oumbu. Sugar-cane.-(SacChal’U1n (~fficinaTum). Oane stem-borers bore into the stem, killing young shoots fi.nd damaging growing canes. Two or more kinds of moths are ROmetimes found on canes, of which Argyria stricticraspis and Diatra:,a venosata are the most important! White ants 152 PUD.UKKOTTAI STATE [CHAP. (Odentote1’mes obesus) or termites-· often bore into the planted setts under-ground and kill the tender shoots and buds. Pulses.-Gram caterpillar (lleliothis obsoleta) : The caterpillars eat the leaves, bore into the seed po as and eat the seeds. Oil-seed crops. Ground-nut :-Surul puchi (Stomopteryx nerte1’ia). ‘rhis small caterpillar feeds on the foliage and damages it. The Ver puchi (Sphenoptera perotteti) is a grub which bores into tl~e stem and kills the plant. The Green caterpillar (Heliothis obsoleta) affects oil-seeds and Bengal and Red-grams. Gingelly :-. ‘rhe E?phinx caterpillar (Acherontia styx) is a caterpillar which eats leaves and shoots. Castor :-The caterpillar Castor semilooper (Achoea janata) defoliates the pl~nt and the Castor seed:borer (Dichoc1’Ocis puncti jeralis) bores into the seed capsules and petioles. Tobacco caterpillar (Prodenia litura) defoliates the castor plant. Vegetables.-‘rhe stern-boring caterpillars (Euzophera perticella), the fruit-borer (Leucinodes orbonalis) and ‘leaf-folding caterpillars (Eublemma olivacea) are common pests. Fruit crops.-Mango-hopper (ldiocerus niveosparsus). The bug sucks the juice from the flower-heads and makes them drop off. ‘rile white wriggling maggotR of Fruit-flies (Ohactodacu8 incisus a,nd O. ferrugineus) bore into the fruit pulp and Rpoil the fruit. Fi bre crops. Cotton :-1. Pink boll worm (Platoedra gqssypiella), a small pink caterpillar, is a serious peRt of cotton. It bores into the bolls and feeds on the seeds. 2. Stem-weevil (Pemphe1’is aifini$) is a Rrnall weevil and an importa.nt pest especially of Cambodia cotton. ‘nle grubs bore into the stem and c~use galls, IV] AGRICULTURE 153 Tobacco.-(Nicotiana tabaeum). The tobn,cco caterpillar (Prodenia litura) does damage especially in the nurseries, while the tobacco aphis or plant lice damage the plants by sucking their juice. Palms.-Most of the palms, especially the cocoa-nut and the palmyra, are subject to the attack of the Rhinoceros Beetle (Oryctes rhinoceros) and Red Weevil (Rhynchophorus!errugineus). The grubs of the weevil bore into the crown and eventually kill the tree, after which the rhinoceros beetle lays eggs and breeds in the decaying stem. Some common Fungus diseases of crops. Cereals: Paddy.-False smnt (U stilaginoidea virens) is called 11 elpalam in Tamil. This affects only a few plants; large velvety greenish masses about twice the size of normal grains appear between the glumes. ‘fhis occurs only when the crop is bumper and the damage done is negligible. Blast: (Piricularia oryzae) Kollinovu: Brown spots with grey centres occur on leaves and leaf-sheaths and the nodes and the neck of the ear-head turn black. When the neck of the ears is affected, grains do not develop . . Cholam, Cumbu, Varagu and Ragi.-(Sphacelotheca sorghi) Kariputtainovu, in Tamil resembles the short smut; but does not cause such serious damage. Leaf-shredding disease (Sclerosporia graminicola) Talainovu, in ‘l’amil, checks the formation of ear-heads. Even if they are formed the grains do not set. Puises.-Wilt (Rhizoctonia sp.) causes the leaves suddenly to droop and dry up. Ground.;nut.-Tikka-leaf spot (Septogloeum arachidis). Dark spatH each surrounded by a bright yellow ring appear in largo numbers on the leaves which consequently fall off. Tobacco.-Mildew (Erysiphe cichoracearum) Sambalnvi, in Tamil, is a very common disease causing severe damage. 20 154 PUDUKKOTTAI STATE [CHAP. Chillies.-Fruit-rot (Colletotrichum capsici) –in Tamil,- Alugalnoi. The fruit turns yellow and rots. It also loses its characteristic pungency. Palms.–Buc1rot (Phytophthora palmivora). The central shoot yellows and dries up and the other leaves drop off one by one. Sugar-cane.-Red-rot (Colletotrichum falca~um)-in Tamil,- Semb1llli pulippu noi: is a widely distributed disease. On splitting an affected cane a sour smell may be noticed and the tissues become red. Definite red patches with a transversely elongated white centre are present. Fruit crops.–Mango: Sooty mould (Capnod·ium mangiferre): A dense black sooty crust appears particularly on the upper surface of the leaves. Local remedial measures.-The local remedial measures consist in sprinkling ashes over plants affected by aphis or plant lice, and lime water on those affected by insect and fungus pests. In the event of an attack by any pest, pig-manu~’e or cakemanure is said to be applied to stimulate the plant. 1’he field is sometimes allowed to dry. Prickly-pear.-No ~ccount of pests and other disabilities of local agriculture would be complete without a reference to the common prickly-pear (Opuntia dillenii). This exotic cactus was probably introduced into India on account of its usefulness in forming impenetrable fences. It was introduced into the Madras Presidency before 1786. It SOOll spread over Jarge tracts and became a serious lluisance, being extremely difficult to eradicate or control. ‘rhough capable of being converted into fodder, and also into manure, its drawbacks far outweigh such ut,ility as it possesses. Dense thickets of this plant in the neighbourhood of villages are by no means favourable to sanitation and harbour snakes. 1’here have been IVJ AGRICULTURE 1[55 periodical prickly-pear crusades in all parts of South India. The one that took place in Pudukkottai a,t the time of Sir A. Sashayya Sastriar if; still remembered. The plant effectively resisted all attempts to extirpate it by uprooting, burning and burial. Recently, however,’ the introduction of the Cochineal insect which feeds on it, has had a most remarkable effect 111 reducing the area covered by it, both in Pudukkottai and in South India generally. Popular agricultural beliefs, etc.-These are a body of empirical maxims handed from father to son, and crystallising the wisdom or in some cases it may be the unwisdom, of generations. The conservative tendencies of the ryot have preserved them to this day with all the accretions that religion and superstition have made thereto. rrhe Hindu ryot believes in the efficacy of Varuna japam or the. recital of hymns to Varuna, the- rain-god, for the purpose of securing rain. ,\Vhen pests ravage the crops, 01′ the rains fail, the lower-caste peasa,ntry betake themselves to the Pusari through ‘whom sacrifices of sheep, etc., are offered at the altars of the godlings of the rural pantheon. Another curious way of invoking rain is for the village elders or priests to beg boiled rice and sauce from every house in the rainless village. When a sufficiently large quantity of rice and sauce have been collected the inhabitants g.o out in a body to the nearest water course or channel where the two are mixed, and male and fema,}e figures are formed with them on the dry sand. The people gather round the figures, beat theil’ breasts, and set up a cry of lamentation loud enol1gb, it is hoped, to be heard in Heaven. Some of the rules of husbandry embody sound agricultural principles. One of them which runs “JJf<‘IJ~ iL(!jf[iiJ,1lJ61J>. G(f;’:”-L_.§iJ, (f;L~r (](f;6fT trwi.> G(f;L.L,iJiJ” inculcates the need of constant care and supervision of the fields, comparing the careless cultivator to the creditor who having never insisted on the repayment of his dues loses his money in consequence. A very familiar maxim predicts rain when ants carry thAir eggs about in search of shelter. The croaking of frogs and the flight of winged insects called esal (Termites: winged forms), for instan~e,are also supposed to presage rain. Should the sun be obscured on Sunday mornings especially in the wet season, continuous rain is to be expected for a week. Eainless days are in store if lightning should be seen North-East in Vaikasi and Ani (May-July). Lightning in kodai (summer) is as bad as thunder in kdlam (winter), for neither is a sign of wet weather; Again, a halo seen round the Kdrtigai (November·-December) moon portends dry days. To expect rains after K drtigai is as fruitless, says a * Tamil proverb, as to expect liberal gifts from any person other than Kar:g.a, a Mahabarata hero famous for philan thropy. Agricultural stock Implements: The State Agricultural Department has been successfully advocating the use of cheap, efficient and’improved mouldboard iron ploughs, which not only go deeper into the soil but also conserve the soil moisture. “Roll-easy” mhote wheels and pumping plants are coming lUto use for irrigation in Annavasal, Puliyur, Seilgampatti and Adanur. Live-stock: rfhe local beasts are generally puny and undersized, and do not belong to any distinctive breed. To improve the local breeds, the State is maintaining a Stud Farm attached to the Agricultural Farm at Pudukkottai. There were 6 stud bulls in the Farm, at the close of Fasli 1314. The total number of cows served in the fasli was 347. Ryots who come to the weekly market in the town bring their cows tv] AG RICULTURE 157 for servjce at the Stud Farm. rfhe fee for service was recently reduced from annas 12 to ann as 6. Besides the Stud Farm, there is cL model Dairy Farm which had on June 30, 1935, nine milch cows, three adult heifers, seven weaned she-calves, seven suckling she-calves and one suckling bull-calf. The Scindi cows in the farm are heavy milkers; and their milk is rich in nutrients. ~rhe total supply of milk during the last three faslis was as follows :- Fasli 1342 Fasli 1343 .. . Fasli 1344 .. . 7,842 measures. … 6,192 measures. … 9,496 measures. The dairy supplies the palace and its pure milk meets a real want in the town. It was working at a loss, but now it is not owing to reform of diet that has resulted in an increasing demand for good milk. The Darbar are now prepared to subsidize ryots who maintain approved stud-bulls (see below). Cultivation expenses.-rfhe expenses of cultivation are hard to determine. Few subjects are more controversial. Moreover they vary appreciably from place to place, and even from field to field, and depend greatly on the skill and prudence of the individual farmer. According to a proverb* locally current, very little is left to the ryot after reckoning up the entire cost of husbandry. ‘1’he cost of cultivation of wet lands in the State is higher than in the delta district of Tanjore or in Tricbinopoly or Madura. More manure is required for the wet lands in the State than in those Districts. The Settlement Scheme Report of 1910 fixes the cultivation expense for the best wet fields at Rs. 16 and for the best dry lands- at Rs. 7 per acre. There is no reason to believe that the cost of cultivation has considerably increased since 1910 though wages have slightly increased. But an important point to bear in ———————— ” The proverb has been rendered into English as follows :- ” If the ploughman counts the cost His ploughshare even will be lost”. 158 PUDUKKOTTAI STATE [OHAP~ mind is that about 96 per cent of the ryots in the State cultivate their own lands with their own labour and that of their families. Thus they have no need to incur a large proportion of what are included in any conventional enumeration of cultivation expenses. rfhey can and do maI{e a living, both on this account and because of their personal interest in the land, where the absentee landlord may find that the income from his estate is decidedly disappointing at present prices. T enures.-The existing tenures are of three kinds-mel varam or sharing tenure, kuttagai or lease, and pannai or hired labour. Under the varam system, the 8wanthar or landlord has his fields cultivated by kudis or cultivating ryots, and shares with them at the end of the season a portion of the produce. The kudi is a native of the soil, attached to and possessing an interest in the land. He has the inalienable right (kudikani right) to cultivate the la.nd and the 8wanthar can collect only ~he melvaram. He supplies his own seeds, ploughs and cattle, employs his own hired labour, whenever extra hands are required, and generally meets all charges of cultivation. In the case of the best wet lands, the landlord and the ryot divide the paddy equally, and share the straw in the ratio of 1 to 5. This is called sari (half-and-half)· varam. As regards dry and inferior wet lands, the swanthar receives a third or two-fifths of the produce, the ryot getting much more of the straw. These systems are known respectively as (!jJOIJJT lif5/iv gDS-oT.!J)J (one-in-three) and.J)j®8Tti,~DaiJr(fJ, or ~J®8Td;’:!!J C!:fJs)T.!J)J (two-in-five, and three-in-five). Under kuttagai tenure, the lands are leased for a fixed money rent calculated on the basis of the average yield for a number of years. This is about Rs. 24 an acre for the best wet lands, and Rs. 3 for dry. rfhe risks of bad seasons are borne by the lessee, but the lessor often finds that the permanent jnterests of his land have been neglected under the kuttagai tenure. IV] AGRICULTURE 159 Under pannaiydl system, the proprietor looks after the cultivation himself. He engages hired labourers, or pannaiydls, who, wha,tever their position in the past-serfdom or slavery- . have long since emanciplLted themselves, ,vith freedom to transfer themselves from farm to farm, and demand their own terms. ‘l’heir remuneration, which is always paid in kind, is generally about 50 Madras ineasures of grain a month. They are also entitled at the end of the season to an additional remUlieration amounting to nearly 10 per cent of the harvest. They are t11so allowed a piece of land called pariydl which is a nadugai (~ acre) in oxtent pbnted with the landlord’s seedlings, cultivated by tho pannaiyal and harvested for his own benefit entirely. When it is the pannaiyal’8 lot to work under wealthy landlords, he is fed as well as clothed. He gets. a pair of loin-cloths or a cumbli (\voollen blanket) once a yeai·. He also receives small presents, in the shape of. cloth, paddy, and cash, ranging from some ann?>s to a, fe,,;’ rupees on the occasion of deaths and marriages in his family. His lot is thus not so precarious as that of the atka coolies or day-labourers, adult or juvenile, of either sex. They are found under all te~1Ures, and earn a scanty livelihood by hiring themselves whenever extra labour is required for transplanting, harvesting, or oth~r operations. During employment adult males earn about six to eight local measures of grain and others about four per diem. Their condition is deplorable when lands are idle from drought, or lie fallow after harvest. In those hard months, they keep the wolf from the door by gathering avarai bark, kanjira (nux vomica) nuts, jungle-fruit, and cowdung, and selling them for what they will fetch. The ovils of absent-landlordism are not so pronounced here as elsewhore. According to the latest official returns, resident and non-resident ryots are 59,095 and 19,413 respectively, the former being rather over three times as many as the latter. Joint-holdings are rare except in the case of dry in’ :rior lands used as pasturage. 160 PUDUKKOTTAI STATE [CHAP. STATISTICAL TABLES. I. Number of live-stock in the State ill fasli 1344 (1934-35). (a) Oattle anclBuffaloes:- Males: Oattle. Buffaloes. 1. Breeding bulls (males over three years kept or} 1,187 352 used for breeding). 2. Working bullocks 79,508 5,]56 3. Bulls and bullocks over three years not in use} 3,830 808 for breeding or work. 4. Young stock (c£) under 1 year 8,657 2,187 (b) 1 to 3 years of age 9,309 1,770 Fe1ncdes: 1. Breeding cows (cows over 3 years kept for} 4j,561 14,496 breeding or milk production). 2. Cows over 3 years used for work … 7,176 1,408 3. Oows over 3 years not in use for work or} 5,091 1,083 breeding. 4. Young stock (a) under 1 year 11,190 3,705 (b) 1 to 3 years of age 7,651 2,742 (b) Other animals :- 1. Sheep 216,221 2. Goats 85,745 fHorses 101 3. H0rses &; Ponies l Mares 85 Ponies’ 9 4. Donkeys 847 (c) Ploughs:- 1. vVooden 54,037 2. Iron 122 (d) Oarts:- Oarts 15,765 (e) M ec’kanical appliances:- 1. Sugar-cane crushers (c£) worked by power Nil. (b) worked by bullocks 1 2. Oil Engines with pumps for irrigation 172 3. Electric :pumps for tul:.>e wells .. ~ “. ~2 IV] AGRICULTURE 161 II. Statement of the prices of sta,ple food-gmins for Faslis 1340 to 1344 (duting the month of J nne) in seers per rupee :- Fasli 1340 Fasli 1341 Fasli 1342 :fasli 1343 Fasli 1344 Seers, Seers, Seers, Seers, Seers, 1. Hice 6’62 7’30 !)’43 9’59 8’25 2, Hagi 17’08 l4’8() 20’52 20’76 12’21 3, Cholam., , 13’62 14’31 18’05 18’05 10’99 4, Cumbu … 12’64 (J’98 14’22 15’59 10’28 Labourers’ wagos:- Plftce, Pudu kkot,tai Alangudi Tiruml\yu,m Kolattur Mal coaly, AS. 6-8 5-6 6 5 Unskilled labourers. Woman coaly, Boyar girl coaly, AS. AS, 3-4 3-4 2-3 4 3 2–3 4 3 In. Statistics of persons who follow agriculture as a profession … (a) Owing to the fact that the majority of the l’yots are dra,\vn from communities whose herer1itary occupation is agriculture, the number of those \vho derive their income from land, without thernselves taking part in the actual agricultural opl’rations, forms only four per cent of the total number of o\”ners and tenants. i I I Cultivating with ! Not cultivating at CIt’ L’ I 1 f ‘1 1 I . h I all but taldn” rent u Iva ll1,g so 0 y amI y a )()ur OJ: WIt I . b • by cooly labour. lXtrtial help from i 111 money or 1\111(1. ‘ , coolies. Total 1—~~on·_1 W~~Il. -~-l\I-e-n-.-: ‘-V-omen. – Men. I –~ –~—–~I—-~I——– 1,778 1,045 141 600 61,152 I 26,061 ‘Vomen. i 1,376 880 I 638 I 540 60,403 I 23,465 402 I 16_5 __ ~~3J 60 I 7,349 1 2,602 Owners Tenants ~:~ The figures are taken from the Consus Report of 1931 21 162 PUDUKKOTTAI STATE [CHAP. (b) The number of persons to whom cultivation is a subsidiary occupation was 11,446 (9,236 men and 2,210 women) in 1931. Of these, 1,361 men and 103 women were noncultivating proprietors taking rent in money or kind. A large n1,lmber of such persons are Government servants, members of the learned professions or money-lenders. (0) rrhe following castes contribute nearly 60 per cent of the non-cultivating proprietors:- 1. Brahman … 302. 2. Kallan 3. Valll.iyan 4. -Velluian 5. N attukkottai Chetti … 6. Other Chetti communities 7. Mussalmans •.• 246. ••• 192. .. : 190. … 150 . . ~. 117. … 125. (d) Over 60 per cent of the cultivating owners come from the following communities:- 1. Kallan 17,263. 4. Idaiyan 7,109. 2. Valaiyan … 11,741. 5. Nattaman 5,131. 3. Paraiyan 7,135. 6. Christians 4,280. (e) Tenant cultivators are mainly:- 1. Valaiyans… … 2,934. 2. PaHans … 2,151. 3. Paraiyans… . .. 1,042. (f) More than three-fourths of the agricultural labourers are:- 1. Valaiyans .. . 2. Paraiyans .. . 3. Pallans 4. Idaiyaas … 5. Kallans . .. 5,872. … 5,024. … 4,236. . .. 1,436. ••• 1,039. (g) 63 per cent of the miscellaneous unskilled labourers are:- 1. Valaiyans … 2. PaHans •.• 3. Pa.raiYIW.B … … 4,021. … 3,387. • .. 3,318. IV] AGRICULTURE 163 Area (in thousands of acres) under principal crops grown in the Pudukkottai State. ” 1924-25 .. . 1925-26 .. . H126-27 .. . 1927-28 .. . 1928-2!l .. . 1929-30 … 1930-31 … 1931-32 .. , 1!l32-33 .. . 1f.133-34 .. . 1934-35 .. . -;; I ~ rn II s:: .~ ~ , .g I ~&I iiS ~ ,,~OS,” ~ 1’8 11 I ~ —;— 1I!l.1 I 45.9\ 56.7 II 101.7 I 45.0 47.6 90 7 42.0 I 44.6 I’ 36.’7 ,I 37 . 8 4 2. 0 62.6 i 39.7 I 38.7 I 111.8 i 31.1 I H.I I 121.7 I 27.0 : 41.0 110.8 I 17.4 I 56.5 ‘ 132.8 I 16.5 j 56.2 ! 116.0, 19.1 ‘I 43.4 I 56.1 I 15.4, 35.4 I 29.1 • , ii:3 ! 15.1 i 26.6 : 24.8 I 21.2 i 29.0 I 26.6 I 35.6 i 3lA I I 36.1 I 34.9 I 27.4 i 26.0 : 39.7 I 45.6 ‘ 28.7 21.8 27.7 29.5 26.6 21.71 22.7 16.2 26.4 21.6 11.9 23.3 14.7 [ 11.4 I 15.0 I’ 8.4 : 03 I .s I ~ I· g : ~ I ~ o Irll fl Ie.,) –~1—1~–1–~1—-~– 11.4 ,0.9 ! 0.8 I 10.1 ! ••• I 0.74 i:i, 9.31′” ,I 0.9 1.7 I 6.3 … 0.6 1.5 I 5.7 … 0.6 2.1, 6.9 i … 1.51′ ‘3:9 i ::: 0.7 I ~’.~ , 6.5 i … I 2.4 I'” I 13.1 ‘I’ … I … 6.1 … i 1 1.6 I i I 0.9 I O.!H I I 1.0 I AGRICULTURAL DEPARTMEN’I’-RECEIPTS AND EXPENDITURE. rrhe receipts of the Agricultural Department during Fasli 13′.14 were as follows:- 1. Sale of garden produce 2. Sale of seed Rs. 450 188 3. Miscellaneous 2,052 Total 2,690 rrhe expenditure, excluding salaries, etc., of the esta,blishment a,rnounting to about Rs. 5,200, ‘wa,s– 1. State Farm Rs. 6,822 2. Purchase of implements and seed 554 Total 7,376 Productive capacity of lands.–For reasons a,lready given in the paragraph on the classification of lands, the yield of wet lands 111 the State i8 lower than in the adjoining Districts. Some of the best wet la,nds a,re reputed to yield 10 kalams ‘:’ These figures have been taken from the charts exhibited on the occasion of the State Co-operative conference at Viralimalai. 164 PtJDUKKOTTAI STATE [CHAP. a nadugai, equal to 1,800 Madras meaf?ures an acre, but this out,- turn is exceptional. Ordinarily, the production varies between 900 and 270 Madras measures. Dry cultivation stands on a different tooting. Where the cultivator is enterprising and hardworking, and spares no expense on manure, as on the N attambadi , fannsteads in the Alangudi rraluk, the yield ma.y be as much as 40 per cent higher than normal. Otherwise, 360 Madras measures an acre for ragi, 550 for varagu, 350 for cUrrWu and 550 for ground-nut may be taken as the average. This out-turn of dry crops compares very favourably with the that in adjoining Districts of Tanjore and Trichinopoly. Sale value of land.-In estirpating the sale value of land, regard must be had to two factors:-whether it is near a Ohetti village, and whether it is occupied by efficient cultivators. Since the Oh~tties are fond of investing their savings in land, a veli (6’74 acres) in the Tirumayam Taluk sometimes sells at Rs. 10,00C. Dry lands under N attambadi cultivation fetch as much as wet lands. In ordinary circumstances, the sale value of wet lands may be taken to be Rs. 100 to 150 per acre and that of dry lands Rs. 30. The Peasantry and their economic condition.-Though the State ryot has not the advantage of irrigation from any river in which there is more than an intermittent fio\v, the tanks in the State are numerous (perhaps too numerous), and the supply of leaf manure plentiful. The soil, though not of the richest, is not unfruitful. rrhe incidence of taxation cannot be considered heavy,-it is lower than in the adjacent British districts,-‘-and the average incidenceo?,is reduced by the large area of inam lands and the .absence of any charge for a second or third crop. This ‘is an advantage that must be set against the absence of an automatic system of remission even in normal years on ‘lands that do not yield owing to causes beyona the ryots’ control such as prevails in the Madras Presidency. If the cl,lltivator is indebted, that is perhaps due to his improvident ways but certainly not to heavy fiscal burdens. IV] AG RWULTURE 165 State Aid: Recognising the faot that the ryot is generally conservative and ignorant, the Darbar have attempted in various . ways to acquaint him with improved and scientific~lllethods of cultivation. ‘The first important step was the opening of numerous rural Co-operative Societies which were liberally financed by the Darbar. ‘1’he work of these societies is deseribed in the Chapter on ” Co-operation”.. An agricultural school was opened in the Town in Fasli 1328 (1918-19) for the benefit of the children of the ryots. It soon became evident that it would be a more effective policy to attempt to instruct the cultivators. in. their villages. ‘The Government therefore abolished the school in 1924, and appointed Agricultural Instructors to tour in the different taluks, and instruct the ryots by means of informal H,dvice, lectures and practical demonstrations. ‘They then established the State ‘Farm at the capital near the ground where the weekly’ Shandy” (fair) is held. ‘rheFarm attracts a large number of villagers every Friday .. ~ From the year 1925 till tho school was abolished, an agricultural class was attaohed to the State ‘l’raining School at rrirugokarnam; and the teachers under training received practical instruction in the State Farm as a branch of Rural Science, which they were expected to teach in their schO …., ;:::: ~ ~ ~ C;~ .0 … CQ r~1 4, Trichinopoly … 4,314 946 344 1,290 21’9 8’0 29’9 !;j-.tl J ‘o()CQ …. 0:0 ~M 5, Madura … 4,912 880 439 1,319 17’9 9’0 26’9 It will be observed from the above table that the mileage of metalled or gravelled roads that is, of motorable roads per 100 square miles in the State is more than double the corresponding figure in any of these districts except Trichinopoly and almost double the figure for that District while the figure for all classes of roads is very much higher than in any of the districts. Apart from this, since the soil is generally’ gravelly or sandy, and the subsoil frequently rocky even motor cars and, still more easily, bullock carts can traverse many hundreds of miles of cart-tracks, on the maintenance of which no expense is incurred, in all parts of the State, in practically all weathers. In spite of these incontestable facts there is a constant clamour for more regular roads and for expenditure on cart-tracks which can only be described as unreasonable. VIII] MEANS OF COMMUNICATION 235 The expenditure on roads was Rs. 1,77,780 In fasli 1344 and Rs. 1,09,831 in fasli 1345. A subvention of Rs. 17,615 was received in fasli 1345 from the Road Development Fund of t4e Government of India, and IS being applied to the improvement of some of the more important roads in the State. The following is a list of the roads in the StateMileage. No. Name of Road. Miles. Furlongs. 24 2 l. Trichinopoly Road. 20 4 2. BUdahir Road. 17 7 3. Tanjore Road. 23 6 4. PudukkOttai-Alangudi-Karatnbakkudi Road. 2 0 (a) Tiruvarangulam on Road No.4 to Puvarasaktldi. 10 3 5. Arantangi Road. 4 0 (a) Puvarasakudi on Road No.5 to Road No.6 28 3 6. Yembal Road. 3 0 (a) Thanjur Road. (b) Road from Valaramanikkam to Arantangi. 18 4 7. Madura Road via Pillamangalam. 21 2 8. N amanasamudram-V endampatti Road. 2 0 (a) Road from No.8 to Peraiylir. 3 0 (b) Road from No.8 to Kunnakudipatti. 1 6 (c) Nachandupatti on Road No.8 to Road No. 29. 1 0 (d) Road from N? 8 to Malayakoil. (e) Road from No.8 to Olagampatti. 30 3 9. Manapparai Road. (a) Road from U silampatti on Road No.9 to Madura. 27 7 10. South Kolattllr Road; 0 6 (a) Sittannavasal Road. (b) Trichy to Madura through Viralimalai and Virallir. 13 4 11. Illuppur-Trichinopoly Road. 15 0 12. Kiranlir-AdanakkOttai Road. 15 3 13. Vadavalam-Puduppatti Road. 12 0 14. AdanakkOttai-Alangudi Road. 10 1 15. Alangudi-Arimalam Road. 11 0 16. Arimalam-Tirumayam Road. VIII] ·Mileage. Miles. Furlongs. 3 8 2 0 4 5 6 4 8 6 1 0 1 4 2 6 6 o 1 2 1 o 1 o o o .. MEANS OF OOMMUNICATION 237 No. Name of Road. 45. Panayappatti-Ra.ngiam Road. (a) Road from R8.ngiam to PUlimkurichi through Mudalipatti, TirukkUakkudi. (b) Road from Ra.ngiam to Kurivikondanpatti. 46. Anna.vasal-,..Kudumiamala.i Road. 47. Viralimalai-Rasalipatti Road. 48. AIangudi-Vadaga.du Road. 49. Suranviduthi Boad. 50. Maruppini Road. 51. Ptp,iyur-Kannankudi Road. 52. Road from Odappaviduthi to Tanjore via :fGla.nkadu. 53. Branch Road called Karambaviduthi Road. 54 .. Road from No.1 Trichinopoly Road to Nanguppatti viaOdukkUr. 55. Road from No.·3 Ta.njoreRoad toChinnia.chatram. 56. Road from No.7 Madura. Road to MaIUr. 51. Road from No.7 Madura Road to Tholaya.nur. 58. Road from No.8 Namanasamudram-VandaPlpatti Road· to KottUr. 2 0 59. Road from No. 13 Vadav8.lam-Puduppatti Road to Chettiya.pa.tti. Upkeep of Road.·-It is generally speaking easy to make and maintain roads in the State. Gneiss or laterite metal or gravel are never far distant. Spreading of materials . apart from mere patch work can only be undertaken during or after wet weather. Lilt of important bridges in the State. –~—~——–~–~–~-,——.—————– No.1 Name. Situation. I APpron-1 I maw 008t. Remarks. Rs. 1 The Velltz. Bridge on 5th mile on 60,000 A Gird~r Bridge of 9 si>~ns Tirumayam Road. Road No.7. of 30 ft. each and 2 of 25 ft. each. Opened “by Mrs. Burn in September 1922. 2 The Vellar Bridge on 9th mile on 40,000 (Under construction) A Ala.ngudi-Arimalam Road No: 15. Girder Bridge of 11 Road. spa.ns of 34 ft. each. a The Pambar Bridge on 12th mile on … . ….. TirumayamRoad. Road No. 7. 238 PUDUKK6’l’TAISTATE [CHAl? Name. ,.. Situation. ·t APProxi-1 . mate cost. Rs. Remarks. 4: The PamMr Bridge on 19th mile on 41,000 A masonry a.rched Bridge Nedungudi Road near Road No. 31. of 5 spa.ns of 36 ft. each. Kilanila.i Fort. 5 “The Marthanda 19th mile on 22,000 B rid g e”-over the Road No.6. pamb3.r on Yembal Road near Valaramanikkam; 6 The Kundar Bridge on Tirumayam Road. 7 The Kundar Bridge· on yemba.l Road .. 8 The VeUar causeway on Yembal Road. 3rd mile on Roa.d No.7. 3rd mile on Road No.6. 4th mile on Road No.6. {} Bridge across the 13th mile on Nerinjikkudi river on Road No. 18. Konnaiyur· Road. 10 The Manimukthar 25th mile on Bridge near Yen3.di Road No. 18. on the Peruman3.du -Konnaiyilr Road 11 “The Tottenham 12th mile on Bridge” over .the Road No.2. Agniar on BUdalur Road. 12 The Agniar Bridge on 11th mile on Tanjore Roft.d: Road No.3. 13 The Agniar Bridge on 12th mile on Karamba.k:kudi Road. Road No.4. 14 The Ambuliyar Bridge 12th mile on on Alanglldi Road. Road No.4. 15 ThA N ariar Bridge on 18th mile on .Alangudi-Karambak- Road No.4, kudi Road. 6,000 69,000 29,000 5,000 17,000 , 63,000 10,500 5,000 A Girder Bridge of 7 spans of 34 ft. each. Opened by Sir A. Tottenhamon February 4, 1936. A masonry arched bridge of 3 spans of 24 ft. eaoh. The· total length of the causeway is 480ft. with a road width of 15 ft. and 4 undervents of 6 ft. span each. opened by Mrs. Holdsworth on Maroh 27, 1933. A Girder Bridge of I) spans of 30 ft. each. Opened by Mr. S. Burn. A Girder Bridge of 2 spans of 15 ft·. and- 2 . of 6 ft. each. A Girder Bridge of I) spans ol34 ft. eaoh. Opened by Sir A. Tottenhamon January 8, 1935. An a.rched bridge of 7 spans of 30 ft. ea.ch. A Girder Bridge of 3 spans of 60 ft. each. Opened by RaoBahadur P. K. Kunhunni Menon in April 1925. A skew Girder Bridge of 3 spans of 28 ft. each. Opened by Mrs. Holdsworth in Decem ber, 1933. A skew Girder Bridge of 27 ft. span. Opened by Sir A. Tottenham, on March 4, 1936. VIII] MEANS OF COMMUNICATION 239 No·1 Name. Situation. 16 The Thodakkar Bridge 26th mile on on Manapparai Road. Road No.9. 17 The Perambur Scour 7th mile on Sluice and Bridge on ‘Road No. 20. Viralimalai – Kalamavur Road. 18 The Perambur calin- Do. gula Bridge. 19 The N ariar Bridge on 23rd mile on Karambakkudi Road. Road No.4. 20 The K6raiyar Bridge 24th mile on near Rajagiri. Road No. 10. I APproxi-1 I mate cost. Remarks. Rs. 4,760 18,500 5,500 9,200 15,000 A Girder Bridge of 30 ft. span. Opened by Sir A. Totten ham , on January 10, 1934. A masonry arched Bridge of 3 vents of 18 ft. span each with 6 scour vents of 71′ X 6′. Opened by Mrs. Holdsworth on March 7, 1933. A Girder Bridge of 3 spans of 23i ft. each. Opened by Mrs. Holdsworth on March 7, 1933. A Girder Bridge of 2 spans of 32 ft. each, 2 of 10i ft. each and one of 16 ft. . Opened by Mrs. Holdsworth on March 4, 1933. A masonry arched bridge of 3 spans of 30 ft. each. The Railway*.-The idea of a Railway for Pudukkottai was entertained so early as 1875 when His Highness the then Raja expressed the opinion that1 as the country afforded “the best route to Ramesvaram from the north, a lirie from Trichinopoly to Ramesvaram would be very popular.” In 1886, the question was revived,and a preliminary survey was made with the intention of building a line from Trichinopoly to Pudukk6ttai at State cost. ~ren years’ later it was felt that the Railway must be carried even beyond Pudukkottai as far as Kanadukathan, and a fresh survey was ordered. N ext year the scheme became more ambitious, and a line was proposed as far as Thondi on the eastern coast. The Agent and the Obief Engineer of the South Indian Railway inspected the proposed roote, an Assistant Traffic Manager reported favourably on ,;: Much of the information under this head was very kindly furnished by the Agent of the South Indian Railway. . . 240 PUDUKKOTTAI STATE [CHAP, traffip prospects, and arrangements were made to issue a prospectus. For the next three years, that is, till 1901, the question was shelved and nothing was done except to open a Traffic Return Station at Tirumayam. A light. or road Railway as far as Pudukkottai town was then considered, and it was proposed to ‘encourage private enterprise if no other course be open.’ By this time the Madura-Pamban line had been opened, but it was felt to be an unnecessarily devious route for through traffic from Ceylon to Madras and the North. A proposal was consequently made to shorten it by connecting some station on the Pamban section with Tanjore through Pudukkottai. The State proposed to pay for the portipn o~ the line running within its territroposed Railway was aligned to pass through Sembattu; Nalltir, Kfranur, Narttarnalai, Pudukk6ttai, Tirurnayarn, Kanadukathan~ Pallathur, K6ttaiyur and Karai~kudi. It was finally decided that the rrrichinopoly-Manarnadura scheme should have precedence over the others. 31 242 1lUDURKOTTAI STATE [CHAP. Field work on the rrrichinopoly-Kchaikkudi Railway Survey was started at the end of August 1925 and was completed ~t the end of March 1926. The distance traversed by the Railway from Trichinopoly to M~.I.llamadura is as follows;- 1. Trichinopoly Taluk, From mile 0’00 to mile 5’32. 2, Pudukk6ttai State. Kolattlir taluk ” 5’32 to” 29’10, Alangudi taluk 29’10 to” 34’82. Tirumayam taluk 34’82 to” 45’61, 3, Ramnad District ” 45’61 to” 95’22, The line is of the Metre Gauge, but it could without difficulty be converted to Broad Gauge. The ruling gradient is 1 in 200 or 0’5 per cent compensated. The sharpest curve is one of 4° or 1,432 feet radius, near Pudukk6ttai station. rrhe line leaves Trichinopoly J unct~on in a south-westerly direction and run’s parallel to the Madura main line for about i mile, It then turns due South till clear of the Danger Zone of the Rifle Range, when it curves to the south-east and runs straight for about 4 miles, until it approaches the rrrichinopolyPUdukk6ttai main road near mile 7. Sembattu station is at mile 4. From mile 7 the line follows the general direction of the Pudukk6ttai main road and keeps fairly close to it all the way to Pudukk6ttai. Kumaramangalam, the first s~ation within the State limits is at mile Sa-, rrondaiman N allur, at mile 13!, Kfranur, at mile 17~, Narttamalai, at mile 22t, Vellanur, at mile 25£, Pudukk6ttai, at mile 32~, Namanasamudram, at ,mile 36! and Tirumayam, at mile 42!, after which the line runs in a southerly direction to Karaikkudi. The link between Trichinopoly and Pudukk6ttai thus forms part of the new through main line from Madras to the south which has shortened the distance between Trichinopoly and Ceylon by 31! miles .. The railway has been constructed with flat grades and easy curves for the. running of fast trains, and is equipped with the latest type of permanent way. The work of construction was started in December. 1927, and the line took 16 months to build, VIII] MEANS OF COMMUNICATION 24B The Trichinopoly-Pudukk6ttai section W::1S opened for tmffic on. April 17, 1929, and the Pudukk6ttai-Manamadura section on July 1, 1930. rrwo important through trains, the Ceylon Boat Express and the Fast Passenger to Dhanushk6di run through Pudukk6ttai, and throllgh carriages are run on the connecting trains of this seetion and are att::1ched to the Trivandrum Express trains at Trichinopoly. The following are the ouhvard traffic figures for the stations within the Pndukk6ttai rrerritory for the year 1934-35. Passenger Weight Goods earnings Station. No. of earnings in including passengers. including parcels. maunds. live-stock. Rs. Rs. Kumaramangalam … 10.302 2,299 42 15 Tondaiman Nallur … 9.805 2,995 2,736 680 Kiranur 28.877 12,066 557 196 Narttamalai 16.996 5,532 02 14 Vellanur 7,238 1,978 4 1 Pudukk6ttai 1,85,446 1.59.724 75,519 18,429 Namanasamudram … 24,538 7.791 1.544 ::578 Tirumayam 80.350 40,376 11,740 2,701 Post Offices.-In 1838, the State opened a Post Office in the capital, and in 1879, sub-post offices in the Taluk headquarters. The work of these Post Offices was confined to the transmission of letters, packets and pa~cels. In. ·May 1866, the British Government opened an experimental Post Office in the capital; but the measure had not the support of the then Raja WJ.10 considered it as “throwing disgrace” upon the State and as ” calculated to lower him in public estimation.” When the Political Agent pressed him to reconsider this view, the Raja replied that” there existed no necessity for eRtablishing a British Post Office at the cost of the British Government and that nothing should be done that would impair the rights and privileges till then enjoyed by the State.” Thereupon the British Government abolished the experimental Post Office in 244 PUDURROTTAI STATtj [CHAP. December 1866. In June 1873, another attempt was made to open a British Post Office in the capital, but with no better success. Sir Sashia Sastriar, however, succeeded in prevailing upon Raja Ramachandra TOI).c,laiman Bahadur to permit the opening of a British Post Office. On April 1, 1884, the Raja cheerfully consented to the establishment in the capita.l of a combined British Post and Telegraph Office; and the people of Pudukk6ttai. enjoyed for the first time the advantages of the Money Order, Insurance, Value Payable Post, Savings Bank and other services of the British Postal system. In one of his letters to Sir Sashia Sastriar, Sir Henry Stokes observed:- ” I was exceedingly glad to learn that you are getting so civilised in Pudukota as to have a post office. You are really getting on!” In 1893, Sir Sashia, who was then Dewan-Regent, opened negotiations with the Madras Government for the amalgamation of the State Postal department with th(;l British Postal department, and on their successful termination passed a Regulation in 1894 amalgamating them and handed over the State Post Offices to the control of the Imperial Postal system. The Post Offices in the State are now under the immediate control of the Superintendent, Trichinopoly Division. There is no Head Post Office in the State; a list of the offices now working in the State is given below. All the sub-offices (except that at the Pudukk6ttai Public Offices) are combined Post and Telegraph offices. There are no separate Telegraph Offices in the State. SUB-OlPFICES. 1. Pudukkottai (Pudukotah). 2. Pudukotah Public Offices. 3. Alangudi. 4. Arimalam. 5. Karambakkudi. 6. Klranur. 7. K6nap&t. 8. Kulipirai. 9. Naohandupatti. VIII] MEANS OF COMMUNICATION 10. Ponnamaravati. 11. Hamachandrapuram. 12. Rayavaram. 13. Tirumaya’ll1. BRANCH OFFICES. 1. Kadukkcikadu. 2. Kolavoipatti. 3. Venkatakulam. 4. , Kilanilai. 5. Kilanilaik6ttai. 6. Thanjur-Tirumayall1. 7. Puliyur. 8. Nirpalani. 9. Karaiyur. 10. Kuruvikondanpatti. 11. Rangiam. 12. Viralill1alai. 13. Panayapatti. 14. Virachilai. 15. Alavayal. 16. Koppanapatti. 17. Melasivalpuri. 18. N agarapatti. 19. Vegupatti. 20. Annavasal. 21. Kudumiall1alai. 22. Perungalur. 23. puvarasakudi. 24. Tirug6karnall1. 25. Tiruvarankulam. 215 Air mails are despatched from Pudukk6ttai and most of the other Post Offices in the State on Sundays and Wednesdays, and are received for delivery on Sundays and Thursdays. These mails are carried by rail to Madras and from there by the n,eroplan,?s of Messrs. rrata Sons Ltd. to Karachi where they are transferred to the aeroplanes of the Transcontinental and Imperial Airways. The ordinary inward Foreign mails are delivered at Pudukk6ttai on Sundays, and the outward Foreign mails are despatched on Thursdays. 246 PUDtJ.UOTTAI STATE [CHAP. Tolls and ‘foll-Gatea.-:- The foUowing is a list of the town and frontier gates in the State, at which tolls are collected by contractors to whom the right is leased out annually ·bythe State authorities. The Revenue under this head was Rs. 1,48,189, Rs. 1,30,024, Rs. 1,23,261 and Rs. 1,53,625 respectively for the four faslis 1342 to 1345. TOWN GATES. 1. Tanjore Gate (at Sangilikundu urani). 2. Trichinopoly Gate (near Karupparkovil). 3. MadurI!. Road G~te (on the Kundar). 4. Annavasal Road .Gate (at Tiruvappur). 5. & 6. Alangudi Road Gates. 7. Kadayakkudi Road Gate. FRoNTmR GATES. 1. Matt11r. 2. Valavampatti. 3. Thlthanviduthi. 4. Munugudipatti. 5. Agavayal. 6. Aramanaipatti. 7. J{6napet. 8. Pillamangalam. 9. Alagapuri. 10. Kattayandipatti. 11. Sengampatti. 12. Ponnusingayipatti. 13. Rajagiri. 14. Vittamapattl. 15. Annavasal (Mukkannamaiaipatti Road). 16. Vengarampatti. 17. Rasa,lipatti. 18. Puduvayal-Pallathur Gates (two Gates, one at the junction 0 the Puduvayal a.nd Pallathur Roads and the other at mile 23/3 on the Pa.lla.thlir Road). Accommodation for travellers and T r a veil e r s ‘ Bungalowa.-Ther.e is a fiue Residency or guest-house in the cs,pital for the use of the Agent to the Governor-Geneml when he visits the State and of other State guests. It was much VIn] MEANS OF COMMUNICATION 247 improved before Their Excellencies the Viceroy Lord Willingdon and IJady Willingdon visited Pudukk6ttai in Decemb.er 1933. Near the Public Offices are two Guest-houses and a rrravellers’ Bungalow which may be occupied on the Darbar’s permission. They -are furnished, and food, Indian or European, is provided, r The rest houses at the following places provide furnishbd. accommodation for travellers, but not food. Adanakk6ttai. Narttamalai. Mirattunilai. There are several Vattam cutcherries, which afford primitive accommodation for camping officers and others. Choultriea.-There were formerly 21 choultries distributed along the important roads. Of these 11 were State institutions. The largest of them is the Sirkar choultry at the capital. It has a spacious shed in which hundreds of Brahmins are fed free during Dussarah. In addition to the choultries a large number of water panddls are opened in the hot weather at which the \vayfarer can halt, and refresh himself. In cosequence of the opening of the railway, and the introduction of motor bus services, the need for chonltri~s (chattrams) is no longer felt, and the State chattrams haye all been closed, except the Town chattram. (See cbapter 011 Devastanam). CHAPTER IX. PUBLIC HEALTH. SECTION I.-INFECTIOUS AND EPIDEMIC DISEASES. Cholera.-Outbreaks of cholera are no longer so freguent nor so severe as formerly. It may occur either in the hot or in the cold weather but is generally associated with the cold weather when the rains wash human excreta and other filth inte the drinking-water ponds. Its origin is often due to imported cases froin Trichinopoly and other places, and hence it most commonly occurs in the Kolattur taluk. Sometimes the infection is traced to pilgrims returning from crowded festival~ such as the Swargavdsal Ekddasi at Srirangam, and the Kdrtkigai Dipam at Tiruvannamalai, or the local Mariamman festival at N arttamalai. That the backward classes contribute a larger number of victims than others, is, no doubt, due to their insanitary homes, and habits and in particular to their indifference to the cleanliness of their surroundings and preference for drinking the water of uranis (ponds) which is almostinevitably polluted rather than that of wells when the latter have been provided. Mortality is increased by the indifference and folly of the victims who do not seek timely and proper medical aid while their family will even try to ooncea1 it from some irrational dread of official interference. How much the country suffered in the past from cholera cannot be ascertained with certainty, a few facts are given below. Mr. Clarke, reporting on the State in 1859, referred to a ‘great loss’ from cholera in that year. In 1866-7; cholera and smallpox carried on their ravages to a ‘great extent.’ In March 1871, the outbreak was severe. 1883-4 saw an unusual recrudescence. When it entered the State Jail, panic prevailed, and the convicts had to be removed to a temporary building to the south of the town. Both the capital and the interior were affected in 1887-8, when out of 636 reported attacks, 402 ended fatally. PUBLIC HEALTH 249 In certain years particular localities were severely affected. Kolattur, . as already observed, has often suffered in this way. Tiruvappur was affected in 1889-90, and Annavasal and N edungudi in 1895. In 1891-2, the disease raged all over the State and olaimed 889 viotims. The attack of Deoember 1897 neoessitated the opening of oholera camps, the observation and quarantining of pilgrims returning from the mahdmakharn festival at Kumbak6nam, and the passing of an Epidemic Diseases Regulation. In 1899 the disease prevailed from November to June next, and the loss of life was considerable. 951 deaths occurred in 1907, 964 in 1908, and 1,154 in 1914-5. Between 1924 and 1928 there were 4,180 fatal oases. The Darbar have always taken expeditious steps to stamp out the. disease at its first appearance. When an outbreak is reported,. special attention is paid to the preservation of drinking water from pollution, and medical stores are hurried to the infeoted locality in oharge of dul’y qualified medioal men. In former times, a usual method of disinfeotion in towns of whioh the effioaoy may well be doubted, was to burn large quantities of tarred wood at the street oorners. Soaroity of water, on acoount of severe drought, in the years 1924 to 1928 and again in 1934-35 was among the causes that oontributed to the spread of this disease. Before 1931, there were no means of scientitic diagnosis suoh as are now afforded by the Baoteriological Section of the Town Hospital, where the mi6roscopic examination of culture enables the presenoe or absence of Cholera vibrios to be determined. As a result, it may be presumed, of the opening of this section, and of other faotors such as, intensive propaganda, the sinking of numerous drinking wells in the villages, prompt treatment of patients, disinfection of affected localities and mass inoculation with Anti-Cholera Vacoine,…:” Bili-Vacoine” there ~9. 250 PUDUKK6TTAI STATE [CH:AP. were only stray cases of Cholera in th’e State between 1931 and 1934, and the mortality was much lower tha~: on the previous outbreaks. In 1935, hqwever, there were 77 deaths from Cholera. There was scarcity of drinking water in many villages; and the Darbar sanctioned the sinking of drinking water wells in .all parts of the fjtate. In fasli 1344, 291 wells were ordered to be· sunk and 120 existing wells were either deepened or improved. rr’he actual expenditure incurred in the fasH on such works was Rs. 18,388. In fa,sli 1345, 230 new wells ,vere sunk and 76 repaired. 75 wells were in progress of sinking. In addition, where springs could be found in river or tank beds, shallow pools oalled OOtkU8 were dug. In fasH 1345, 21 bore wells were sunk, and 18 drinking water urani8 were repaired. The total expenditure in fasli 1345 was Rs. 1,25,409 .. -. Small-pox.-This is usually a hot-weather disease, though not unknown in the rainy months. The traditional practice -of hanging a bunch of margosa leaves over the door of’ an infected house does muoh indirectly to prevent its propagation since it warns outsiders to avoid all intercourse with the affected household. Severe outbreaks .of small-pox occurred in 1866-7, 1867-8, 1874-5,1876-7, 1884-5, 1889-90 and 1891-2. There were 420 fatal cases in 1905-6 and 559 in 1907-8. Between 1922 and 1928, 978 deaths were reported: Between 1931 and 1934, there were 1,863 deaths. It would appear tha.t the disease has beoome endemio in this part of South India, frequently taking an epidemio turn. Vaooinaticm.-Vaccination was introduced in 1812 at the suggestion of Sir William Blackburne. Raja Vijaya Raghunatha Tondaiman and his brother were the first· subjects, and to their example and wisdom, the inhabitants are now indebted for a “blessing which will preserve them. ~nd their children from a loathsome and fa.taldisease.” In Maroh ].867, a va,ooinating tx] PUBLIC HEALTH 251 staff WBts trained and organised by the British Deputy Superintend~nt of Vaooination at rranjore. By 1875, the movement had come to stay and had made considerable progress. In that year three Vaccinators were at work; people had ” no serious objection to the operation” ; and a proposal, though premature, was set 6n foot to make it compulsory for infants. The persistent recurrence of small-pox in the ‘succeeding years drew attention to the value of vaccin~tion ~s a preventive measure, and in 1880, the State went to the length of offering a special batta or bonus to all who submitted to it. It would appear that inoculation was from arm to arm till 1892, a.fter which the objections to the method were realised and lanolin lymph was imported from Bangalore.Three years later, it was resolved to open a calf-depot, and an officer was deputed to Bangalore to learn to prepare lymph. In 1910, a vaccine depot was built” on the model of the Guindy Institute.” Here all the lanolin paste required for the State is now prepared with seed-va.ccine procured as necessary from Madras, Bangalore and Belgaum. The progress of vaccination has been slow but steady. The usual obstacles have been fear of innovation, general ignorance and backwardness, the indifference and apathy, and in some instances, the hostility, open or covert of the masses. In 1898, for instance, the calf-depot remained closed for some months because people,thought tbat it represented an attempt to introduce anti-plague-inoculation. But no compulsion, was introduced for a long time as it was feared that it might do more harm than good. On the other hand, it was hoped that the beneficent results of a number of successful vaccinations would have their educative value, and open the eyes of the, people to the efficwy of the treatment. Year after year, the Revenue officers were enjQined to give special attention to vaccination. They were required to educate the people, besides cheeking the work of the Vaccinators and reporting on unprotected subjects and areas. 252 l’UDUKl{OTTAI STA’l”:e [CHAP. In spite however of all the good intentions of the State, progress was disappointing. Vaccination was consequently mad~, compulsory in the town in 1898-9. Ten years later, compulsion was extended to 67 villages; and in October 1911, to the whole State. The effects of Primary vaccination in infancy have been found to disappear after about seven years. Re-vaccination is therefore carried out extensively in both affected and threatened , areas. In fasli 1345, 10,967 persons were re-vaccinated, and it is gratifying that not one of them contracted the disease. A Regulation providing for c. 4. The Pathological and Bacteriological Section.-· This section was opened in. 1930. The work of this section is chiefly microscopical and cultural examination. Pathological conditions occurring in the in-patient and out-patient departments ate examined by the Pathologist whose reports, are of use in the diagnosis and treatment of :the diseases. Microscopical work consists of examination of urine, blood, and blood-smears, sputum and freces, and serological examination of blood in cases of Typhoid and Syphilis. Microbiological tests and investigation of bacillary diseases by cultural methods are also carried out. The lymph prepared by the vaccine·depot is· tested before. it is despatched to the Vaccinators. During fasli 1345 serological examination of blood by different tests was made in 330 cases. The number of blood-smear examinations was 397; examinations of freces, 687; of urine, 1,295; and of sputum, 102. Blood counts for determining the percentage of hremoglobin were made· in 90 cases. Examination of Leprosy cases by stain smears of nasal mucus and skin clip was made in 68 cases. 48 cases related to. cu-Itural and microscopical examination for Cholera Vib1’ios. Urethral and vaginal discharges for the detection of gonococci were examined by stain smears in 48 cases. Micro.tome sections for the diagnosis of benign and malignant t’lInOUJ:S were cut in 4 cases. This section is the State centre for anti-ra.bic treatment. Anti-rabic vaccine is got from the Pasteur Institute, Coonoor. 18 case!!! of rabid dog bite were successfully treated in fasli 1345, and 24 in fasli 1344. In . fasli 1345, 22 cases of LeprDsy were treated in the General Hospital. The Chief Medical Officer made a LeprDsy survey in the villages of Melathur and Sikkippatti and treated all the sufferers with injections. To. induce Leprosy patients to submit to injection the Darbar paid every patient frDln these two villages four annas for every injectiDn; the tDtal amount thus paid amounted to Rs. 141-8-0. rfhe trea.tment has proved satisfactDry. T4e Ohief Medical Officer proposes to make a detailed leprDsy survey of the whole of-the Alangudi Taluk. IX] PUBLIC HEALTH 261 5. The Radiological and Elctro-therapy Section.-As has already been stated above, the initial cost of this section was mainly contributed by DewaJ1 Bahadur M. R. Subbiah Chettiar. It was designed by Capta/in Barnard, Dir~ctor of the Barnard Institute of Radiology, Madras, and equipped under his guidance. H. E. the Viceroy, Lord Willingdon, laid the foundation stone of the building on December 13, 1933, and H. H. the Raja opened it on November 13, 1935. It measures 100 feet by 86 feet and consists of two sections, one for Radiology and the other for Electro-therapy. The flooring of the Hadiological 1:1boratory is entirely of wood as an insulation from electric shocks, and tho bricks of the walls are impregnated with Barium sn.lts to prevent the harmful X-rays from penetrating them. ‘l’he Electro-therapy appliances are housed in another large and well-ventilated hall. rrhe Victor Kx4 X-ray plant is yery powerful and of the latest pattern and was supplied by the General Electrical Corporation. With the XP4 X -ray tube, it is as efficient a plant as any in South India. There is a second X-ray tube conveni~ntly mounted on a table so as to be useful for screening purposes. The Electro-the,rapy section is equipped for Radiant heat baths, ultra-violet ray exposures, Diathermy, electric massage, and ele~tric baths and with “universal exerciser. ” The total number of patients treated from December 1935 to the end of June 1936 was 2,025, of whom 1,629 were out· patients and 396 in-patients. 124 were X-rayed, 91 were screened, and the rem~ining 1,810 were given Electric treatment. ‘fhe section has proved its efficacy in the treatment of cases of ~kin trouble, malnutrition, painful muscles, tendons, and paralysis. 6. The Ear, Nose and Throat Section.-This was opened in February 1936. Up to the end of June 1986, 3,070 cases were handled by the specialist in charge. 23 minor and 26 major operations of ear, nose and throat were performed. This section is equipped with app:1ratus of the latest type and promises to be very useful. 262 PUDUKK6TTAI STATE [CHAP. 7. The Dental Section.-This section was opened in 1934 and is becoming increasingly popular. In fash 1345, as many as 3,854 cases were treated. 8. The Animal Vaccine Depot.-rrhis forIlls a separate section under the charge of a Superintendent. It prepares ancI supplies to vaccinators all the lymph required for vaccination in the State. The Seed Vaccine is now got from Belgaum, and with it calves locally purchased are inoculated. Every fortnight the lymph is extracted from them to be sent out as Glycerine lymph. Vaccine is only issued after examination in the Pathological and Bacteriological Laboratory. 28,179 grains of paste were prepared and 18,650 grains issued in fH,sh 1345. General :-OnMarch 29, 1899, Sir A. Sashia Sastriar, wrote in the Hospital visitor’s book-·” The Hospital bids fair to prove one of the best Hospitals outside Madras in the Madras Presidency.” In the same year, Sir Arthur Havelock, then Governor of Madras, remarked that “the building is admirably planned and is maintained in excellent order …………… rrhe organisation seems to be highly satisfactory.'” Since 1899 tho Hospital has steadily developed and is now acknowledged to be one of the premier institutions in South India. vVith the oponing of an Opthalmic Section-a Sub-assistant Surgeon has been sent to the Minto Ophthalmic Hospital !1t Bangalore to be trained-its equipment will be complete. Whether regard be had to the design of the buildings, .the accommodation, tho equipment, or the staff, the Hospital is an institution of which Pudukk6ttai may be proud .. On the occasion of the Viceregal visit in December 1934, Her Excellency Lady vVillingdon paid the following gratifying tribute :- “1 had a most interesting visit to this hospital and wa.s very much struck with it. Such charming airy wards and so well kept. It was delightful to go round with the Medical Officer as he knows all about every case in his hospital and would explain all the difficult cases to me. I congra.tulate Pudukkottai on having such a hospital. ‘1 (Sd.) MARIE WILLING-DON.” IX] PUBLIC HEALTH 263 H. H. The Rani’s Women & Children’s Hospital.–This institution was opened as a Dispensary in the Old College buildings on November 9, 1900, and placed in charge of a duly qualified Lady Apothecary. In HHO, it was resolved to convert it into a Hospital for women, and buildings were eree-ted in the heart of the lown to accommodate it. It continued to be a Dispensary however till fasli 1329 (1919-20). A qualified Lady Doctor was appointed in 1920, and it became the Rani’s Hospital for women and children. The staff now consists of a Lady Doctor arid a resident Sub-Assistant Surgeon with five nurses and three compounders. The Hospital began with two wards accommodating 6 patients each, and a central block with 12 beds, four of which were reserved for children. The maternity ward had six beds. There are now four wards for all general diseases including maternity cases, with 52 beds in all. rrhe total number of in-patients treated in fasli 1345 was 1,616 with a daily average of 63-5, while 2~,439 out-patients were treated with a daily average of 182. .’547 major surgical operations were performed of which 50 were done underehloroform. 473 cases were admitted into the lying-in-ward of which 374 were cases of normal labour, 70 of abnormal lahour and 25 of abortion or miscarriage. Maternity aid was given in 208 cases in the Town by the Hospital staff.· The total expenditure. on the Hospital for fasli 1345 was Rs. 22,880. Dispensaries.-There are twelve rural Dispensaries, and thus having regard to its area and population, the State is well served in this respect (see comparative statement on page 265 below), especially when it is remembered that the State is also exceptionally well-provided with roads. Each dispensary is in charge of a Sub-Assistant Surgeon assisted by a qualified staff_ The following statements give statistics of medical relief rendered in the various medical institutions of the State, ..,.. Stat ••• at skowi.., tk •• umber of Out-patieats treated in all the medical institutioBS for fasli 1345. Sexes, Olasses, No, Name of the Institution, I I .. h Total ‘IE ntIS. I Daily No, sub-! average, ‘I treated. ject!!, I I ,· ‘\, ./ Muha.m-I Other I Euro-\ Eura.- I Expenditure. ;V omen, Children, Hindus, ma.da.ns. castes, pea.ns. sllWs.1 Men, 1 / Town General Hospital, I 65,951 557’30 64’43 I I I” I – ‘\ I I \ RB, A. P. 31,158 I 11,950 16,843 59,691) 3,689 2,569 3 .. , 61,187~12_ 2 Pudukk6ttai. 2 Dispensary at Kolattur … 13,660 21 :3 -4 .5 ~ ‘1 .s 9 10 11 12 Perungalur “‘112,1981 355 Karambakkudi .. , 13,024′ 3,507 Alangudi .. ,. 15,7071 138 Kllanilai 7,650 76 Tirumayam .. ,I 11,834 11,797 Ponnamaravathi,l 19,890 Vir.UimaIai ,’ .. I 12,232 58 96 Anna. vasal … , 14,587 1 639 Tirug6kamam .. ‘118,096 Panaya.patti .. , 9,352 37 7,214 48’68 6,621 60’73 5,606 81’19 7,475 57’78 ‘ 3,522 97’93 5;823 98’15 48’74 9,063 6,927 71’12 ‘I 6,788 122’83 ‘8,324 63’04 4,355 13 Rural dispensary-at Avayapatti.I 4,009 20’48 2,218 Pudukk6ttai. 2,554 ,3,892 _ 10,595 2,182 13,395’ 10,826 3,289 4,1296,,941 3,004 5,228 12,698 1,820, 2;308 7.423 2,596 3,415 10,398 5,031 5,796. 19,073 2;280 ‘ 3,025 11,231 3,653 5,654 2,690 1,155 4,146 8,414 4,120 I 17,622 2,307 636 8,858 2,672 1,968 1,097 265 1,107 8,194 2,889 1,553 1,456 92 135 949 487 628 189 158 843 4,493 1,680 127 347 167 327 72 1,265 672 597 ‘1,216 189 .. , I .. . … I .. . I- 2,958-12- 6 2,305-15-11 2,328- 2- 1 2,098-12- 6 2,627- 6- 9 3,147-14-0 3,129- 4 – 5 2,197-14-10 2,208- 1- 3 3,708-14-10 2,5819 4- 3 956- 0-,0 22,880-‘ 8- 2 2,993- 6”: 5 14 H, H. The Rani’s Hospital, I 24,439 182’0… [‘ 14,348 10,091 I’ 23,170 15 Ayurvodic dispensary at “/ … , 24,303 146’53 11,859 5,958 ,6,486 I 22,898 ,~–~—-~–~–~~~ __ -L, ____ ___ Total ~J[penditure for all institutions Rs, 1,17,310-2-1. tv ~ “d ~ tj ~ ~ 0, 1-:3 1-:3 >. ….. rn ~ tz:j ‘0’ :Il ~ . IX] PUBLIC HEALTH Statement showing the number of in-patients treated in the hospitals during fasli 1345. 265 Name of the institution. Total number Daily average. treated. Town General Hospital 1,942 94’69 Ponnamaravathi Dispensary 137 2’95 H. II. the Rani’s Hospital 1,616 63’5 Statement comparing the extent of Medical Relief afforded hy the State with that afforded in the adjoinhig British Districts. Total Average Average popula~ion No. of Districts and the Total area according Medical ~rea served population No. State. in square to the insti- by an served by Bemarks. miles. oensus of tutions. insti- an insti- 1931. tution. tution. (1) , (2) (3) (4.) (5) (6) (7) (8) 1 Pudukkottai … 1,1’19 4,00,694. *15 78’60 26,713 • Including the Ayur- 2 Trichinopoly … 4,314. 1~,93,245 20 215’70 95,662 vedic Dispensary and 3 Tanjore … 3,74.2 23,85,920 52 71’96 4.5,883 the Aided Dispensary, 4 Madura … 4,912 21,95,74.7 35 14.0’34 62,736 Avayapatti. 5 RamnA.d … 4,819 18,38,955 37 130’24 49,701 N. B.-There are 435 subsidized rural dispensaries in the Madras Presidency but the number of such institutions in each district is not given in the Report. So the subsidized rural dispensaries have not been included in column 5 of this statement. f The Pudukk6ttai State … 34.0 per square mile. Density of Population in The Tanjore District … 638 per square mile. Administration.-The department now consists o.f a Chief Medical and Sanitary Officer who is the Administrative head of the whole department, one Resident Medical Officer in charge of the General Hospital, one Radiologist, 17 Sub-Assistant Surgeons including the I..Jady Sub-Assistant Surgeon attached to the General Hospital and one Dentist. The Lady Doctor and a Resident Lady Sub-Assistant Surgeon are in charge of the Rani’s Hospital. The Ayurvedic dispensary is under the charge of a qualified physician trained in the Sri Venkataramana Dispensary, Mylapore. 266 PUDUKKOTTAI STATE [CHAP. Financial.-The total expenditure of the Medical Department in fasli 1345 was Rs. 1,2;J,386. The cost of maintaining the Hospitals and Dispensaries was Rs. 1,14,316. The total cost of medicines and surgical instruments purchased during fasli 1345 . for the General Hospital exceeded Rs. 23,000. ~rhe expenditure of· the Vaccination department was Rs. 4,058, and that of the Public Health department Rs 1,730. The cost of maintaining the Veterinary Hospital in the Town was Rs. 3,280. SECTION II1.–VITAL STATISTICS. No vital statistics were collected till 1876. Statistics was first compiled only for the town, and afterwards for the whole State. Though the registration of births and deaths is now compulsory, the figures are more or less unreliable except those for the Municipality, the blame for which must be laid at bhe door of the village officer who, ‘amid the toils of keeping aocounts and collecting mamuls, pays scant heed to what he and his friends consider the idle curiosity of an eccentric Sircar ‘. * The following table gives the vital statistics for the last twenty years. Fasli. 1326 (1916-17) 1327 (1917-18) 1328 (1918-19) 1329 (1919-20) 1330 (1920-21) 1331 (1921-22) 1332 (1922-23) 1333 (1923-24) 1334 (1924-25) 1335 (1925-26) 1336 (1926-27) 1337 (1927-28) 1338 (1928-29) 1339 (1929-30) 1340 (1930-31) 1341 (1931-32) 1342 (1932-33) 1343 (1933-34) 1344 (1934-35) 1345 (1935-36) VITAL STATISTICS 1. Births. 7,551 7,805 8,591 8,548 8,905 8,511 8,897 9,294 8,687 7,926 7,669 6,859 6,821 6,409 5,816 5,809 7.204 7,041 6,726 7,617 * Madra,s Census Report for 1911-Pa,rt 1. Deaths. 7,202 7,715 12,310 8,923 7,809 6,464 7,573 7,287 8,864 8,286 9,256 8,192 8,042 5,955 5,696 5,281 4,851 5,945 6,542 6,602 IX] PUBLIC HEALTH ‘267 VITAL STATISTICS II. N umber of deaths from —–r—- — ;< >, ci I I Fasli. 0 ‘””‘ 0 r ~ CD 0 ‘”‘ Total. I Q) 00 1- 00 ~'”1j..cl ..c:I CD ~-.–. 1326 1327 1328 1329 13BO 1331 1332 1333 1334 1335 1336 1337 1338 I33£) 1340 1341 1342 1343 1344 1345 ~ ;… ~ [£) ~ CD CD ~ 1:: o ::I S :>- ‘” Gil Gil ….. ce 6 s CD >, .~ <0 w r:t1 ~ ~ I … nil 300 I … … .. . 7,022 … ·501 209 … … … 7,715 I … 466 656 4,974 … .. . 12,310 .” 503 718 1,390 … . .. … 75 149 1,256 … … … 95 64 … . .. .. . … 9 300 974 … .. . … 87 112 828 341 5,919 … 1,480 119 870 314 6,081 … 545 291 805 276 6,369 … 1,065 156 761 473 6,811 … 351 47 631 361 6,802 … 651 47 677 337 6,330 … 86 3 623 257 4,986 … 97 6 743 268 4,582 … 10 207 624 321 4,119 … 1 434 658 139 3,619 … nil 168 933 246 4,598 … 124 245 906 311 4,956 … nil 41 786 394 5,381 SECTION IV.–PUBLIC HEALTH ORGANISATION AND ADMINISTRATION. 8,923 7,809 6,464 7,573 7.287 8,864 8,286 9,256 8,192 8,042 5,955 5,696 5,281 4,851 5,945 6,542 6,602 The Public Health Organisation for the State is in a real sense the outgrowth of the Medical Department. At first this Depi1rtment which consisted almost entirely of the staff of H. H. The Raja’s Hospital mainly ministered to the medical officials and noeds of the residents of the Town. In 1894 tho Chief Medical Ofiicer in charge of the Raja’s Hospital was designated the Chief Medical and S~nitary Officer and was charged with the supervision of medical service in the Taluks and in the Town municipality, as well as of public health activities in the interior. The supervision of rural sanitation which had hitherto been a function of the Tahsildars was transferred in 190’2-1903 to the rural Sub-Assistant Surgeons. The Inspector of Vaccination was made an ex-officio Sanitary Inspector. 268 puburnw1″l’Al STATE [CHAP. A Village Sanitation Hegulati{)l1 was passed in 1909-10. There are at present a touring H-ealth Jnspector and a staff of Vaccinators to assist the Chief Medical a.nd Sanitary Officer. Health Education.-The Health Department has now a complete magic-lantern outfit with a number of lantern slides. In Fasli 1345 the Chief Medical Officer visited 34 villages and the Health Inspector, 27.5. They gave 40 magic-lantern lectures and 275 discourses on health subjects, especiarlly the preventive measures to be taken against small-pox, cholera, hook-worm and guinea-worm and anti-rabic treatment. Suggestions for the improvement of sanitation in villages were also given. The Department has been making special and elaborate sanitary arrangements during the Mariamman festivals at Narttamalai 3,nd Konnaiyur, and the Easter festival at Avur. A number of trenched latrines are constructed at these centres during the festivals. Drinking water sources are chlorinated. The Health Inspector visits· food and rerated-water-stalls to ensure the purity of the articles sold. Advantage is taken of these festivals to d.o· useful health propaganda work, and the precautionary measures. taken by the Health staff serve as practical demonstrations to the people. ‘rhe annual inspection of pupils in schools and in the College has now become a regular feature of the work of the medical staff. ‘rhe Chief Medical Officer examines all the students of the local College, the Resident Medical Officer, all the boys of the C. S. M. High School and the Lady Doctor, all the girls of the Rani’s High School. The sub-assistant surgeons of the rrown and the Mofussil dispensaries examine the pupils of the rural elementary schools. rrhe results of the medical examination are communicated to the parents through the heads of the institutions. The defects most commonly noted are malnutrition, bad teeth, and defective eye sight. The .Health Inspector delivers health lectures in the college and at meetings of the teachers’ associations; and this has helped to secure the co-operation of the teachers in the general campaign against disease and insanitation. IX.] PUBLIC HEALTH 269 SECTION V.-VETERIN ARY HOSPITAL. A Veterinary hospital was started in the capital town in “Fasli 1318 (1908-09). It has a qualified veterinary surgeon who is under the l1dministrative control of the Chief Medical and Sanitary officer. The hospital has accommodation in its wards for 4 horses and 10 cattle. A touring veterinary assistant surgeon was appointed in fasli 1332 (192’2-23), and placed under the control of the De”\van Peishkar. In fasli 1339 (10’29-30), when Rinderpest broke out in the State, an anti-rinderpest campaign was started and anti-rinderpest serum for inoculation was got from the . MukteSi1l’ serum institute. In Fasli 1340 the Darbar introduced Regulation No. 1 of 1931 on the lines of the Madras Cattle Diseases Act, for the prevention of the spread of cattle diseases in the State. But since Hospital pounds have not been instituted it has so far remained a dead-letter. In the same fasli, the Veterinary Surgeon in charge of the town Veterinary Hospital was deputed to undergo postgraduate training in the Madras Veterinary College in Pathology, Bacteriology, Parasitology and Immunology. The touring Veterinary assistant was sent later to the Madras Veterinary College to undergo practical training in the simultaneous method of serum inoculation against Hinderpest. This method of treatment has now been introduced in the State, and the serum and virus are got from the Civil Veterinary Department, Madras.. The disease is now almost non-existent. In fasli 1343, the Darbar increased the number of tOllring Veterinary assistants to three-one for each tt~lllk. One touring Veterinary assistant surgeon has been trained in apiculture. For the past three years Blackquarter has been prevalent in many villages in Alangudi and Kolattur taluks. The spread of the disease is being checked by serum and filtrate aggressin or bacterin inoculation on a large scale in the villages. The serum and other biological products, formerly got from the Muktesar Institute, are now got from the. Bangalore serum 270 PUDUKKOTTAI STA.TE Institute. Castration of scrub bulls, i. e., bulls unfit for stud purposes, is done both in the town Hospital and by the touring Veterinary assistants. In addition to inoculation and castration, the touring Veterinary assistants treat general diseases of cattle. The health of the livestock of the town dairy-farm is under the supervision of the surgeon in charge of the Veterinary Hospita1. The animals in the Palace Stables are also under his care. In. addition to his duties in the Veterinary Hospital, the town Veterinary Surgeon certifies and passes sheep for slaughter in the Municipal Sheep Slaughter House. In fasli 1344, 510 animals were rejected as unfit for human consumption. In fasli 1345, 1,412 animals, of which 75 were equines, 1,157 bovines and 180 of other species, were treated in the Town Veterinary Hospital as out-patients. About 86 animals were treated as in-patients for various diseases. The daily average number of out-patients in the Hospital was 42’97, and that of in-patients 3’76. The number of operations performed in the Hospital during the fasli was 207, of which 64 were castrations of bovines. The following statistics illustrate the work of the touring veterinary· surgeons in the State in fasli 1345. Number Number N1.1mber Veterinary Assistant. of animals ‘Of’.animals of castrations treated. inoculated. done. Alangudi Taluk … . .. 1,121 1,615 596 Kolattur Taluk … … 193 37 43 Tirumayam Taluk … … 538 542 120 Total for Taluks … 1,852 2,194 759 There were no cases of contagious or infectious diseases except of foot and mouth disease which is prevalent in many parts of the State at the time of ,vTiting. CHAPTER X. EDUCATION. Indigenous schools.-In very remote times colonies of learned Brahmins were induced to settle in the country by free grants of land. In comparatively modern times either from piety or from love of learning, rulers such as N amana rrondaiman, Sivagnanapuram Durai and Raghunatha Tondaiman founded settlements of Pandits at Namanasamudram, Vijayaraghunathapuram, 11irumalarayasamudram, Kadayakkudi and Kanappettai, ‘rhus arose the so-called sarvamdnyam villages, shr6triem villages, bhatfavritti and vidavritti lands granted for the maintenance of persons versed in Sanskrit and the Vedas. Moreover, the court supported Pandits who being spiritual and legal advisers to the Rulers, set up small schools, called gurukulas, in their homes, at which young men studied Sanskrit literature and grammar, and Hindu theology and philosophy,-a curriculum answering more or less to the Trivium and Quadrivium of the Middle ages in Europe. ‘rhere was also a system of mass education which played an important part in the village econo~y. The viUage teacher , V dthiar’ was as ubiquitous as the village priest. Each village maintained a teacher who lived precariously on a small income from fees supplemented by a share in the village produce. The school was sometimes held in the pial or verandah of the teacher’s house, sometimes in the open air under a large tree, or in a simple building of mud and thatch. From the point of view of the parents this was a convenient place to which troublesome children could be sent as much to be kept out of mischief for the day as to be instructed, when their fathers did not need their help in the field. But since the intellectual needs of the village lad were few, the curriculhm was unpretentious and could be completed in a year or two. The younger pupils were taught to read and write their mother tongue and 272 PUDUKK6TTAI STATE [CHAP. commit to memory a number of mathematical tables, while the older scholars read some classics such as the K ural and the Naidatham, besides getting by heart a Tamil thesaurus called Nihandu. The” modern side” was. completely negleoted, and in fact neither the teacher nor the taught was aware of its existence. Still it would be unjust to depreciate these ‘little seminaries which for!!1any centuries fulfilled a want and equipped the village boy with a degree of literacy sufficient to enable him to get on in his own occupation or trade. Elementary Education.–The first State school was the charity school that Raja Vijaya Raghunatha opened in the town in 1813, at whi~h children were taught free and supplied with books and wrjting materials. The Indian Missionary Society, Madras, which came to the State in the second quarter of the last century opened some schools to maintain which His Excellency Raja Raghumttha made a free grant of lands. In the year 1848, there were 13 Mission schools at work. In 1857, a free English school was started in the capital. In 1875 and 1876, four similar but smaller schools were opened in Tirug6karnam (a suburb of the town) and at the taluk headquarters. But since they attracted few pupils except the children of officials they had to be closed in 1879 and 1880, so that in the latter year there only remained the English school in the town, and a few Mission and pial schools in the interior. As Mr. Pennington wrote in 1875 there was at that time no gene~al system of education, and when no clearly defined line of policy had been laid down in British India itself it was not surprising that Pudukk6ttai was backward. Even Sir A. Sashia Sastriar, who was Dewan in 1880, was at first loath to interfere with the pial schools which appeared to him “to be doing very well in their own way and did not seem to want State support and State supervision.” He also thought that any attempt by the State to spread Elementary Education on modern lines would present grave difficulties. x] EDUCATION 273 He wrote:- ” In the first place there is no well-to-do middle class among the resident agricultural population of the -State. All are more or less only a few degrees ·removed from poverty and want their children to be at the plough and with their cattle instead of learning lessons in Geography and History in the new fashion schools. To such as care for a knowledge of reading, writing and aritbmetic to the small extent they wR,nt, the indigenous pial schools are at hand and furnish at a very cheap rate and at home the necessary training in a couple of years or so. Thus it is very diffir.ult to persuade the ryot parents to take their boys from the plough or the sheep-fold, to put them into school, there to be taught snch unknown and unintelligible things as Geography, History, or Hygiene. It requires therefore a great deal of coaxing and ta,kes R, long time for a chlwge to come over them in the matter. If the progress is slow, it is therefore simply inevitable. It should be allowed to take its own time.” By 1884 he had revised his views and cautiously framed a few rule~ providing for grants of money in aid of those old schools that conformed to the new requirements. Only 13 schools, including some Mission schools were willing to accept aid; so unattractive did the new curriculum and discipline appear. A full-timed Inspector “vas therefore appointed whose task was to attempt to convert schools to the new type. Abool{-dep6t was opened in 1887-8 at which the ‘new fashion’ books were sold at cost price. Blackboards and other appliances which the old schools did without, but which the new order of things required were supplied gratis. Free sites for schools and subsidies for building them were also granted. In 1895-6, model schools with a trained staff and revised curricula were opened at irnport!tnt centres to serve as object-lessons to private’ schools in the vicinity. In 1902, further financial aid was given to the aided schools in the shape of results-grants awarded in addition to capitation grants. Since the spread of Primary 35 274 PUDURK6TTAI STATE [CHAP. Education was still slow, a conference of experts was held in 1907, the deliberations of which resulted in opening a la,rge number of State schools, furnishing teachers with suitable quarters, and improving their pay and prospects. Free and compulsory Primary Education.-In accordance with a recommendation of the 1907 conference, Primary education was declared· on 1st March 1908 to be free in selected areas, and at a Darbar held in 1912, His Highness the late Raja declared it free over the whole State outside the capital. School Boards ~were formed at important rural centres, and they function. to this day as means of ascertaining the opinion of non-officials regarding the educational needs of the different parts of the State? and securing their co-operation in sp.reading elementary education. In response to repeated ,demands made in the Representative Assembly, the Darbar appointed an Education Committee of officials and non-officials in fasli 1329, to enquire into the state of Elementary Education and to report on the desirability of introducing compulsory Primary Education throughout the State~ and on the ‘steps to be. taken to promote the education of illiterate adults. As a preliminary step to the reorganisation of the educational system, the scale of pay of the differe”nt grades of Elementary school teachers and the scale of grants to aided school teachers were raised in 1920-21 and again in 1934, and the new scales compare very favourably with those obtaining in any British Indian province or in many Indian States. The Elementary Education Regulation (No. VIn of 1925) passed and promulgated on December 1, 1925, made it compulsory for all children between the ages of 7 ltnd 11 to attend a recognised school. The Regulation was first introduced in the Taluk centres .and in the villages constituting the Village Panchayat of Puvarasakudi. Its operation is bei~g gradually extended; and the total number of compulsory education centres at the close of fasli 1345 (June 30, 1936) was 41 with jurisdiction over 103 Revenue villages and 49 hamlets. x] EDUCATION 275 Statistics of literacy by caste, creed and sex are given in Chapter III under’ Literacy’. On June 30, 1936, there were 16,425 pupils in Elementary Schools. The maximum number of pupils on the rolls in the fasli was 20,838 boys and 4,632 girls against 23,30J boys and 4,435 girls in the preceding fasli. The fall in the total number of pupils was due to the suspension of the Elementary Education Act throughout the fasli in view of the acute economic depression owing to the severe drought in 1935. The percentage of boys attending school on June 30, 1936 to the total number of boys of school-going age wa,s 72’68 and that of girls 14’74. The total number of Elementary Schools was 340, made up of 180 State, 88 aided and 72 unaided schools. There was thus a school for every 3’5 square miles of the area . . Curriculum of Studies.-rrhe course of studies in Elementary Schools includes.reading and wl:iting Tamil, and Arithmetic. In standards above the third, the Geography of the State and of the Madras Presidency, the History of the State, stories from Indian History, elementary Hygiene and Nature Study are’ taught. Drawing, gardening and other forms of manual work in Boys’ schools, sewing, embroidery and garment-making in Girls’ schools form part of the Elementary Education Syllabus. Kindergarten plays an important part in the education of children, and its place is taken in the higher standards by action songs and dramatization of lessons. The Darbar· ~ave recently directed that the syllabus of elementary schools should be revised so as to giye it a rural and vocational bias. 36 of the R40 elementary schools are Anglo-Vernacular schools, in which English is taught from the third standard onwards. In 1935-36, there were 3,833 boys and 1,1’27 girls in these Anglo-Vel’llacular schools. Girls’ Schools.-In fasli 1337 there were 18 schools exclusively for gids in the State. In 1340, the number fell to 14 and in 1341, to 6, in consequence of the Darbal”s policy of encouraging the co-education of boys and girls in the Elementary stage. In £asli 1345, Government maintained only one Girls’ School; but 216 PUDUKKOTTAI STATI~ [CHAP. there were three aided schools and one un11ided school (at Valayappatti-Ponnamadtvati) exclusively for girls. Teaching Sta.f.l-In fasli 1345, there were 392 teachers in the State schools and 198 in the aided schools excluding the Pandits, Drawing and Music masters and Weaving and Physieal instructors. rreachers of the Elementary Higher Grade are now more numerous than formerly though the number of Elementary Lower Grade men is still large. The number of untrained teachers holding the departmental licence is gradually going down as they are replaced by trained men. Many of the Higher Grade trained men are holders of the Secondary School Leaving Certificate. There are some University graduates in the cadre of Elementary School teachers. Secondary Education.-rrhere are now ]8 Secondary Schools in the State. One is the Secondary section (a complete High School) attached to H. H. the Raja’s College and is dealt with under the heading “Raja’s College.” There are three other complete High Schools preparing pupils for the Public Examination held by the Government of Madras under the Secondary School Certificate scheme, and eleven Lower Secondary Schools. rrhe Lower Secondary School in the Town chery is reserved for pupils of the Adi-Dravida and other backward communities. Pupils in all the Lower Secondary Schools, except that at Tirug6karnam, are taught free; and deserving pupils of both the Rani’s Free High School for girls and the Adi-Dravida School in the Town chery are helped by the grant of monthly stipends. The strength of all the secondary schools on the last day of fasli 1345 was 2,284. ‘rhe following statement shows the number of pupils in the secondary forms of the State Lower Secondary Schools :– Alangudi Annavasal .. . Viralimalai .. . Karambakkudi· Tirug6karnam Tirurnayam … … 70 … 50 … 29 … 63 … 89 . .. 56 Kiranur Melathciniam Arimalam … … 40 … 15 … 39 Town Puducherri {Adi-Dravida} … 80 xJ EDUCATION 277 H. H. The Rani’. Free High ,School for Girls.-A girls’ school was opened in the Town in 1883 with ’13- pupils. Within a year the strength grew to 62. The -sehool was removed il11891 to a new building in the centre of the town. It was raised to the status of a Lower Secondary School in fasli 1326, and to that of a High School in 1339. It is now staffed with graduates to teach the High School classes, and trained mistresses for the Ele~entary and Lower Secondary classes. The optional subjects under. the Secondary School Leaving Certificate scheme offered by this institution are History, Chemistry and Botany. Music,clo-thes-making and embroidery are taught in all the classes. Religious and moral instruction has been recently introduced. The strength of the school in 1935-36 was 378. The Church of Sweden Mission High SchooI.-The history of ,this school has been briefly dealt with under “Christian Missions” in Chapter III. The pupils are taught History, Algebra and Geometry and Chemistry under the C-group of the Secondary School-Leaving Certificate· course. Moral and religious instruction is also given. The total strength (‘if the school in 1935-36 was 307 classified as follows;- Hindus 238 Ohristians 49 Muhammadans 9 Depressed Olasses 11 Total 307 ‘J.1he staff consists of a Headmaster, 6 graduates, 7 trai.ned teachers, Manual Tr~ining, Drill and Drawing Instructors and Pandits. In 1935-36, there were 28 boarders receiving free instruction in the school hostel. 47 other pupils were granted concessions in regard to fees. The cost of such concessions amounted to Rs. 840 or roughly 1/5 of the fee income of the school. The school has a good record in Scouting and Sports. In 1935-36 it received State grants amounting to Rs. 2,200. 278 PUDUKKOTTAI STATE [CHAP. The Sri Bhumeeswaraswami High School, Ramachandrapuram.·-This school· owes its . existence to the munif~eence of Mr. S. T. Nagappa Chettiar, who has provided it with a a spacious and substantial building. It was opened in fasli 1327, and was soon raised to the status of a High School. History, Geometry and Algebra, and Physics are the special subjects taught in forms V and VI. There were 380 pupils all the rolls in fasH 1345, distributed as follows :- Hindus … 343 Christians 26 Muhammadans 4 Depressed Classes 7 Total 380 The staff consists of a Headmaster, 3 graduates, an undergraduate, 3 Secondary Grade trained men, :2″ Pandits and a Drawing Master. ‘fhis was originally a free school, but fees are now levied. 32 pupils were granted concessions in respect of fees in fas!i 1345. The school has been successful in Sports. ‘fhe State grants disbursed to the Secondary section of this institution in 1935-36 amounted to Rs. ] ,716. Sri Satyamurti Secondary School, Tir)Jmayam.- The late Dewan Bahadur T. N. Muthiah Chettiar of Ramachandrapuram took over the management of the National Secondary School at Tirumayam, and shifted it in 1924 to its present extensive building which he constructed. The school was called the Sri Satyamurti Secondary School and was raised to a High School in 1927. But financial difficulties prevented its continuance as a High School, and the Chettiar handed it over to the Darbar in 1931. The school now works as a I_ower Secondary School and had 344 pupils on its rolls in 1935-36 including those in the elementary section. Collegiate Education, H. H. The Raja’s College.-The premier educationa.l institution in the State is H. H. The Raja’s College at the capital which owes its origin to an AngloVernacular school started in 1857 under the title ‘Maharaja’s x] EDUCATION 279 Free scbool’, and maintained out of the State charity funds. From 1866, a nominal fee ,v~as collected to ensure regularity among the scholars, but the amount thus realised was returned in the shape of books, etc., supplied to the pupils. In 1868, the pupils llumberd only 68, and since even these were ill-dassified, and ill-taught, Mr. Oaldwell, an Inspector of Schools in the Madras Presidency was requested in 1875 to inspect tbe scbool and suggest means of improving it. Under his advice presumably, a graduate Head-master was appointed in 1878. This was the turning-point in the history of the Institution. ‘rhe school \vhich had hitherto taught only up to the fifth Form was remodelled and re-classified, and the curriculum revised to suit the Matriculation standard. The strength soon rose to 300, and a new building was erected at a cost of Rs. 14,000 and formally opened .in March 1879 “in the presence of His Excellency the Raja, Mr. Sewell, Political Agent” and others,” when His Excellency was pleased to enter his own grandson as a student”. In 1880, tbe school sent up candidates to the Matriculation examination for the first time, and the Oollege department was opened and affiliated to the MadraR University. The school having again outgrown its ~tccommodation, surrounding houses and sites were occupied, an upper story “vas erected over the main building, and the lowest classes were disb~nded or handed over to private agencies. When, in 1880, the accommodation once more proved insufficient it was resolved to build a fine edifice in an airy locality outside the town. This building was commenced in August 1888 and completed and occupied in 1891. It was originally rectangular but after the addition’ of the Ohemistry and Engineering laboratories with a spacious hall above tbem, it is now T shaped. It includes a hall adapted for use as a Theatre in which the library is located. It has an extensive compound, and spacious play-grounds, and in point of accommodation, and surroundings it is now one of the best school-houses in Southern India, thanks mainly to the progressive policy of the late Sir A. Sashia Sastriar, 280 PUDUKKOTTAI STATE [CHAP. The College was reorganised between 1908 ana 1910 to suit the remodelled courses of Secondary and University edncation. It now prepares pupils for the Madras Government Seuonaary School-Leaving Certificate and the Madras University Intermediate Examinations; but till 1920, Collegiate instruction was confined to History and there was no ‘ modern side.’ In 1921, a new Laboratory was built, and the teaching of science was introduced. The year 1928 saw the opening of Engineering courses, and in the following year, a workshop was constructed. In addition to the Intermediate course in Electrical-Engineering, there is now a Minor Engineering course to provide a short professional course for pupils who do not intend to take a University course. In 1935, Commercial Classes prepariiig pupils for the Madras Technical Examinations were opened. In the same year, instruction in Agriculture was introduced. The College owes its initia.l success to a succession of eminent Princ.ipals and Professors among whom may be mentioned the late Mr. S. N arayanaswamy Aiyar, the pioneer of English education in the State, and those versatile scholars, the late Messrs. S. Radhakrlshna Aiyar, B. V. Kameswara Aiyar and S. rr. Rama;chandra Sastriar. Its expansion after 1920 is due to the untiring energy of Rao Saheb N. Thiagaraja Aiyar the present Principal. In addition to English (Part I of the Intermediate course), and a Second Language,-Sanskrit or Tamil (Part II), there are courses in the college under Part III in Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Electrical Engineering, Modern History, Indian History and Logic. The optional subjects taught in the High School for the Secondary School Leaving Certificate examination are Algebra and Geometry, Chemistry, Physics, History, Typewri ting, Book-keeping and Agricul ture. Carpen try, gardening and Sloyd form the manual side of instruction. Religious and moral instruction is imparted in all the classes and to all communities and sects. x] EDUCATION 281 ~ehe strength of the institution III fasli 1345 was as follows :- Section. Hindus. Christians. Muham- Adi- Total. madans. Dravidal;!. Intermediate 94 4 1 99 High School 404 16 14 H 443 Lower Secondary … 348 6 20 374 Total … 846 26 35 9 916 ‘fhe staff consists of the Principal, two Headmasters (High School and Lower Secondary), seven Lecturers and two rutors for the University Classes, ten’ Assistants for the High School’ and eleven teachers for the .Lower Secondary section, hesides five Pandits, a Physical Director, a Physical Instructor, a Sloyd Master and .It Carpentry InsW’l’lctor. In addition to the permanent staff, 9 graduates hold temporary appointments. State Aid to pupils.-, In fasli 1345, 72 pupils .vere admitted as free hoarders and free scholars, 26 received stipends in addition to free tuition, and 211 enjoyed concessionfl in respect of fees. 1’he nUluber of pupils receiving State Aid of any descriptiona·rranged !weordingto community are as follows :- Non- Adi-Dravida Description. Brahmins. Brahmins and Muham- Chris- Total. Caste Backward madans. tians. Hindus. classes. Free Boarders … 11 34 12 4 11 72 Stipendiaries … 5 3 15 3 26 Free ScholarR .. , 56 51 93 23 11 234 There are eight private endowments, which provided 10 pupils with scholarships in 1935-36. ‘rhe College has completely equippe.d laboratories feft Physics and Chemistry and Electrical Engineering. ‘l’he High School section has separate laboratories for Physics and ChemiAtry. There is a workshop’ attached to the laboratories, where carpentry is taught; In 1935-36, the cost of maintaining all the laboratories exceeded Rs. 2,500. 2.82. PUDUKK6:rTAI !5TATE [CHAP. Library and Reading room.-‘rhe Library is divided into three sections-·the College, the High School and the Lower Secondary. On ,Jnne 30, 1936, there were 6,625 volumes in the College, 3,404 in the High School, and 4,890 in the Dower Secondary sections respectively. The Reading Room takes in 147 periodicals, foreign and Indian, English and .Tamil. Therp, is also a Reading Room attached to the Hostels. H ostel.-rrhe College maintains three Hostels-Vegetarian, Non-Vegetarian and Adi-Dravida. The Vegetariari Hostel was open~d in 19’23 to the east of the College buildings, the nonvegetarian section, in 19’28 in the Aiya,r’s Palace just to the south of the Branch School building, and the Adi-Dravida section in H135. In 1935-36, there were 121 boarders, of whom 7’2 were fed free. ‘rhe average monthly charges for payingboarders are about Rs. 12 in tlfe Vegetarian and Rs. 8 in the Non-Vegetarian Section. The monthly charges incurred per head of the free boarders ar!lOunt to aboutRs. 10 . .in the· vegetarian, Rs. 8 in the non-vegetarian, and Rs. 10 in the Adi-Dravida Sections. The Principal is the Warden of the Hostels, and he is assisted. by a lecturer who is the resident Superintendent and a master v,iho is in separate charge of the non-vegetarian section. The college has extensive and well laid-out play-grounds in close vicinity. In 1n31, the scheme of physical education was reorganised and made an integral part of the school vlOrk. A Physical Director trained at the Y. M. C. A. College of Physical Education, Madras, is in charge of sports. ‘l’ennis, Football, Crieket, Hockey, Volley Ball, Basket Ball, Ring Tennis, Playground Ball, Badminton and Pingpong Me played. A coach was recently appointed to train pupils in Cricket. There is a good Sports Pavilion on the ground. Mrs. Holdsworth laid the foundation stone of this building in Decefiiher 1933, and it was opened in November 1934, qy Sir Alexander Tottenham. The expenses of sports are met from the annual Darbar grant of Rs. 600 and from subscriptiol1B from pupils exceeding Rs. 2,COO a year. x] EDUCATION rrhere are at presentthree.Scout troops in the College. Finance.-The following table shows the receipts and expenditure of the Oollege in 1935-1936;- :Heceipts. Expenditure. Oollege Section 4,523 29.296 High School Section Etc. … 14,421 40.3H6 Extra·curricular activities.-rrhefe are 11 Students’ Associations, ·1 in the Oollege and 7. in the High School and Lower Secondary Sections. Special lectures on cultural and religious topics are delivered periodioally. Abont 20 were delivered in 1935-36. The Oollege Magazine was started in 1933, and publishes contributions in English’, Sanskrit RJnd Tamil from teachers and students, both past and present. A recent feature is the – annual educational conferenoe first orgRJuised on the oceasionof the Golden Jubilee of the Col lege to discnss new and improved methods of teaching, and also to focus public interest and attention on the aotivities of the institntion and their results. It is attended by all the teachers in the State. General.-rrhe University Commission inspected the College in 1D06, 1910, 1918 and 1928 and their reports have been uniformly favourable. rrhe College celebrated its Golden Jubilee in 1934. The celebrations began on November 30th RJnd lasted for three days. They were inaugurated by His Highness the RRJja RJssisted by the Administrator, Sir Alexa/nder rrottenham. The Assistant Adminlstra.tor, Hao Saheb R. Krishllamachal’ial’, opened the rreachers’ Confel’81ice forming part of the Jubilee programme, over which Rev. Father P. Carty S. J, of St. J oseph’8 College, Trichinopoly presided. On the cOlleluding day, there was a general meeting of the staff, the old boys nnd the present students of the Oollege, presided over by Rao Bahadnr K. V. Rengaswami Aiyangar of Trivandrnm. In his speech the Administrator paid the following tribute to the Uollege.- ” A College is what its alumni are; its reputation is bound up with that of its sons and daugh tel’s. Judged by this standard, this College may well be. proud of its work. It has manned practically all the State servioes from top to bottom, and the l?UDUKKOTTAI STATE LOHAl’. high level of, efficiency that distinguishes the State Public Service to-day affords practical evidence of the meritorious service that the College has rendered to’ the eOllnnunity at large. It haH prod~eed men who have filled the highest ‘offices in the State, such as’ the late Vijaya Raghunatha Durai Rajah, who for fL period of 30 years, as Councillor, Dewan and Regent, carried on the. administnttion with conspicuous ability, Rao Sahib G. Ganapati Sastriar, formerly’ Dewan, and :Mr. R. KriHluulluacha.riar, the present Assistant Administrator. “It is 110 lIlere fanciful belief that each educational institution leases an impress. of its own upon its pupils. It pleases olle to think that the hall-mark that the Maharaja’s College, Pudnkkottai, impresses on its alumni is reliability and. a sense of dnty.” Sanskrit and Tamil learning.’ The Veda Sdstra Pdtasdld.-Witir the help of a fund called the Manovirthi Jagir surplus chatram’Fund ‘a, Sanskrit school was opened in 1894 with the sonorous designation ‘yffi:li ViUl.sa Veda Sastl’fL Patasala, with. a view t~ revive and foster oriental .stml,ies. rro this was affiliated· the Palace ,oriental library or Sarasvati mahal containing rare works in eadjan. rrheSchool was first locatedll,t ‘I’irugok!1rnarn and is now held in the old Palace., SuaY,lmpdkams ‘(or doles of rice) were at first given to poor 8tudents. In bsli 132(), this system was discontinued mHl pupils were fed’ and lodged free. In the same year, English was introduced as an optional subject. As an experimental mefLsnre the institution was raised to the status of a I ‘ , College to train pupils for the SiromaJ,li rritl~ Examination of the Madras University; but as only one native of the State • joined the course, the ex.periment was given up. ‘rhe ‘Patasala was fnrther reorganised in 1926, and instead of free boarding, the pupils are now given stipends. The Patasala has two sections, on6 for the study of Vedaj and the other for that of Sanskrit Lallg~lage, Litel’atnre, Logic n.nd Philosophy. There were 27 ‘pupils on the rolls of the Patasala OIl the last day of fash 1345: xJ E:DUCA’1’10~ 285 Datlsara, Examinations .. -The Darhar have instituted examinations in Sanskrit· all:d Tamil held during the Dassara holidays. ‘rhese areeonducted by boards of examiners (one for. Sanskrit, one for ‘r~:unil al”id a third for Agama or temple -ritual) presided over by the Dewan (U0W the Assistant Administrator). The Sanskrit Board consists of 22 examiners including six 8adasyas (Court Pandits) aHd sixteen Vidwdns (Scholars), and· the ‘ramil Board of three Vidwdns. Sueeessful candidates a,re a,warded samba vanas or prizes ranging from Rs. 10 . to Rs. 30 iIi amount. On the average more than Rs, 4,000 per annum is distributed in prizes. Kalasaias.-In reuent times kalasalas or improved ‘ramil seminaries have sprung up all over the Chettinad. ‘rhey teach Vermtcular literature a~ld grammar, the Indian system of Arithmetic HInd Hindu ‘rheology and Ethics. The school at K6napet has a fine and spacious school house with playground and chapel. The Melasivalpuri kalasala receives a State grant, and had 126 pupils OIl its rolls in 1H35-36, ofwholll 29 were girls. ‘l’hese sohools hold anuual Conferences of learned men from all over the country at which a variety of subjects, of literary, religious and social importance are discoursed upon for the benefit of the public. Normal instruction.-The training of the village teacher has always formed part of” the scheme of general education. \Vhen School Inspectors were first appointed one of their primary duties was to train the aided school staff. . In 1889, the teachers were fo:r the first :time brought together for instruction in the art and science of teaching. In 1895, ·they were again gathered in selected centres “for luutual improvement.” A licensing-board was formed in 1901-2 to examine the proficiency of the teaching staff, and some. teachers were sent with stipends· to Training schools in British India. A sessional training class worked in 1906-7, and in 1908, it developed into a regular ‘rrainillg school with a model section for practical training PUDUKK6’l’TAISTATE [CHAP. located in Tirug6karnarn.. Subsequently special schools were opened to train teachers belonging to the backward communities. A special Training class for school-mistresses was held in 1910, . and for some years there was a separate Adi-Dravida school in the Town Chery. These speeial schools were later closed, and the ‘llraining School at Tirug6karnam was thrown open to all classes and to both sexes. In 1920, a batch of teachers were instructed in the ‘direct method’ of teaching English. The Training School trained teachers for the Elementary Higher Grade and Lower Grade· Examinations held by the department. The training included a course in Hyg~ene and Veterinary science, and instruction in practical Agriculture at the State Agricultural Farm. Mainly as a measure Of retr:enchment the rrrailling School was closed infasli 1342, but the Darbar hope to re~open it if necessary when finances permit. The Darbar gran.t stipends ·whenever necessary to graduate teachers who take the course for the Licentiate in Teaching Degree of the Madras University, and to under~graduates and S. S. L. C. holders undergoing the Secondary Grade r:£.lraining in Bri tish India. There are now 17 Teachers’ Associations with a total membership of 555; and they hold monthly meetings to discuss special methods of teaching under the guidance of Inspecting Officers. Education· of the: Backward Cla.’.ea.-As far back as 1886, a school for Muhammadans was opened in the town. It is now a flourishing institution teaching Arabic and the Koran in addition to the usual subjects. In 1894, Night schools were opened for the artisan classes, and special schools were started for Adi-Dravidas. In 1921, there were 11 schools for Muhammadans and 19′ for Adi-Dravidas. In 1924, the Adi-Dravida school in the capital was raised to the status of a Lower Secondary’ School. x-J EDUCATION 287 This demand for separate institutions for Adi-Dravidas and other backward .classes,-for “segregate” schools as they came to be termed in Educational Committee Reports,-resulted, in the words of the Witherill. Commission, “in the lack of healthy competition incidental to their shattered condition,” and conseq.uently to ” inferior tuition,” besides tending to emphasise rather than reduce .the differ~nces between the “depressed classes” and the other ca,ste Hindus. Since fasli 1339(1929-30) pupils of this community have been freely admitted into caste schools a.ll over the State. Wherever practicable the separate schools maintained for the education of the Adi-Dravidas have been abolished and tho pupiis of those school~ admitted into the adjoining easte schools. As the result of this policy, against 41 ” segregate” schopls for Adi-Dravidas in 1928-29, there were only 10 in 1935-36, whilst the number of Adi-Dravida pupils rose from 2,106 in 1928-29 to 4,802 in 19:34-35. The Reclamation 8chool.–This is a residential school for Korava boys. It was first opened at. Tirnmayam in fasli 1335 and was removed in fa,sli 1340 to the Olaganatha Swami Matam building near Sandapettai in the capital town. The boys are nS11a,l1y educated up to the Fifth standard, but the more promising receive higher education. Advanced pupils study for the S. S. L. C. examination in the High school. vVeaving is taught here. Pupils who do not join the High school learn either fitting, tailoring etc., in the Marthanda Industrial Institute attached to the Public Works Department, or compounding in the General Hospital, or composing type in the State Press. There are now %) pupils in the school and they are fed and clothed at State cost. The orphanage in the Sri Vijaya Raghunatha Poor Home* is an asylum for destitute children and waifs among whom are boys of the backward communities who study in the College and the Secondary schools in the ‘rown. ” See under “Vijaya Raghunatha Poor Home” in the chapter on “Devastanam at;ld Charities.” PUDUKKOTTAI STATE fCHAP. Vocational Instruction. The Sri Mdrthdnda Industrial scho,ol.-Teohnical eduoation was started in 1891-2 by sendi~lg two’ State scholars to be trained in the Soh061 of. Arts and the Engineering College at Madras. The Sri Martp.anda school was opened in February 1896 with ~lasses for wood-carving and carpentry; rattan-work, smithery, making jewellery, painting, eleotroplating, watch and clock repairing, drawing, tailoring, and printing. Several of the classes have now been closed, and the ,Institution is now absorbed in the,D. P. W.-Workshop under the supervision of the State· Engineer. It has now 13 apprentices who receive training in carpentry, smithery, tailoring, painting and handliI1g machines. The State Weaving school.-This was opened in HHOa.t Tirug6karnam ‘for the benefit of the Sowrashtra boys· at rfiruvappur which is close by.. Students were admitted to learn to make carpets, sheets and towels on f{yshuttle-looms and were paid stipends. The school was later transferred to RMambakkudi primarily in order to train the children of the Adi-Dravida cotton weavers in the neighbourhood, but pupils of other castes were also admitted; all were given stipends. The strength of the school, however,was low and its cost high. It was therefore abolished. rrhe weaving class was. first transferred to the Town Chery Secondary school arid is now attached to the Reclamation school. Weaving is now taught in the Annavasal and Tirurnayam Secondary schools, and $pinning in many elementary schools. The State Agricultural 8chool.–,.An Agricultural Demonstration Farm and Training Institute was opened in March 1896, to teach Surveying, I.Jevelling, Mensnration, Agriculture and Hygiene among other subjects. In the same year a Demonstration Dairy Farm was added to it with a view to improve the local cattle and .supply good milk to the town. _ Since these Institutions were found to work at a loss,they were all closed in 1899. rfheAgricultural· Farm was revived in 1911 xJ EDUCATION 289′ An Agricultural sohool was attached to it ,but \vas closed’ a few years later, when Agricultur~’ was made a compulsory subject in the Teachers’ Training school. Pa~sing mention may be made of some short-lived institutions which are now defunct. They’ are the Sri Ramachandra Sangita Sala which was opened in 1896 and closed in 1898. A smA,ll Music school, a private institution called the Minakshi Sangita Bala has recently been opened in the capital. Mass Education.-. In fasli 1334, the Darbar sanctioned. a . scheme for the elementary education of adults in a one year. _course with provision for a ‘continuation’ course of six months. r]111.e soheme also provided for the payment of grants to teachers who conducted these schools. The scheme was in force till fasli 1342, but the results were not gratifying and many.of the pupils re-Iapsed into illiteracy. Adult eduea,tion is now imparted through rural libraries, magic lantern lectureR, and lectures on rural improvement. In fash 1345, 390 teachers took part· in this work, and the total number of lectures that were delivered including 16 IA,ntern lectures, was 2,269, attended by no less than 67,637 persons. Libraries.-Before 1911, there were only twoljbraries in the State, the Saraswati Mahalwhich was later attached to the Veda Patasala and the Tamil Library which was .amalgamated with the College library. In that yea,r a public library was opened in the Town Hall under the name of tIle I’ Union Club.” In 1918, under the auspices of the Union Clnb, the first Reading Room and I..Jlbrary Conference of the State was held with the Regent in the chair. It was then proposed to establish a Contral Library in the Town, but the Darbar ha,ve not ,yet been able to find the considerable sum required for the purpose. All the Teachers’ Associations in the State have their own libraries, and the Town Teachers’ Associa,tion library housed in the Silver Hall in the Old Palace and known as the “Sarada Library” has nearly 3,400 volumes. Six’ hundred books belonging ::17 290 PUDUKK6TTAI STATE [CHAP. to this library are circulated in ten boxes to the Secondary schools for ·the benefit of their pupils. In fasli 1329, the Education department jntroduced a system of traselling libraries. Boxes of books are .sent out to villages from the office of the Superintendent of Schools; and the rural teachers issue the books to literate villagers, and occasionally gather the villagers together and read to them. In fasli1333, ·four women’s libraries were opened, one in the Rani’s High school, and the other three in each of the talnk centres. There are a number of private libraries, 38.of which receive gfants from Government. There is a Central Library Association which organises conferences, exhibitions and lectures during important festivals. Exhibitions. The Sri Mdrthdnda Exhibition.-To encourage manual work amongst school children, an educational Exhibition called the ‘Sri Saraswati Exhibition’ was first organised in 1907, and held for some years in succession. In 1911–2 its scope was extellded to include agriculture, industries and fine arts. It was designated the ‘Sri Marth~l.nda Exhibition’ and was thrown open to all, so that e’xhibits were received from such distant places as Poona and Benares. Demonstrations were conducted, I and lectures delivered. This enlarged exhibition was held continuously for four years till 1915, when it’ was closed on account of the war. vVhile it lasted it was largely attended and was very popular. In . 1920, a Historical conference was held in the College in connection with which an exhibition of coins, pictures, cparts, documents of historical interest and old implements and weapons, was organised. On the occasion of the Golden Jubilee of the College there was a small Science exhibition in the College Hall. The State Library Association has held a number of Library Exhibitions: A small but interesting exhibition is held every year on the Children’s Day celebrated by the General Education Department. x] EDUCATION 29i The Children’s Guild and the Boy Scout Movement.- In ] 916 Mr. B. V. Sankarakameswara Aiyar, the then Superintendent of Schools, organised the. Children’s Guild with the object of encouraging children to use their hands and eyes and take an interest in some hobby, and to try to be of some use to society. ‘ Good turns’ done by children are recorded in the , Golden Deed’ Register and rewarded. A general meeting of the Guild is held annually, when large numbers of village children spend a day or two in the capital, watch the various competitions and sports, and visit the exhibition ‘which includes school work, the handicraft of pupils and teachers, and educational charts and appliances. Tnter-school competitions in sports are held; and the children stage a drama. The Darbar have now ordered that hereafter the Children’s Day should be held every year on 23rd ,June, which is the birthday of His Highness the Raja according to the Christian calendar. The event is one to which pupil~ ~nd teachers eagerly look forward. A Volunteer Corps was formed in the College in 1916 for the purpose of training pupils to render social service. This was the nucleus of the Boys Scout Movement in the College. rrwo years later, a teacher was seut for Scout-Master’s training, and on his return a ‘scout troop wa.s formed in the College. A Scout camp was held in 1922-23 to train Scout-Masters; and in 1923, the Pudukk6ttai Boys Scout Association w~s formally inaugurated and affiliated to the Boys Scout Association in India. rrhe Association was slowly extended to the mofussil. In fasli 1339 (1929-30), a scout training camp “vas held under the direct supervision of the Dewan. In 1930 the Darbal’ appointed an Organising Secretary for the State. rrhere are at present 29 llnits with a total membership of 929 including all ranks-·Scouters, Scouts, Cubs and Rovers. The groups are mostly attached to schools. His Highness the Raja is the Chief Scout for the State. The scouts render active service during all the important festivals in the State. 292 PtJDUKK6T1’AI STATE [CHAt>. Administrative.-While there were still only a few taluk schools to look after, the Head-master of the English schoo} at ,theoapital was entrusted with their supervision. An Inspeotor was appointed in 1886. He was given two assistants in 1889. The department waf; under a Director of Instruction from 1895 to 1897 when the post was abolished. The Principal of the College was placed ill charge of all the schools in the State till October 1909, as an experimental measure, but since this arrangement did not work well, the department was then placed in charge of an :BJdl1catiollal Officer lent by. the Madras Government. ‘Subsequently ill 1912, an officer in State service was speoially trained for the ‘work. ‘1’he department was reorganised by Mr. B. V. SankarakallleS\Vara Aiyar who ,vas Superintendent ’till 192D. Dnder him there were three Inspectors and three Deputy Inspectors. I..Jatel’ the posts of the Deputy Inspectors were abolished Hind H, fourth Inspector was appointed. As a measure of retrencllllleut one of th.ese has since been abolished. The Principal of the College is ill charge of the secondary section attached to it, while the Snperintendent of Sohools has now control over all’ the other educational institutions in the . State. State Aid to Pupils.-It has always been the polioy of the Darbar to provide soholarships Qr the higher education of pupils of promise whose parents wonld otherwise be unable to afford it. Up to IH31, free-seholarships were awarded to deserving . pupils in the Raja’s College with the proviso that the ‘number should not exeeed 8, per cent of the total strength of pupils in each class. A schohrship once gntnted continued till the pupil left the College, provided tlll1t the pupil secured promotion, or if a Non-Brahmin or Muhammadan, was not detained in the same class for more than two years. All Muhammadan pupils had to pH,y only half admission fees. In the beginning of fasli 1341 the Darhar introduced a more liberal scheme, of scholarships. Almost ~Ln pupils who belonged to backward C0111., munities and were too pOOl’ to pay school fees were taught free. x] EDUCATION Pupils of special merit or extreme poverty were. granted money stipends and free boarding in the College Hostel. The stipends ranged between Rs., 5 andRs. 10 moilthly, and in addition sums of ,Rs. 30 or Rs. 40 ,vere sometimes, given to help a pupil to buy books. In 1933-34, there were 197 non-Brahmin pupils in receipt of State aid; The Darbar revised the scheme in May 1936. Free-scholarships are now awarded only to poor subjects of. the State on the basis of the marks obtained at the previous annual examination. rrhe ‘numbe~ of, scholars is limited to eight per cent of the total number of Brahmin pupils and 50 per cent of the total number of non-Brahmin pupils in the Lower Secondary, High School . and College sections. Among non-Brahmins, preference, is given first to Adi-Dravidas, next to Muhammadans, and then to pupils of other communities classified as backward. Freescholarships are continued so long as the holder remains in the. College, secures promotion to the next higher class at the en,d of each year, and is of good conduct and character; but a single failure in the annual, examination by a Muhammadan, AdiDravida, or member of a backward ‘comll1Uliity does not of itself entail forfeiture of a free-scholarship. J.1’ree-scholars who are too poor to maintain themselves at their expense, or at that of their guardian, are given free boarding in the College Hostel u:p to a number determined by the Darbar’ from year to year. In all the State schools except the College ~nd the State Secondary School at Tirug6karnam, ,education is free. The State. also grants stipends to deserv:ing poor pupils of the backward communities III these free schools on the following scale :- I ForPl II Form III ,Form … Re. 1 a month; . ,. Rs. 2 a month; .. .Rs. 3 a month. 294 PUDUKK6TTAI STATE’. [CHAP. Poor and deserving girls of all communities reading in the Rani’s Free High school are; given stipends on the following scale tI Form II Form III Form IV Form V Form VI Porm As. 8 a month; Re. 1 a month; Rs. 1-8″:”0 a month; Rs. 2 a month; Es. 2-8-0 a month; and Es. 3 a month. Monthly grants ranging from 1 anna to 4 annas are awarded to girls reading in the Town Muhammadan Girls’ schooL Poor and deserving pupils who are natives of the State are often granted stipends to help them to pursue a course of studies for a degree or to qualify for a profession in Colleges and institutions outside the State. In fas1i 1345, a State stipendiary school-mistress was undergoing the Secondary grade trainiD;g HInd another was studying in the Sarada Vidyalaya, Madras, while a third stipendiary was studying in the Queen Mary’s College for vVomen, Madras. The Darbar now contemplate framing definite rules for the grant of stipends to pupils who pursue either a higher course in Arts and Sciences or a professional or t.echnical course outside the State. Financial. 1320 1325 1330 1335 1340 1341 1342 1343 1344 1345 Fasli. I Statement of expenditure. General. College. _____ –:\-I _____ -:-_____ _ 42,308 68,574 1,20,447 1,46,133 1,20,437 1,98,980 1,86,968 1,80,393 1,89,29’8 1,95,776 21,777 23,968 31,868 41,340 52,604 55,273 62,987 63,526 67,035 59,692 xl 1321 1322 1323 1324 1325 1326 1327 1328 1329 1330 1331 1332 1333 1334 1335 1336 1337 1338 1339 1340 1341 1342 1343 1344 1345 EDUCATION 295 II Statement showing the number of Elementary schools and pupils in the State schools and Aided schools during the last 25 years. N umber of schools Number of pupils. Fasli. I I Total. State. Aided. Total. Boys. Girls. … 289 130 159 12,441 11,284 1,157 … 290 145 145 12,818 11,526 1,292 … 288 164 124 12,524 11,120 1,424 … 297 167 130 12,199 10,671 1,528 ‘” 309 170 139 13,063 11,363 1,700 … 333 181 152 14,049 12,298 1,751 ‘” 343 182 161 13,918 12,268 1,650 ‘” 366 193 173 15,905 14,292 1,613 … 374 202 172 15,53i 14,100 1,431 ‘” 403 218 185 14,743 13,046 1,697 ‘” 424 243 181 15,875 14,287 1,588 ‘” 448 I 285 163 17,818 16,087 1,731 ‘” 469 297 172 17,850 16,237 1,613 … 457 296 161 17,002 14,960 2,042 … 451 294 157 16,888 14,906 1,982 … 462 297 165 16,417 14,517 1,900 ‘” 439 300 139 16,180 14,166 2,014 … 429 298 131 16;528 14,522 2,006 … 403 269 134 17,179 14,942 2,237 … 335 242 93 17,990 15,813 2,177 … 303 233 70 18,925 16,380 2,545 … 244 177 67 17,910 15,365 2,545 … 241 175 66 16,648 14,321 2,327 … 247 166 81 16,416 14,032 2,384 … 251 167 84 15,316 12,458 I 2,858 The number of schools, Sta.te and aided, which was 289 in fasli. 1321 rose to 462 in fasli 1336. From fasli 1337 the number of schools has been steadily declining. This is due to the abolition of single-teacher schools from considerations alike of ecunomy a.nd of efficiency. This policy is in accord with that pursued by the Madras Government under the scheme of centralisation introduced by· Mr. Champion. The number of pupils in the State has increased by 1110re than 30 per cent during the last 25 years and it is gratifying to note that the number of girl pupils has increased by more than 100 per cent. ~96 PUDUKKOTTAI STATE [OHAP. r:Phese figures do not include schools that do not reoeive H,ny aid from the State. The full effect of the introduction of comp-~lsory elementary education in the State is not to be gauged by these figures. It must be remembered that the Regulation has not been enforced throughout the State. The Darbar have been applying it gradually. In fash 1336, the Regulation \vas applied for the first time in four centres; in 1337 in three more; in 1338 in 6 inore; in 1340, in 49 villages; and in 1345, in 41. centres comprising 103 villages and 49 hamlets. The figures for six years given below indicate the increase in strength in the ~reas . where the Regulation was enforced. Number of schools Increase in the strength Fa,sli. working under of pupils the Regulation. in these schoolR. 1336 16 803 1337 24 883 1338 38 1,776 1339 56 3,040 1340 84· 5,156 1341 81 6,458 The increase in the average attendance in the schools brough t under the operation of the Regulation has been phenomenal as the following figures of fasli 1343 for a few representative centres show:- A verage attendance Average School. hefore the introduction attendance in of the Regulation. fasli 1343. Alangudi 85 218 Kiranur 38 111 Annavasal 70 167 Kilanilai-Puduppatti 42 84 Manthangudi 18 32 Puliyur 25 52 Melathaniyam 47 97 Adanakk6ttai 49 92 Viralimalai 55 138 Kaikkurichi 30 68 xJ EDUCATION 297 rrhe two evils of premature withd~awal and stagnation of pupils in the lower classes present a serious problem. The Darbar have provided for adequate supervision of the schools and for the appointment of professionally qualified teachers, and have recently ordered a revision of the curriculum so that it may more adequately meet rural needs. III Statistics of Elementary Education (80ys and Girls) in Pudukkottai State in 1935.36 compared with those for adjoining districts in Madras Presidency. —– I ~ ~ I I Percentage of “- <l) ~=”” »=”” pupils=”” of=”” school-=”” 0=”” :.a=”” ‘i=”” numb”=”” pupil,.=”” districts.=”” area.=”” tt.i=”” going=”” age=”” <l)-=”” -0=”” ~.o13=”” ‘0=”” (in=”” whole=”” numbers).=”” s.,g=”” ‘”‘=”” ;;.=”” <d'”‘~=”” i=”” <l)=”” zoo=”” <1=”” 00=”” 00\=”” boys.=”” girls.=”” girls,=”” trichinopoly=”” ‘:’=”” .,’=”” 4,314=”” 1,536=”” 2’80=”” 71,714=”” 21,032=”” 55=”” 15=”” tanjor?=”” …=”” 3,742=”” 1=”” 2,302=”” 1’60=”” 1,01,688=”” 35,654=”” 59=”” 19=”” madura=”” ..=”” ,=”” 4,912=”” 1,6061=”” 3’06=”” 84,626=”” 29,068=”” 52=”” 17=”” ramnad”=”” 4,819=”” 1,671=”” 2’90=”” 85,276=”” 26,837=”” 65=”” pudukk6ttai=”” t=”” 1,179=”” 340=”” 3’50=”” 20,838=”” 4,632=”” 73=”” ”’i=”” •=”” elemontary=”” sohools=”” under=”” the=”” control=”” district=”” educationa.l=”” councils.=”” state,=”” aided=”” a.nd=”” una.ided=”” schools.=”” chapter=”” xi.=”” co-operative=”” movement.=”” history=”” movement.-the=”” british=”” india=”” act=”” x=”” 1904=”” was=”” introduced.in=”” state=”” as=”” regulation=”” iii=”” 19g8:=”” first=”” society=”” to=”” be=”” registered=”” a=”” credit=”” at=”” karambak~=”” kudi.=”” on=”” same=”” day,=”” september=”” 22,=”” 1908,=”” co~operative=”” store=”” in=”” capital.=”” mr.=”” c.=”” v.=”” dikshitar,=”” native=”” tanjore,=”” who=”” joined=”” service=”” 1909=”” and=”” rose=”” ‘the=”” position=”” registrar=”” the·=”” chief=”” court,=”” responsible=”” for=”” forming=”” three=”” societies,=”” mutual=”” benefit=”” alangudi=”” 1909,=”” town=”” bank=”” 1910,=”” .=”” brahadambal=”” town,=”” largely=”” koravars=”” municipal=”” employ=”” menials=”” service.=”” up=”” fasli=”” 1322=”” there=”” were=”” only’=”” four=”” societies.=”” owing=”” mainly=”” sympathetic=”” guidance=”” labours=”” two=”” gentlemen,=”” keenly=”” interested=”” inco~operation,=”” j.=”” t.=”” gwynn,=”” r.=”” 8.=”” superintendent,=”” m.=”” k.=”” venkatachariar,=”” dewan=”” peishkar,=”” moyement=”” gained=”” momentum=”” between=”” faslis=”” 1326.=”” aqt=”” ii=”” 1912=”” brought=”” into=”” force=”” state.=”” kiranur=”” basis’=”” unlimited=”” liability.=”” defunct=”” tiruvapplir=”” weavers’=”” association=”” revived.=”” societies=”” karambakkudi=”” transferred=”” liability=”” basis.=”” 1326,=”” 22=”” working=”” satisfactorily.=”” establishment=”” 1,=”” 1920=”” central=”” great=”” event=”” 1920,=”” darbar=”” had=”” been=”” helping=”” rural=”” banks=”” \vith=”” loans,=”” supplemented=”” by=”” bank,=”” but=”” from=”” its=”” foundation=”” took=”” over=”” financing=”” primary=”” eo~operatlve=”” movement=”” 29-9=”” rrhe=”” formation=”” vveavers’=”” soc~eties=”” tiruvappur,=”” karambakkudi,=”” parambur=”” seniyapatti,=”” stores=”” sandapettai=”” (town),=”” tirnmayam,=”” alangudi,=”” viralimalai=”” marks=”” development=”” co-operation=”” tho=”” non-credit=”” side:=”” later=”” the.=”” supply=”” books=”” stationery=”” students=”” formed,-one=”” h.=”” b.=”” raja’s=”” college,=”” other=”” known=”” teachers’=”” society,=”” benofit=”” teachers=”” general=”” education=”” department.=”” t,,”o=”” building=”” printing=”” press=”” are=”” recent=”” additions=”” this=”” class=”” {asli=”” 1336,=”” taluk=”” unions=”” valnad=”” union=”” started=”” supervise=”” work=”” difficulty=”” finding=”” funds=”” men=”” with=”” capacity,=”” training=”” leisure,=”” necessary=”” carryon=”” efficiently,=”” no=”” further=”” progress=”” has=”” made=”” direction;=”” these=”” supervising=”” now:in=”” ‘=”” suspended=”” animation’=”” now=”” 123=”” comprising=”” 100=”” agricultural=”” 14=”” non-agricultural=”” 4=”” local=”” unions,=”” 2=”” one=”” labour=”” union,=”” institute.=”” nonagricultural=”” 5=”” 3=”” sooieties=”” students,=”” press.=”” total=”” number=”” members=”” all=”” excepting=”” institute,=”” -the=”” june=”” 30,=”” 1936,=”” 11,654=”” whom=”” 2,184=”” brahmins,=”” 7,149=”” non-brahmin=”” caste=”” hindus,=”” 528=”” christians,=”” 708=”” muhammadans,=”” 807=”” adi-dravidas,=”” 8=”” castes.=”” 105=”” only=”” 34=”” issuing=”” fresh=”” while=”” others=”” confined=”” themselves=”” collection=”” old=”” arrears.=”” issued=”” loans-=”” amount.=”” 6£=”” us.=”” 3,44,710=”” 1345.=”” 300=”” pudukkottai=”” [chap.=”” five=”” ‘purchase=”” sale’=”” including=”” college=”” ve:r:ge=”” liquidation,=”” tiruvappur=”” is=”” functioning=”” well=”” and·=”” has,=”” recently=”” opened=”” sales=”” depot.=”” vayalogam=”” placed=”” charge=”” supervisor=”” superseding=”” managing=”” committee=”” satisfactorily;=”” them,=”” government=”” servants’=”” borrowed=”” rs.=”” 7,250=”” 1345=”” disbursed=”” loans=”” amount=”” of.=”” 8,400.=”” popular=”” institution.=”” bank.-‘i’his=”” 1330=”” (19~0·-21),=”” taken=”” it=”” inspects=”” indebted=”” it.=”” owns=”” worth=”” 12,000.=”” during=”” hst=”” fifteen=”” years=”” shown=”” below:-=”” .-0=”” members.=”” <1)=”” <0=”” …;=”” <:)=”” ……=”” 4’=””> .- ‘”‘ oj ~ en <:)’Cil Loans ~ ~ Deposits oj ol .$ol Pasli. ,…..; due from Net Reserve :> …. ol W .-0<1) …… o – <1) .g .S:] ~’S.I h,ld. Societies. Profit . Fund. ol..C1 <:)..C1 4′> .:;; 4′> ;::I ol 00 004’> <1) .-0 <:) I=i ~ I=i I=i ;.e ‘0 ‘dj I ol’- oJ·_ ~ 0 0 0 1-1 00 ~ . ~ ~ Rs. Rs. Rs. I Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs. 1330 16 27 3,570 7,.532 9,150′ 230 68 … 100 1335 18 109 26,910 3,37,135 2,88,989 4,247 3,756 1,35,170 44,907 1340 22 134 62,672 4,88,4201 3,39,097 8,759 14,172 54,454 80,585 1344 18 114 58,602 2,98,9011 2,26,378 6,108 18,982 74,941 72,530 1345 15 115 58,802 2,51,590 2,20,727 5,592 20,379″” 72,561 75,506 I • Not a.udited. xrJ CO-OPEH-ATiVE MOVEMENT 301 The Central Bank has now decided to appoint an Executive Officer to scrutinize the loans outstanding from rural societies with a view to their EJarly collection, and to attend to the work of rectifying rural societies. The Town Bank-This Bank was registered in May 1910 on the model of the Urbali Banks in the Madras Presidency. It was housed in a rented building till 1921, then in its own building in East Second Street, and finally in 1925, it was shifted to its present spacious habitation in East Main Street. From the first the Bank has had the support of the Darbar. vVhen it was started, the Darbar helped it with a loan of Rs. 2,000 which was repaid in 10 equal annual instalments without interest. Later, the Bank obtt1ined large concessions from the Darbar, for instance, permission to draw overdrafts on and to deposit its Reserve Funds ill the State treasury. Up to 1920, it financed the Rural Societies and has lent to them to the extent of Rs. 94,000. It has succeeded to a remarkable extent in winning the confidence of the public and thereby attracting large deposits which have helped it to lay by a large reserve fund. . Its Common Good Fund is to be utilised to start a public library. A free Reading Room has already been opened. Its rate of interest on loans is now 6! per cent, the lowest obtaining anywhere in the Presidency. It is able to attract fixed deposits at 2 per cent. The Bank has current accounts with the Co-operative Central Banks at a number of important cities in British India, and issues and discounts cheques at these places for approve.d customers. It collects money for companies on bills and drafts. It has invested nearly 4 lakhs of rupees in Government Bonds and in other Co-operative Banks. Registrars of Co-operative Societies in Madras, the successive Dewans and Administrators of the State, and many leading co-operators have visited the Bank, and have uJ;liformly testified to its efficiency and utility. Reviewing the work 302 PUDU!{KOTTAI STAT~~ [CHAP. of the co-operative societies in the Sts.te in their Proceedings dated October 20, 1934, the Darbar expressed their satisfaction with the work of the Town· Bank as follows: ” The only bright spot in this gloomy picture is the Pudukk6ttai Town Bank Ltd., which continues to be so popular that, in spite. of a reduction in the rate of interest, its deposits increased and the net profit 8!trned was neltrly double that of the previous {asli. ” Officials and non-officials are on the Board of Management; and have’ always worked amicably together. The Bank formerly enjoyed the privileg~ of electing a member to the Representative Assembly, but this was withdrawn when the Legislative Council was constituted. The Bank celebrated its Silver Jubilee in July 1D35. The Administrator of the State inaugurated the celebrations, which were presided over by the Right Honourable V. S. Srinivasa Sastriar, P. C. Tributes ,vere paid to the Bank and its energetic Secretary, Mr. G. Sundaresa Aiyar, by the Darbar, the public of Pudukk6ttai, and leading co-opex!l>tors in British India. ThAfollowing statement shows the progress of the Bank :- Progressive Statement of the Town Bank Ltd., Pudukkottai. Number Paid up Deposits Loans Fasli. of share and outstanding members capital. borrowings. from on rolls. members. I I Rs. Rs. Rs. 1320 … 180 724 4,439 5,039 1325 … 961 4,693 80,847 .76,821 1330 ‘” 1,262 7,621 1,40,973 1,36,959 1335 … 2,020 12,795 4,00,777 2,31,792 1340 … 2,387 14,584 5,55,639 2,52,856 1344 … 2,090 I 13,810 7,75,998 3,25,472 1345 … 2,180 13,850 9,88,995 3,31,234 Value of the Building purchased from Building Fund Unspent balance of Building Fund Common Good Fund … Net profits. Rs. 256 2,347 4,589 11,664 15,540 15,749 18,806 Reserve Fund. Rs. 156 4,086 11,573 30,376 . 72,648 1,15,856 1,20,558 Rs. 13,823 13,932 10,927 XI] CO-OPERATIVE MOVEMENT 303 Co-operative Education .and Dissemination of Co-opera .. tive Principles.-In the early years of the movement, the Darbar sent offici::t,ls and non-official delegates to attend the .!fnnuaf Co-opemtive Conferences at Madras. From the outset’ of its career the rrown Bank has arranged for the delivery of periodical lectures on co-operation. Among the first to deliver such lectures was the late Dewan Bahadur L. D. Swamikannu Pillai who was followed by a number of other distinguished co-operators. In £asli 1328, Mr. F. R. Hemingway, I. C. S., Registmr of Co-operative Societies, visited ·the State ~nd presided over the first St::t,te Co-operative Conference at Kfranur. Rao Bahaaur A. Vedachala Aiyar presided over a conference in Fasli 1336; and Mr. H. M. Hood r C. S., over another in 133H. Registrars of Co-operative Societies in Madras, such ::t,s Mr. H; M. Hood, 1. C. S., Mr. D. N. Strathie, 1. C. S., and Mr. T. Austin, 1. C. S., have inspected the co-operative societies in the State, discussed questions pertaining to. the progress of the movement,::t,nd f::t,voured the Darbar and the public with their views. Dewan B::t,hadur K. Devasikhamani Mndaliar presided over a Co-operati ve Conference held at Viralimalai in February 1936. Six Co-operative Conferences have been held in the State so far. The State Co-operative Institute has for its ob,jects the folloyving among others :- 1. Studying and propagating the principles of co-operation and serving as the cent’re for every sort’of co-operati’i’e activity in the State; 2. Organising special types of societies; 3. Serving as the recognised exponent of non-official co-opemtive opinioil in the State; 4. Convening conferences and exhibitions and arran~ing for public lectures; 5. Organising ::t,nd promoting rural welfare schemes and studying economic problems in order to find out ways for rural improvement; and 304 PUDUKKOTTAI STATE [CHAP. 6. Such other work as will promote the interests of co-operation in the State. From fasli 1337 onwards, the Institute has been steadily attending to this programme. It organised a training class for the Secretaries of Societies. For some years it published a bi-monthly magazine on Co-oper~tion and Agriculture: It has organised periodical conferences. and lectures. It has recently drawn up a programme of rural improvement work to be carried on by its members, and has appointed a full time officer to attend to it as an experimental measure. Administrative Control, Inspection and Audit.-The societies were inspected and audited by the Dewan Peishkar and his revenue staff till fasli 13’25 when a full time Inspector of Co-operative Societies was appointed. The Dewan Peishkar was for some years assisted by an Honorary Assistant Registrar who inspected the Societies in the Alangudi Taluk. In 13’29, the control of the department was transferred to the District Registrar, who became District Registrar cum Registrar of Co-operative Societies. Between 133’2 and 1335, the Superintendent of S0hools was in charge of the department, and then it was transferred to the control 6f the Development Officer. With effect from June 1, 193’2, (fasli 1341), the Dewan Peishkar became the Registrar 6f Co-operative Sooieties, and he is now assisted by a Deputy Registrar who is invested with all the powers of a Registrar. In April 1931, a deplltation of leading co-operators waited on the Darbar to discuss the steps to be taken to secure effective audit and. supervisio-n of the societies; and in pursuance’ of the deoisions arrived at, Audit was separated from Inspection. The Co-operative Inspeotors audit while the Supervisors of the Central Bank inspect. There are four Inspectors who also attend to the attachment and sale of movables in their respective jurisdiotions. XI] CO-OPEItATIVE MOVEMENT 305 General.-rrhe credit side of co-operation alone has received attention so fa.r; and the movement in the State has scarcely done anything to foster production and proper distrjbution. The movement has not even touehed the fringe of Agricultural Co-opemtion. rrhe State Administration Report for fasli 1333 lays down the lines of work for ‘Distributive’ Societies; for instance, the movement may do something by way of joint sale of the ryots’ crops such as ground-nuts, and cotton, and joint purchase of manure and seeds for distribution among ryots .. Owing to frequent failure of crops, the general economic dopression and the fall in prices, the indebtedness of the ryots has increased. Members became defaulters, societies had to be liquidated, and the loans advanced by the Central Bank remain unpaid. At the close of fasli 1345, the Central Bank had the large sum of Rs. 2,23,433 outstanding, 60 per cent of which was overdue. This has created a problem which is engaging the attention of the Darbar. They have ofte1,1 reminded members of Co-operative Societies that the principle underlying the movement is for individuals and isolated groups of people, to combine and to bring to that union a mutual responsibility which serves as a basis for security and widens their range of credit to an extent that individually the members could not command. This, as has been often pointed out by the Darbar, entails upon every member the obligation to vay his dues regularly, and upon the Society the need for examining carefully the purpose of every loan to fmsure that it is productive and consistent with the principle of -thrift for which the movement stands, and only advancing loans on proper security. The Darbar have frequently insisted that it is not the o!>ject of rural co-operative societies to take over the prior debts of the members in their entirety, but to advance money against occasional agricultural needs and help to improve the productive capacity of the members, and thereby not only rocover the monies advanced but help the ryot to liquidate his prior debt by means of improved production. To guard against 306 PUDUKK6TTAI STATE default, Dr. Hatch has suggested the need for “all-the-way supervision” from. the time of advancing each loan till it is repaid. As a measure of relief tothe borrower:s, the department has advised societies to waive penal interest under certain conditions while· collecting outstanding loans; and 14 societies have followed this advice .. The Administrator in his opening speech at the Viralimalai Co-operative Conference, pointed out that co-operators must realise their responsibilities and not rely on the machinery of the department, but “on their own will to help themselves and their determination to be thrifty and honest.” Statement showing the progress of the movement in the State. «-< I Working 0 Reserve ai ~ . town proper have been lighted by electricity. It is now proposed to supply electricity to Tirugokarnam. The total mileage of streets lighted is 46i. The municipality has laid out a small pub-lic garden called the Holdsworth park after Mr. B. G. Holdsworth, I. C. S. who was Administrator of the State in 1931-33 near the Jubilee aroh. In the centre of this garden rises a clock-tower in reinforced concrete. Three free reading rooms have been opened, one in the Municipal Office, another in Sandapettai and the third in Tirugokarnam. The municipality subsidises the wards for infectious diseases in the General Hospital by meeting the cost of constructing and maintaining the sheds and of the establishment necessary for them. Town Conservancy.-In early times the conservancy of the town was in the hands of the Karbar (as the Dewan Peishkar was then designated). It was subsequently transferred to .the town Sub-Magistrate, and in 1886 an Inspector was appointed to look after street lighting and sweeping, house, scavenging, and tank conservation. In 1903, a Sn,nitary Board was constituted with the DElwan Peishkar as the President, and the State Engineer and the Chief Medical Officer as members. The rrreasury Officer and the Superintendent of Salt and Abkari were included later. The Board maintained a full-time paid Secretary to car.ry out its instructions. It was in existence for nine years and did some useful work. It undertook and carried out a programme of building culverts and revetments, improved slums and arranged for town extensions. The town is now divided into three wards, each under a sanitary staff with an Inspector at its head. All the streets are swept once-daily and the important ones twice. Rubbish and night-soil are removed to a depot outside the town. Public latrines and urinals have been provided in a number of places, and temporary ones are put up during the Dussarafestival. The municipality has a fire engine, which is also used as a water-cart. XII] LOCAL SELF-GOVERNMENT 311 A temporary sanitary.staff is fl,ppointed every year during the Dussam festival when elaborate sanitary arrangements are made to keep the town clean and prevent the outbreak of cholera and other epidemies. Drainage.-Owing to the natural slope of the ground from East to West, the Town has always been fairly well drained, and periodically cleansed at times of heavy rain fall. In dry weather there was fl,lways a tendency for insanitary pools of foul water to accumulate in the back yards of houses. In 1895 arrangements were made for the first time to bale these out and dispos@ of their contents outside the ‘fown. A lakh of Rupees was sanctioned in 1913 by His Highness the late Raja for the construction of regular drains, and a scheme was drawn up under the expert advice of Mr. VV. Hutton, A. M. 1. C. E., Sanitary Engineer to the Government of Madras. The general description of the scheme recommended by Mr. Hutton may be gi,,:en inhis own words:- ” The system of drainage I recommend after a careful study of the circumstances of the town of Pudukk6ttai is the open drainage system which in Pudukk6ttai will consist in the opening out of conservancy lanes where these do not exist at present between back to back house compounds, the provision of open drains one on each side of these conservancy lanes to lead the sullage water to the end of the lane where it would join the open drain in the main street. ‘fhe main street drains will discharge into an intercepting sewer on the south of the town and running from East to West to tbe point where tbe storm water drainage of the town at present reaches the foreshore of· the Kattupudukulam. Here a gravita,tion se,ver woulcl convey the s.ullage to a sewage farm located ,south-east of the t’own. This system of drainage would require considerable flushing to keep it in ::1 satisfactory condition, and to provide this, as the pipe, water supply is so deficient, a system of masonry flush tanks supplied with water from wells by means of hand pumps is provided in the scheme,” 312 PUDUKKOTTAI STATE [CHAP. The execution of the scheme was entrusted to the State Engineer. An officer was appointed to acquire lands for the conservancy lanes. The construction of interc~pting sewers and gravitation sewers, and the opening of conservancy lanes with drains were taken up in the eastern part of the town and finished in 1926 at a cost of about Rs. 1,88,000. An annual expenditure of about Rs. 2,000 is being incurred on the maintenance of these works. Six years later in 1932, on the advice of the Darbar, the municipality took up the extension of the scheme to the other parts of the town. The block just to the west of the East Main Street was taken up, and in 1932-33, drains were constructed in it at a cost of Rs. 52,000. Work in the northern part of the Town has now begun. The sullage of such parts of the town, as have been provided with drains, after flowing through the intercepting and gravitation sewers, discharges itself at ground level on a site us~~ as the night soil trenching ground in the water spread of Maruppanikulam, an irrigation tank quite close to the ‘rown, where it stagnates and emits a most offensive s.ten0h. ‘rhe site is under water when the tank is full, and is totally unsuitable for the purpose. It has therefore been decided to acquire the entire ayacut of the Maruppanikulam, about 30 acres in extent, and lay it out as a sewage farm, to extend the gravitation sewer southwards to this site and to use the sullage for broad irrigation of the farm lands thus laid out. The estimated cost of tbe scheme is Rs 30,000. It is hoped that the farm will yield a fair r~turn on the capital outlay. Water-supply.-There are 36 tanks in the town of which 13 are conserved for drinking water. In the year in which the Pudukulam was completed, a street cistern was constructed and fitted with taps. A scheme for supplying piped water was .formulated by Mr. Hormsji Nowroji in 1897. In 1908-9, a fresh scheme based more or less on the original Hormsji N owroji scheme bqt modified in details was drawn up by xu] LOCAL SELF-GOVERNMENT 313 Mr, B. C. Frul~ling, and put into execution under his superVISIOn. The\1 work was completed two years later at a total cost of Rs. 1,13,000. rrho town is now supplied with drinking-water taps .at the principal street corners and at intervals along the streets. The Pudulmlam on the south is the supply reservoir. Its water is passed through settling tanks and filters, and pumped into a service reservoir on the high ground near Machuvadi at the northern end of the town, whence it descends to the streets by natural gravitation. A Jewel filter was installed in 1915-6 at a cost of Rs. 26,064, and the filtered water has always been. pronounced by the Director of the King Institute at Guindy who examines it periodically to be ‘ free from organic impurities.’ ~rhe Pudukulam reservoir supplies daily on an average only 60,000 gallons of filtered water for a population of nearly 29,000. The municipality has been able to provide only 37 * street taps, a number that cannot be considered sufficient. Tho municipality has therefore had to look for other sources of supply to supplement the Pudukulam. A proposal to enlarge Adappankulam, a drinking-water tank on the North of the town, was considered and rejected, but it is now proposed to pipe ”’iTater from this source to the suburbs of Tirug6karnam and Tiruvappur. Messrs. Aiyar and Mudaliar, two retired Engineers of Madras, after a preliminary investigation suggested that water might be supplied from the Vellar. Their scheme was however poo costly; but a revised but much cheaper scheme based on the recommendations of Mr. J. S. Westerdale, lately Chief Engineer to the Travancore Government, was sanctioned by the Darbar in 193’2-33. An experimental well was sunk in the bed of the Vellar near Ammayapatti, and the quality of the water obtained .. The total number of taps within the town is 51, of which 14 are in. Government buildings. 40 3]4 PUDUKKOTTAI STATE [CHAP. was considered satisfactory. A full power test of the experimental well was carried out in the hot weather of 1933, and the results were encouraging. The investigation was finally completed in 1933-34, and sanction was accorded ‘for the execution of the work at a total estimated cost of Rs. 55,000. The work has been completed, and water from the well sunk in the bed of the Vellar is now pumped to the Town water works. The water has been certified to be pure by the Director, King Institute, Guindy. Unfortunately, however, people critieised the Ammayapatti water on the ground that rice cooked in it turns yellow. Tests on a laboratory scale indicatod that this slight discolouration is probably due to alkaline bicarbonates. Attempts were made to overcome this defect by chemical treatment, but the water so treated \vas said not to be palatable for drinking. It was then arranged to pump untreated Ammayapatti water direct into the ‘mains for so· many hours daily. At other times Pudukulam water was supplied, and· could be drawn by those who objected to cooking with the Ammayapatti water. Even this failed to meet with public approval. rrhe possibility of satisfactory chemical treatment of the Ammayapatti water is therefore being studied afresh. At present the street mains consist of 5″ a:nd 4: ” pipes, and the branches leading to the street fountains are 3″ and 2″. These pipes were laid 26 years ago and are now clogged considerably with the result that the flow in the branches has appreciably diminished and new taps could not be put up. The Darbar have now sanctionad Rs. 50,000 towards the cost of laying new and larger cast iron water supply mains. The new mains are 12″ and 10″ pipes, and the sub-mains 5 “, 4:” and 3 “. The pipes have been got down from the Bhadravati Iron and Steel Works, Mysote State. When the work i~ completed, it will be possible to augment the supply in the street taps and to take out more branches especially to Tirug6karnam and Tiruvappur. _. XII] LOCAL SELF-GOVERNMENT 315 Bye-Laws.-Bye-Iaws under the Pudukk6ttai Municipalities Regulation (No. IX of 1930) are in force on the following subjects :- Bye-iaw 1. Vital Statistics 2. Conservancy 3. Do. Regulates the mode of use of burial and burning grounds and other places for the disposal of corpses. Provides for the cleaning of ash-pits and earth closets. Provides for the cleansing of latrines. 4. Water supply and Drai- Provides for the construction and cleans· nage. 5. Do. 6. Do. 7. Do. S. Do. 9. Do. 10. Disease Prevention 11. Do. 12. Food control 13. Do. 14. Do. ing of cess-pools. Provides for the construction and regulation of house drains. Prescribes the mode of using public tanks, wells, conduits and other places or works for water supply. Provides for the regulation of public bathing, washing and the like. Provides for the protection of street water-supply from contamination. Provides for the maintenance and protection of water-supply from waste. Provides for preventing diseases in public halting places. Provides for the prevention of dangerous diseases of men or animals. Regulates the manufacture of mrated waters. Provides for the inspection of milch cattle and the regulation of the venti· lation, lighting, cleaning, drainage and water-supply, of dairies and cattle sheds in the occupation of persons following the trade of dairy-men or milk-seller, etc. Regulates the preparation of flour or articles made of flour for human consumption. 316 PUDUKK6TTAI STATE (CHAP. Bye-law 15. Do. Provides for the prevention of the sale of 16. Food control 17. Do. 18. Animal control 19. Do. 20. Street control 21. Land control 22. TFade control unwholesome meat, fish or provisions and securing the efficient inspection of and enforcing proper sanitation in shops in which tbey are kept C!r sold. Provides for the regulation of hotels, lodging houses, choultries, rest-houses. res tau ran t s, eating houses, cafes, refreshment rooms or coffee houses or any premises to which the public are admitted for the consumption of any food or drink. Provides for the regulation of premises used for preparing “Sweetmeats or . manufacturing jaggery or sugar-candy. Provides for the removal and disposal of carcasses of animals. Provides for the regulation of the construction of stables, cattle-sheds or cow-houses and connecting them with municipal drains. Provides for the prohibition and regulation of advertisements in public streets and parks. Provides for the regulation of the excavation of stone, earth, sand or other materials. Provides for the regulation of weights and measures. 23. Sequestered .M u t ton Provides for the mode of keeping mutton stalls. stalls. 24. Black-smithies Provides for the control of black-smithies. 25. Rice Mills Provides for the regulation of and control over rice and other mills. 26. Building control Provides for the regulation of construction of buildings. 27. Do. Provides for the regulation of the construction of wells. xu] LOCAl, SELF-GOVEHNMENT 317 Bye-law 28. Manufacture ~1ncl stor- Provides for the regulation of the mauuage of matches. facture and storage of m!lliches, and the production and storage of combustible or other dangerous substances. 29. Disease Prevention- Provides for the destruction of stray dogs Pre v e n t ion of and those suffering from contagious Rabies. diseases or rabies. In February 1934, the Darbar issued rules under the Public Hesort Regulation (No. IX of 1912) regulating the mode of construction and use of places of public resort, such as theatres, and ‘ talkie’ or cinema houses. Public Health.-The lllunicipality has an office for registering births and deaths. Steps are taken in co-operation with the Medical Department to prevent anticipated outbreaks of cholera and the spread of small-pox. Vaccination and inoculation with anti-cholera vaccine are performed on an extensiye seale. The public health of the town is generally satisfactory. Rabid and stray dogs are systematically destroyed, and recently an electrocution chamber has been installed for the purpose. rrhe Darbar have sanctioned as an experimental measure the opening of the maternit.y and child welfare centre in the Town under the control of the Municipality with a staff consisting of a lady Sub Assistant Surgeon to work as a health visitor and two mid··wives. The centre will be located in a central position in the Town. The Health Visitor will v~sit mothers ancl expectant mothers in their homes and render them proper a,dvice regarding the maintenance of their health. She will also watch the babies until they reach the school-age. Ordinary ailments of women and children visited by the Health Visitor will be attended to by her, but cases requiring treatment in a clinic will be taken to the Rani’s Hospital for Women and Ohildren or to the General Hospital. The scheme is expected to cost about Rs. 3,000 a year. 318 , PUDUKKOTTAI STATE [CHAP. SECTION lI.-UNION AND VILLAGE PANOHAYATS. Introductory.-In 1892-3, Karambakkudi, Arimalam, Rayavaram, and the taluk head quarter towns were laid out with broad and straight streets, and provision was made for lighting and daily scavenging. In the following year the officer in charge of the town hospital-called Apothecary in those dayswas made Chief Sanitary Officer for the State, and ordered to report on the needs of rural sanitation after personal inspection. In 1895-6, Annavasal and Ponnamaravati were laid out, and provided with scavenging and lighting staffs. The supervision of rural sanitation, which had hitherto been a function of the Tahsildars, was transferred in 1902-3 to stationary officers such as the Magistrates and Sub-Assistant Surgeons. The Inspector of Vaccination was made an ex-officio S:a.nitary Inspector. A village Sanitation Regulation was passed in 1909-10. Union Panchayats.-There are :five Union Panchayats constituted under the Village Conservancy Regulation (No. IV of 1909), namely:- 1, Tirumayam. 4. Karambakkudi, and 2. Ponnamaravati. 5. Anna vasal. 3. Arimalam. Each Panchayat has seven members (of whom five are elected and two nominated); and is presided over by a non-official Chairman nominated by Government. Section 37 of the Village Panchayat Regulation requires that the Panchayats should meet at least once a month for the transaction of business. The Public Works Department helps the Panchayats in framing estimates and check-measuring works. A sum of Rs. 4,105 was spent on works in 1935-36 against Rs. 9,887 in the previous fasli. The right of collecting fees in all weekly markets and daily vegetable markets situated within their jurisdiction, and in slaughter-houses is leased out by the Union-Panchayats annually. The annual State grant to all the Unions amounts at present to Rs. 5,400. XII] LOCAL SELF-GOVEBNMENT 319 rrhe receipts of the TIve Unions amounted 111 1935-36 to Hs. 28,830 and their expenditure to Rs. 24,423. The accounts maintainod by the Unions are annually audited by the staff of the DeW:111 Peishkar’R office. The Union-Panchayats work under the control of the Dewan Peishlmr. Village Panchayats.-Village Panchayats are constituted under the Village Panuh:1yats Hegulation (No. III of 1935). Four Paneil:1Y:1ts woro constituted in 1935-2G, and the number 1’OSO to B8 in 19:31-32. Only fourteen Pct,nchayats are now function ing. rrho Pa,nchayats 801’0 concerned with tho cleaning, lighting and repair of streets, protection n,nd snpply of drinking water, 1’8mov,11 of noxious weeds, andma,intenanco of birth and death statistics. Tn the Nu,garatbfu (Chottiar) Villago Panchayats of Ramachltndmpuram (I{ftdiapatti), HaY[LVaram fmd I{onapet, the stroets m’o lit with electricity, but the cost is met from private contributions. N agfll’athars hn,\'(” made liberal donations to the PH,nchaY,1ts in the Chettinad for the improvement of roads as at Ranmchandrapuram and Hayavaram, and street lighting as at Nachandupatti lwd Karamangalam. The Puvarasakudi Pancbayat was lIln,illtaining for SOlDO years witb tho help of State gmnts, villa,ge roads,– for insta,nce, the road connocting Tiruvadayapa,tti with the ma,in road from the capital to Arantangi, and l:ins ntised a tamftrind tope for purposes of demonstration a,nd fiS a source of revellue. The Nachandupatti Panchayat made special sanit,uy arrangements during the Kumbabishokam festiva,l in 1927·-28. ‘1’he Darbar have permitted SOHlO of the Pancbayats to construct and control cartstands and slaughterhouses. The Panayapatti Pancha,yat manages the Elementary Schools \vithin its jurisdiction. Four Panchayats have Re<1ding Rooms and Libraries and earn state grants for their mailltenl1nce. The Puvarasali:udi Panchayat has now been given the management of the cattle pound from which it earns cormmSSlOn. The Hayavararn Panchayat attends to the 320 PUDUKK6TTAI STATE [CHAP. medical needs of the people with the help of a local medical practitioner who is paid a monthly allowance of Rs. 50 from Panchayat funds. The number of members in the Panchayats varies from 7 to 11. The number of elected numbers is always not less than two-thirds of the’total number, and the Presidents are nominated by the Darbl1r. Elections A-re held once in three years. The total receip.ts of the Panchayats in 1935-3G amounted to Rs. 27,364. The opening balance was Rs. 9,710. Their total expenditure was Rs. 28,055. Contributions from the Government, both direct (Rs. 3,100) and indirect (Rs. 6,224 comprising slaughter-house fees, half the market revenues and peI),alties levied for enc.roachments on N atham Porombokes) amounted to Rs. 9,224 in the fA-sli. In 1929-30, the Village Panchayats held a conference at Umayalpuram. As the Darbar have observed (Administration Report, Fasli 1340), “the ordinary ryot is still unable to grasp clearly the idea of an annual local tax raised for the people, by the people and from the people for purely local needs, as distinguished from general taxation. Added to this there is a general paucity of literate persons able and willing to take up social work, and not infrequently influences are at work detrimental to the smooth working of these institutions.” The Panchayats are however working satisfactorily on the whole” though generally speaking there is room for the display of much more keenness and public spirit, and the fall in expenditure and the large percentage of taxes left in arrears are subjects for regret. ” Con trot-The post of Panchayat Inspector was abolished in 1922-23, and his duties were transferred, to the Co-operative Inspectors. The Panchayats were under the control of the Development Officer till May 1931. The. Dewan Peishkar is now ex-officio Registrar of Vil1a~e Panchayats assisted by the Deputy Registrar. XII] LOCAL SELF-GOVERNMENT 321 Village Conservancy.-The conservancy of villages outside the Union and the Village Panchayat limits is controlled by the Revenue Department. In a few of the larger villages, for example, Viralimalai, the Government maintain a special staff for conservancy. SECTION HL-RURAL IMPROVEMENT. It- may not be out of place in this chapter to- mention the attempts made by the Darbar to effect rural improvement in the State. ‘rho village school, the village union or Panchayat and the rural co-operative society are the three great centres of rural improvement. Tbe demonstrations and propaganda carried on by the Town State Farm and the Taluk Agricultural Inspectors, the touring Veterinary Assistant-Surgeons and the Health In~pector, and the Library and Agricultural Exhibitions conducted in the capital, and the taluk headquarters, and at festival centres, have been described at length in the chapters relating to Agriculture, Co-operation, Public Health and Education. The Darbar have always held that the village school should as far as possible be the ‘centre of community life,’ and con~ sequently, it has been their aiin to train the school masters in rural sciences· and in rural improvement ·work. ‘rhe teaehers under training in the State Training School were frequently taken out to the villages to gain·experience of rural needs. They studied the conditions of villages which they visited and addressed the villagers on rural hygiene and. sanitation. After the training School was closed, therreachers’ Associations have been carrying on this work. In fasli 1340, promising and energetic teachers were given a special course of training for w.ork as “vIllage guides”. To co-ordinate the activities of the ” nationbuilding” departments, the Darbar constituted a separate Development Department under a Development Officer who had charge of Co~operation, Panchayats, Agriculture and Forests. The finances of the State did not however permit of the continuance of these arrangements .. At present the control of 322 PUDUKKOTTAI STATE [CHAP. all these departments is vested in the Dewan Peishkar, and is under the immp.diate charge of the Deputy Registrar of Co-operative Societies who is also the State Agricultural Marketing Officer. In Fasli 1343, the Darbar created the post o~ Rural Improvement Officer which is heJd by the Organising Secretary of the State Scout movement. In Fasli 1345, (1935-36) the Darbar constituted a Rural Development Board consisting of seven officials and nine nonofficials to discuss all questions of policy relating to the working of the Development Departments, to m~ke suggestions in regard to agricultural, industrial and other matters of ee-onomic importance, and to advise tho Government on these matters. In December 1935 the Darbar invited Dr. Spencer Hatch, head of the Rural Improvement Centre at Martandam (Travancore) to visit the State and advise them in regard to Rural Improvement generally. He iilterviewed a number of officials and non-officials, inspected the Poor Home, the Town Agricultural Farm and some villages, carried on an open discllssion at a public meeting and favoured tlIe Darbar with a memorandum setting forth his views. rrhe Darbar then deputed the Rural Improvement Officer, one of the Veterinary Snrgeons, tho Manager of the Poor Home and the Maistry of the rl’owll Agricultural Farm to undergo training for· about 11 months under Dr. Hatch at Mirtandam in poultry-farming, cattlebreeding, bee-keeping, jaggery manufacture, c~shew-nut roasting and shelling and other manual crafts. After retnqling from Martandam these officers, except the Maistry \v11ose work is confined to the rl’own Farm, have each taken up intensive improvement work in a selected village. vVork is thus going on in six villages. In one of the model villages, Vallathirakottai, quite a good beginning has been made. The Adi-Dl’avidas there have taken to weaving towels, and the people in general grow more vegetables, and have removed their manure heaps outside the village and stored them ill properly shaded pits, and above all they have kept the village streets clean. xu] LOCAL SELF-GOVERNMENT 323 The Darbar have started apiaries at the State Farm, in the Ananda Bagh Park and at the Poor Home. Thanks to the example thus set, bee-keeping is now spreading into the villages. 1’he poultry-farm at the Poor Home is being improved and restocked. Other fa,rms have been sta,rted at the State Farm, a,nd at Rimnur and Viralimalai. The poultry-fal’m at Kiranrir is now looked after by a teacher of’ the State School who has completed a course of training at the Rural Improvement Centre of the Seventh Day Adventists’ Society, Bangalore. The Darbar have directed the, officers engaged in village improvement work to endeavour to induce the people of the selected villages to undertake to avoid extravagant expen~ diture on marriages, jewellery, etc.; not to waste Il).oney on drink, but to try to save money and invest it in a Co-operative Ba,nk; to combine their labour for works for the common good’; to keep their homes and the surroundings olean, and not to commit nuisance near houses or drinking water sources; to devote their spare time to useful work such as spinning, gardening, rearing poultry, etc.; to dig as many wells as possible; to tako up dry land for cultivation; and above all to rely more upon themselves than on the Government for the amelioration of their condition. In the opinion of the Darbar, Rural Improvement, if it is to be of roal and lasting value, must consist, not in the execution of relatively expensive works paid for from public funds, but in inducing the villagers to do things for themselves in their abundant leisure time and to co-operate for that purpose. The Darbar have spent large sums, in proportion to their finances, in recent years, on rural water supply, but have never point’ed to the works thus executed as examples of Rnral ImproYement. Agricultural Marketing.-This section deals with the results of the survey so far made by the State Marketing Officer on the lines suggested by the Agricultural Marketing Adviser to the Government of India. When the survey of all the agricultural products has been completed, it will be possible to gauge 324 PUDUKK6TTAI STATE [C~AP. what position the State occupies in the produotion and oonsumption of the differept produots for daily use. Paddy:-The extent under paddy cultivation in any year varies directly with the rainfall. In 1920, with a rainfall of 60’44 inohes, paddy was oultivated on 1,61,000 aores; and in 1922, with 45 inches on 1,56,COO acres. In years in which the rainfall was between 35 ana 49 inohes, the extent under paddy ranged between 1,10,000 and 1,32,000 acres. In fasli ,1344, when the rainfall was below 25 inches, the area under paddy was only 56,000 aores. The average area under paddy for the last fifteen years is roughly 1,10,000 acres, and the average yield per aore, 13 7/11 kalams or 1,023 Ibs. The total produotion of paddy is estimated at 15,02,322 kalams or 50,301 tons. Out of this quantity 5,525 tons (at the rate of 45 Madras measure per aore) are used as seed, and the balanoe of 44,766 tons of paddy (29,850 tons of rice) consumed. Out of a total population of 4,00,694 (oensus of 1931), 3,12,624 are adults ;-1,16,000 live on millets, and 1,96,624 require rice, and 39,250 tons of rice are required for their use,. The State has therefore to import annually on an average 9,400 tons which are obtained mainly from the adjoining Britlf3h districts of Tanjore, Trichinopoly and Madura. The value of 39,250 tons of rice, the quantity required for the State as a whole, at the rate of Rs. 4-14-0 per Imperial maund is Rs. 52,08,800; and that of local production, viz., 29,850 tons of rice excluding the quantity reserved for seed, “Rs. 39,61,2()0. The value of the total imports of paddy (either as rice in the husk or as rice) works up to Rs. 12,47,640. The con- ” ” sumption per head is 0’098 tons of rice valued at Rs. 13. Ground-nut :-The area under oultivation is 18,050 aores. The extent is greatest in the Alangudi Taluk (11,000 acres), Kolattur comes next (7,000 acres), and the extent in Tirumayam is negligible (50 ·acres). Ground-nut is grown chiefly in th~ north, north-east, and eastern parts of the State. XII] LOCAJJ SELF-GOVERNMENT 325 Taking the avera,ge yield per acre as 300 Madras measures of kernel which is equiva.lent to 800 lbs. or 5/14 of a ton per acre, the total yield of kernel in the State is approximately 6,500 tons. H is believed that a tenth of this quantity is consumed in the State while another ten per cent is reserved for seed· The remaining 80 per cent is sent to the rranjore dlstrict and exported from Negapatam. The value of the quantity exported is Rs. 8,UJ,000 at the rate of Rs. D ‘per bag of 60 Madras measures of kernel weighing 160 lbs. Tobacco :-‘1’he area under tobacco in the State is no more than about 25 acres rrhe crop is valued at Rs. 4,500. Chewing tobacco is ltlmost a necessity for the agricultural and labouring classes. The value of the quantity of tobacco consumed is about ~ lakhs of rupees for the ordinary variety, and Rs. 20,000 for the superior variety imported from Sivapuri, Vedaranyam and other places: The value of tobacco-products consumed (snuff, cigars, cigarettes, and’ bidis ‘) is approximately Rs. 1,15,000. Including the profits of the retail traders, the total annual value of the tobacco and products thereof sold in the State amounts to about Hs. 4,00,000; or about one rupee per head of the population. Hides and Skins.-The only tannery for hides in the State works on a modest scale. Raw hides and skins are sold to the vahie of about Rs. 1,14,000 a year in the town weekly market to merchants from the surrounding districts. The possibility of encouraging the tanning industry in the State is engaging the attention of the Darbar. It seems to be almost the only industry capable of development since there is no lack either of hides and skins or of avarai (Cassia reticulata) a valuable tanning material. But though a small fortune perhaps awaits anyone who bas the enterprise to launch out in this direetion, the usual absence of a spirit of self-help and tendency to look for assistance from the Darbar are serious obstacles to any progress. Fruit :–The only fruits grown in the State are mangoes (both the local varietY’ and the ‘grape’ variety) aud plantains; 326 PUDUKKOTTAI STATE but the quantity produced is quite insufficient to meet the local demand, and large quantities are imported from the adjoining British districts, chiefly from Trichinopoly. The quantity of these fruits· imported annually is estimated at HJ,970 maullds valued at Rs. 6″4,330. Imported oranges are consumed by the middle and upper classes, They· are not produced locally. The total annual demand in the State may be roughly estimated at about six lakhs of fruits valued at about Rs. 15,000 at an average rate of Rs. 2-8-0 per 100. CHAPTER XIII. LAND REVENUE ADMINISTRATION. THE AMANI SYSTEM. Early Feature •• -State inscriptions show with what consideration the Kudimakkal or cultivators were treated. An inscription in the Haratirteswara temple at Tii-uvarangulam dated the 40th year of Tribhuvana Chakravarti ‘fribhuvana Viradeva (A. D. 1218) records the determination of Kurappatt~tlvudevil1langalam to afford them every protection and to confiscate the lands of any who” offended them. Another inscription (A. D. 1202) in the Uttamanathasvami temple at Kiranur records a covenant entered into by the inhabitants not to cause damage to wells and tanks. A third inscription at N irpalani fixes” a md of land as the penalty for such transgn~sSlOns. From the State inscriptions we learn that fro111 about the lOth century A. D. the cultivating village was a commonwealth, the temporal concerns of which formed the care of a”n assembly variously called Sabai, N dif,dr, and Grdr. This body collected, and “also assessed the tax on land, and remitted the dues to the temple and the State. rrhese village assemblies were responsible for the payment of land revenue to the State and had power to escheat lands from which taxes fell in arrears. They had powers of effecting partial or full remission of all taxes in certain cases, e.g. temples and endownlents for religious and charitable institutions; but in all cases, as the total revenue from a ‘village due to the State was to be paid at all cost, they had to make good the deficit on account of remissions by distributing it among other holdings in the village. Such lands which were tax-exempt under the township were called -Vir-kikiraiyili. The assemblies were elected a:t;ld had fixed terms of office, and the qualifications for candidature were very strict. That such powers” were exercised by these assemblies may be inferred from inscriptions such as those at Narttamalai dated the 37th year of K6 Parakesarivannan Tribhuvana Viradeva, CA. D. 1214) which laid 328 PUDUKKOTTAI STATE [CHAP. down in connection with a sale of land that, the taxes relating thereto were payable to the city. It is also likely that lands were during all these centuries held and cultivated in common, and the produce divided after meeting State ‘and other common demands. For administrative purposes the country was divided into va!anaif,us (provinces) naif,us (districts), kurrams (taluks), va/tams (circles), and urs (villages). An inscription in the Tirumalai Kadambar tElmple at Narttamalai refers to a nila a/aP1!u or measurement of land, and there is evidence to show that in such surveys even small fractions of land such as ali) of a ma were recognised and measured. That the tax was assessed on certain broad and equitable principles would appear from the inscription in the Vagisvara temple at Malaiyadipatti, (A. D. 1087?) which alludes to the levying of taxes according to the crop and the facilities for irrigation in the village of Kalkka [diJ in Kilsengili N adu. ‘ In the later centuries of general insecurity, the village communities found it expedient to seek the protection of local chieftains called ardiyars to whom they sold the pddikdval or watohmanship of their villages, for a share in the produce of the land. When the araiyars gradually assumed sovereign powers the grain fees that they originally received for their police duties became an ara$u svatantaram or royal tax. rrhe following inscription dated the 47th year of K6marapadma rl’ribhuvana Chakravarti Sri Vira Pandya Deva (1380 A. D.) is quoted as showing the share that villages were prepared to give to the araiyars from whom they sought protection. “Since our village has become ruined and we have ourselves been reduced to very straitened circumstances on account of the inroads of the M ussalmans, and since we find no other course open to us and have no seed-grain, we have agreed to sell the village watchmanship for 300 Kulasippanl1111 of Valal YaH rrirantan * and, receiving this amount, we, the inhabitants of • Valal Vali Tirantan = one who carved out his own pl1th by the strength of his sword-an old appellation of the Pandyan Kings. XIII] LAND REVENUE ADMINISTRATION 329 the village, have·sold the village watchmanship to Vijayalaya ‘revan of SuraikkuQ.i on oath. We will give him:- (1) For lands growing paddy, a head-load of sheaves per ta4i of.1and. (2) For lands growing thinai-Setaria italica, (on wet land) for one ta4i of land, two marakkdls,· measured by themarakkdl of Adanur ; (3) For lands growing sesamum (gingelly), for one ta4i four nalis of Adanlir; (4) For laalis growing sugar-cane. for one ta4i, 20 palams of sugar; (5) For lands growing turmeric,. ginger, karanai (Typhonium trilobatum) and hetel also, he is to receive his share-(the usual share it ma.y be supposed); (6} Of cocoanuts, jack trees, plantains, and mangoes growing in the village, he is to receive his due; (7) For the grains varaylt (Paspalum scrobimtlatum) and sdmai (Panicum miliaceum) grow~ng on dry lands, for one punjai land one head-load of sheaves: (8) For sesamum growing on dry land. for one punjai land four nalis (or measures); (9) For horse-gram growing on dry land, for one punjai land one marakkdl of grain by the Adanur measure; (10) For cotton growing on dry land, for one punjai land ten pods of cotton; (11) We, having fixed the price, and having received the amount in full settlement, sold these pdf/,ikdval rights on oath. This document is to be treated as the dlai – final deed of sale, errors and omissions excepted. Olause 11 probably relates to some private purchase by the chieftain.. It was presumably in relation to a home farm which . was the chief source of income to ·every chieftain in former times. Meikondon of Nandavanampatti, for instance, who is often referred to in the letters of the Madura Mission as a wise and powerful chieftain, is described as owning a ‘ personal estate’ , distinct fr6m any 80rt of public revenue if any such existed at all’. -rl’-hF– practice of holding private lands by the ruling princes continue’d down to tbe middle of the last century as is evidenced by the Indigo factory owned by Raja Vijaya Raghunatba, and by the existence of a privy-purse account called the Rajmahal, the funds of which were derived from the revenues of certain villages regarded as the Raja’s private property. * 1 marakkdt = 8 parj,is (mAasure) 330 PUDUKK6TTAI STATE [CHAP. The inscriptions also show that the taxation on land was so heavy and the methodR employed in the colleotion so cruel that the villagers sometimes migrated enma88~, as happened at Sevalur, Madiani, and GUQ.ah1r. It would also appear that extensive alienations of tax-free land were frequent. Free occupancy rights were often assured to agriculturists to induce them to settle in the kdif,drambam or dry tracts. In the centuries of incessant warfare, a body of feudal men-at-arms was oalled into existence by grants of land free of tax. The desire for peace and harmony among the members of the’ royal household led to the creation of Jagfrs (assignments of land or of revenue either in consideration of services to be ,rendered or absolutely). The religious impulses of the rulers and the masses led to numerous benefactions to temples and alms-houses; and respect for learning resulted in gifts to Brahmin scholars who then represented what was highest in the indigenous culture. As the country settled down to peace the attention of the rulers was naturally drawn to- the expansion and settlement of land revenue. One of the earliest steps taken in thisdireotion appears to have beel! a pymdsh or rough survey which led to the detection of Vengams or areas held in excess of original grants by the militia and other inam hoI del’s, and to a permanent leasing out of these excesses under a system of light assessment ealled mamul ijdra. A second step seems to have been the resumption and transference to amdni (or’ the ordinary produce-sharing tenure) of service inams on t:pe death of the original grantees when the services became unnecessary. Attention also appears to have been directed to large areas of land held under a light assessment called mdmul kadamai fixed by village officials who in former tilnes had full power to dispose of land. Not only was the assessment on such lands generally low, but complete exemption from taxation had been granted in respect of podukkal or occasionally cultivated wastes. The title-deed known locally as tulli ckittu, while it stfl,ted the extent of land held, defined XIII] LAND REVENUE ADMINISTRATION 331 neither the boundaries nor the tenure; and in consequence frauds and encroachments were rampant. A reform in’ this direction ma,de early .in the 19th century was the transference of the authority to grant tulli ohittu from the lower to the higher Revenue officers and the introduction of sale of Government land by auction (petapeHi). Before describing the system of Revenue Administration in the 19th century it may be useful to review the different classes of land tenures that had sprung up introducing complex conditions and difficult problems for administrations to face and solve. The Tenures.-* Cultivable land was either waste or occupied. The waste; while excluding hilly and jungle tracts, .’:’ The following table may perhaps help the reader to understand the relation between the different tenures. LAND. 1 1 1 Waste. Arable (Oul ti va ted.) I 1 _____ -.. I I. Anilditarisu Samudayam (immemorial waste- Pommboke I ~I unreclaoimed.) (communaolland.) Initm. AYlIon. I I ‘-1 ———–1, 1 i Religious. Service. VarlloplIottu Tirvlloipattu 1 I I I (rent ii kind.) (OftShlrent). (Dr::~~am)~hattr.\ms~~~r~?!!1iC II’ (hetd!!;L~y ~7d~b~~t~ rooitations, etc.) under 80 land-lord.) I …-___ -. _______ -;–‘ Govcrnmenl.) I I I Quasi Feudal Military. Civil. (Jagirs). I, I I Amarams (grants by.a chief to his retainers for military service.) I I I Publio Palace Rural service. servioe. service. -I Jivitams (maintenance grants to military officers.) I Ijards (light assessment levied on excess laonds found at the pymash.) I Mamu} kaodamai (lands under actuai cuI tiva tion in relaotion to which rent is fixed by longstanding custom-fn’itnl;Z). ——1 . Swarnad.lyam (quit-rent or cess only.) 332 PUDUKKOTTAI STATE [CHAP. included anddi tari8U (immemorial wastes) anti samuddyam poramboke (communal land). The occupied area was indm (alienated), or ayan (State owned). lnam lands were capable of a two-fold classification according as they were alienated in the name of religion and charity or in consideration of service to be rendered. Under the first came lands set apart for Dev cLstanams (temples) and chattrams (alms-houses) as well as the Brahmadayams, Vedavritti and other grants made to the Brahmins. J dgir8.-The jagirs were the most important of the iliams. They must have originated,as the name indicates under Muhammadan influences at a time when territorial grants were made by the Rnlers to near relatives or dangerous rivals within the State to propitiate or mollify them by gifts of land over which they could exercise a· sort of sovereign rights in some limited and subordinate way. For example the creation of the Western Palace Jagir whICh lay along the frontier and included villages recently annexed such as rrirul{kalambur, Idftiyarrur and Varpattuappears to have been intended to secure the defence of the frontier. But Chinna~anmanai and Manovftrti, the two other jagirs, were not liable to any military obligations. The latter was a source of ,pin-:money for the Ranis. , . These Jagfrs were mere revenue assignments, inalienable by sale, ‘gift or mortgage; resumable for misconduct or other reasons; liable,at ordinary times, to cesses such as pillu vari (grass tax), and to ‘extraordinary assessment’ in emergencies. They were, taxed exactly like ‘a,yan’ lands; the difference being that the jagfrdar was entitled to collect and enjoy the revenue. Of ,s, more purely military and feudal origin were the amarams granted to the amarakars (retainers), servaikars (captains), vagwppu servaikars (captains of squadrons) and Sardars (colonels) of the State militia. Each officer held in feudal ‘fief a certain extent of land calculated according to his importance and the number of followers that he brought into the field. XIII] LAND REVENUE ADMINISTRATION 333 Each amarakdr was given land sufficient to maintain himself and his family, an d? jivitam as it was called, the extent of which was usually 1,000 ku!is of irrigated wet land (31 acres) or 1,500 ku!is of rain fed wet land (5 acres) or 3,000 ku!is of dry land (10 acres.) Inams granted for uliam.’l or services of a civil nature were called umbalams and rokkakuthagais. Sometimes the service was attached to the palace, [Lnd consisted in performing sundry domestic d.uties .such as lighting lamps or washing cl~thes, or mere attendance on ceremonial occa,sions connected with births, deaths, or marriages in tke palace. Village services such as those rendered, u-nder the amani system, by the mirasdar, the vettiyan (the village menial), and the artisan were also remunerated by gifts of land, which were consequently known as mirdsi umbalam, vettiydn umbalam, etc. Over and above these there were a number of petty umbalams held for the performance of sundry petty se~vices for the temples, the Raja and the officers. Examples are-furnishing leather for temple drums, rags and bearers for the temple torches, men to carry vdhanams (the vehicles of the gods) or drag the temple cars, beaters for a royal hunt, supplies for touring ,officers, etc., etc. Not all these services however had separate umbalams ,attached to them, and some of them, such as dragging the huge temple cars, were obligatory on every pattadar in the State although he held no umbalam for it in particular. The inam lands brought in hardly any income to the State except in the shape of swarnaddyarns composed of quit-rents and cesses. The bulk of the Revenue was derived from the aya’n areas which fell into two great divisions-the vd1’apattu and the tirvaipattu. Arndni was the name given to the vdrapatt’lt settlement under which no definite Tent was fixed, but a share of the actual produce was taken at prescribed mtes. This was, till recent times, the most outstanding feature of Land Revenue in the State. 334 PUDUKK6TTAI STATE [ClIAr. Till about the beginning of the 19th century amani lands included the most extensive and richest lands and contributed most of the State Revenue. Originally, as in neighbouring Zamindaris, the State had to realise its revenue by sharing the actual produce with tbe ryot on the threshing floor. Yet the ‘amani’ was not a ryotwari ten1ue * altogether. ‘1’he State was in theory and practice the owner of the land, and the cultivator had no right to transfer, or transmit his land. Tfhe pa’nnai (or home-farm) lands cultivated directly by the State were classed asvampattu as if the pannaiyals (serfs attached to home-farms) and amani ryots occupied a similar pusition. But the lot of the amani ryots was not so precarious as that of the pannaiyals who were entitled to hardly anything except the bare expenses of cultivation. Amani rates vaied from time to time. Manu’s rule that the King’s share–@ould be one-sixth of the produce in times of peace, and a little more in war time was probably never put into practice. Local tradition fixed the rni.lvamm at one-third of the produce for wet, and at about a half for dry lands. But very often the lands were heavily and ruinously assessed. In 1808, the prevailing settlement was, according to Major Blackburne, 25 to 40 per cent k’ll”divaram (cultiva.tor’s share) on wet and 50 per cent on dry hnds; which means that the Government share had risen, at least on wet lands, from 33i per cent to about 60 per cent.- Whatever may have been the rate, the division between the State and the ryot was carried out after deducting the following 8watanta’rams or emoluments in kind amounting to 10 per cent. of the yield. * Settlement of land revenue directly with the individuals (ryots). (Ryots enjoy proprietary rights). XIII] LAND REVENUE ADMINISTRATION 335 Kalams. Marakkals. -l. Th\reshing charges 7 2 2. Temple Brahmin 0 8 3. Karnam (village accountant). 1 3 4. Pound-keel)er 0 4 5. Kavallui.r (watchman) 1 0 6. Smith and carpenter 0 8 7. Dhobie ( washerman) and barber 0 2 8. Vet,tiyan (menial). 0 9 9. Potter 0 2 10. Tandakkaran (menial helping in tax collection) 0 4 12 6 An occasional and later feature of the arndni tenure was swdmibh6gam. or the letting of land to anyone who offered a swdmibh6.r;am or premium in addition to the prescribed rates of rnelvdTa1n. Under this system, cultivators attached to the soil for generations were evicted when higher bidders appeared. The origin of this innovation probably lay in a desire to increase the productiveness of the soil, aud in consequence the State Hevenue, by transferring the land to more capable and energetic hands. Under the amani system the cultivator was sometimes assisted with seed”gra.in by the Sirkar, but more often he incurred and risked all the expenses of cultivation. He ploughed, sowed, tmnsplanted and irrigated at his own cost; but when the crops matured, an estimate was made of the harvest by the local mirasdar, and checked by the higher revenue authorities after personal inspection. In the meanwhile, the· crops were watched by kanganis told off from the ranks of the militia; and under their watchful eye, and in the presence of the Taluk officers, the crop was threshed a.nd divided. The State’s share was sometimes left with the ryot at his own house, either – Settlement Scheme Report of 1909 336 PUDUKK6TTAI STATE [CHAF. in trust or under the lock and key of the village officers, or-n.nd this was the more usual practice-was removed to ambaram..’J (State granaries) where it was stored under the charge of the mirasdar and the vettiyan till such time as the market price was favourable to the State, and contractors were found to tender for its purchase. The responsibility of the mirasdar and the vettiyAn for safeguarding the State paddy did not cease till the contractors in their turn had found purchasers and removed the grain from the granaries; and not until the contractors had paId their dues into the. Treasury. was the price realised entered as Land Revenue in tb.~ public accounts. The advantages of the system, at least in theory, were ·its equality of incidence and its productiveness to the State. It was equitable to the ryot since the Sirkar shared with him the vicissitudes of season and market. It rendered both remission and suspension of revenue unnecessary, since it provided an automatic relief in bad seasons. It was also advantageous to the State since revenue was bound to increase with every improvement in the land. Tirvaipattu .. -The other kind of Land Revenue consisted of money rents known as tirvai kadamai and ija1’a. It originated as already observed, in the ijaras or leases of vengams (excess lands) enjoyed by the in~mdars. Where the lease was more Or less permanent, it was called mamul idam; and where it was terminable, ged’ll ijdra. Sometimes even perso:q.s who did not render any military service appropriated State lands with the help of the village officials from whom they gOf cadjan (palmyra) lea(documents called Tu..lli chittu issued without the authority of the higher Revenue officials. These lands were known as mamul kadamai lands. A· later development of the tenure was known as kararnama (application) or nilacha (permanent) kadamai, and this was generally adopted in the case of jungle and waste lands difficult of reclamation and granted on ~ kardrndmd from the ryot, after ascertaining by issuing an istyar (notice) whether there was any competition for the land, XIII] LAND REVENUE–A.DMINISTRATION 337 rrhe cowle conferred the Fight of possession on the terms and conditions laid down in the kararnama but the rates of rent were liable to enhancement at everytaramfysal or settlement. Some times the revenue of whole villages and· groups of villages was leased out for from 5 to 10 years, excluding ifLam and waste lands but including amani and other tracts hitherto nnder the direct management of the State. The renters were authorised to colle.ct meh’aram and kadamai, (that is, State dues in kind and cash), but they were liable to pay extra for cultivation ofPorambokes. The lease rent was not calculated with any regard to the prosperity of the ryot, but based on the highest revenue on record, so that the system eventually led to rack-renting of the most oppressive type. The o,rvai rates, having thus been fixed under various systems and on no definite principle, were bewilderingly nUmel’On8. There were, as Mr. Pennington wrote in 1875, “218 nanjai rates varying from Rs. 1-14-0 to Rs. 132, a veli, 16 na,njai ga,rden rates ranging from Rs. 31-4-0 to Rs. 475, 202 pnnjai rates from fifteen annas to Rs. 62-8-0, and 17 pnnjai garden rates from Rs. 10-2-2 to Rs. 1,125.” From an examination of old chittas it appears that the largest proportion of lands held under mamul ijara was in the ‘rirumayam Taluk, and under mam1U kadamai, in the Alangudi Taluk, that the highest mamul kadamai rates per acre were Rs. 12-8-0 for wet, Rs. 6-2-0 for achukkattu, and Rs. 2-8-0 for dry; and that the assessment was sometimes in respect of a lwli, and sometimes of a rna, or 5 mas (1 veli). 8wa7·nadayam.-A third species of land revenue was the swarnadalJam which included nearly 40 different quit-rents and oesses levied on villages and lands which were not ayan, that is, not liable to full assessment, and of taxes 011 trees, fisheries, and stone-quarries. Foremost among them were the quit-rents on various inams .~xcluding the Devastanams, chattrams, and jagfrs. 338 PUDUKK6TTAI STATE [CHAP. The Chinnaranmanai jag!r was subject to a pillu- vari (grass tax) in lieu of an original obligation to supply the palace stables with fodder. The quit-i’ent on s1’otriem lands was not liable to ~evlslOn. Por1.lppuvari was a cess charged on all kinds of religious inams ranging from small mdnyams to big Devaddyams. There were numerous cesses, such as kulavettu or ma1’dmdt vari levied for repairs to irrigation tanks, lcanakku va1’i (karnam fees), pddikdval (militia fee) and ni1’d1}tikkam (water cess). rrhe cesses in respect of trees, quarries, etc., also came under this class. Fruit, timber, and toddy-yielding trees (such as the cocoanut and palmynt), the mango, the tamarind, and the jack were taxed. Cesses were also levied for quarrying or collecting savuituma1}t (fuller’s earth), salt-petre, red-ochre, all,d lime-stone. There were special taxes on cattle such as sangaren var-i for pack-bulls and kitf,d t’ari for grazing cattle in the jungles. There were further a number of petty and unclassifiable charges, such as k1.ldi -umbala bhet levied in lieu of customary presents to the ruler; and ehdyd bhdgam for trees that cast shade on Sirkar lands to the detriment of cultivation thereon. Reforms In the early 19th Century.-So far we have described the land tenures and the sources of land . revenue at the close of the 18th century. This period marked the close of the era of war, and the establishment of British sovereignty in Southern India. In Pudukk6ttai, it coincided with the rule of one of the most benevolent of Princes-Raja Vijaya Raghunatha, known not only for nuinerous charitable endowments but also for the first systemMic attempt at an equitable assessment of land revenue. At that time, the country and its ruler came under the direct influence of an Englishman of rare sympathy and talents-Major Blackburne. Moreover, in the adjoining British Districts a Revenue Settlement was being introduced which must have facilitated the perfonnance of a similar task in Pudukk6ttai. The B.evenue system no doubt required over-hauling. Owing to the defects of the system the Revenue was not half of what it might have been. The economic condition of the ryot under the amdni was bad, since the division of the· produce under the system was uncertain and varied from year to year. Out of a. genuine desire to ameliorate the condition of his subjects Raja Vijaya Raghunatha introduced certain reforms. rrhe amdni tenure was still preserved, but the rates were revised in· favour of the ryot. The Revenue officials also came in for a share of correction, for they had oppressed the poor when· their palms were not greased, and even embezzled public money; but the remedy that the Raja administered was more heroic than effective. He frequently changed the Revenue officials, and any one who exposed the frauds of the holder of any office and agreed to collect more revenue was appointed in his stead. This. arrangement, while it had the merit of weeding out dishonest officials, offered no j encouragement to anyone to continue long in service and practically delivered the country into the hands of competing place-hunters and rack-renters. Even had the personnel been perfect the system itself wa.s defective. To quote the words of Major Blackburne (1808), “with the exception of informers no checks existed in the Revenue Department. No double set of accounts, as in Tanjore and the Carnatic; no kurnams; no regular cutcherrie in the District with the officers appointed by the Goyernment; no regular Dufter in the capital; no office anywhere in which the accounts of the country were recorded. Tondaiman himself or a person temporarily and verbally authorised by him usually received the money which was transmitted from the Districts by the Revenue officers; sometimes this person gave a receipt for it, sometimes the Sarkil, and not unfrequently no receipt was given. The Revenue Divisions of the country seldom contInued the same two years together. As caprice or interest dictated, portions of land separated from one Division were added to another. 340 PU])UKKOTTAI STATE [CHAP., From all these . ciroumstances the public ,accounts which existed were ………… contradictory and involved in ……. inextricable perplexity.” There also obtained a deplorable practice .of handing over whole .. villages ,to State creditors, investing them with the authority of the Government to collect revenue I and adjust it against their due~. Blackburne’. reform .. -Tolremedy these evils, a few . reforms were carried out during the minority (1807-1817) of Raja Vijaya Raghunatha Raya under the advice of Major Blackburne; Fixed rents in kind were substituted for the old amani. The State was divided into five districts. Revenue officers were instruoted to oonduct business in cutcherries (offices), .ka,rnams were required to submit weekly reports and aocounts to an office at the capital under the direot charge of the Sarkil, and revenue payments were declared to be valid only when aoknowledged by the Sarkil himself. Other measures were the introduction of the Marathisystem of acoount-keeping, .. the abolition of a small and vexatious tax called catcha wasool whioh demoralised the administration, and ‘the remission of all uncolleoted arrears up to 1806-7. About 1813, a survey .UKKI/lTT4I STATE· [CHAP. well as py the State Sir Sashia wrote as follows in his adniipistration report for fasli–1302:-“Freed from the burden of old arrears which ~sed to outs~and against them in large amounts in former . years and in consequence of” the special relief they ‘-. obtained in the permanent reduction of excessive assessments and abolition of other taxes referred to already, the ryots found it easy to pay up the current dues at least to the utmost extent in their power, and ·to this circumstance is due that so· much proportion of the revenue was realised in such a disastrous season without coercion, and the actual resort to sales were consequently much fewer than in any of the previous years.” Revenue survey, 1893.-We pass now to the Revenue survey operations which were begun in 1893 and completed in 1907. The need for a new survey arose from the incorrectness of the amdni settlement based on the old rough-and-ready pymash survey. Though the re-survey was ordered in 1893, it was not begun till 1895 owing to the delay in securing the services of an officer of the M adJ.·as Survey department,· and to the necessity for sending men to be trained in cadastral work u:nder a survey party working in the Marungapuri Zamfndari. In 1895 small schools were started at the taluk headquarters to give the “revenue subordinates and others concerned some training in survey. The operations lasted, for one reason or other, for 15 years and terminated on the last day of June 1907. THE SETTLEMENT OF 1908-12 AND AFTER. The need for Re-settlement, Sir Saahia Sastriar’a Proposal •. -G. O. No, 359, of the Madras Government-Political, dated 7th·June 1893 may be said to be the starting point of the re-settlement which was finally carried out in ~he years 1908-12. The Government order was itself the result of certain proposals put forward by Sir Sashia Sastriar for a fresh settlement to remedy the· evils of· the original hastily concluded amdni settlement. The Dewan Regent regarded his new scheme as the closing and crowning act of his administration and wished to bequeath it as a ” real magna carta to the ryots of this State for XIII] LAND REVENUE ADMINISTRATION 357 I all time to come.” Absence of remission and moderate assessment were to be the leading features of the new settlement. 1’he old commutation rate of a little over a Rupee fixed in 1879 was to be retained although meanwhile the prices had ‘steadily and permanently risen. In his own words :- ” It is the high price which has been the helping staff 0: mainstay of the ryots through all the vicissitudes of season whic) are nowhere so severe as in the Pudukkottai State ……………. an, I am altogether for leaving this resource of the ryot untouche leaving to him all the benefits of high market prices to counte: act the deficiencies of crop for which no remission will 1 allowed.” The new settlement was intended not to increase the revenl but to secure an equitable redistribution of existing assessmen’ The total assessment on each village as a whole was not to modified; but internal readjustments were to be made. In ot1 words, the greater inequalities of tenure and assessment betwE village and village were to be perpetuated, but the sma] inequalities between the different holders of a village were to rectified. The justification for this was that, ” the land revel of each village on actual occupied area determined on act crop results of 5 years which had stood the test of over 14 y( in continuous succession through good as well as through seasons experiencing all vicissitudes may be the safest gen sta~dard.” There was to be an examination, no doubt, of productive capacity of the lands by classifiers assisted by J panchayats of head-men and mirasdars, but the object waf so much to introduce a scientific settlement as to, removi smaller inequalities already referred to. In fact Sir S: wished to avoid introducing any radical change lest it sl bring the whole administrative machinery to a standsti appreciably reducing the revenue. But the Government of Madras -in their Order al referred to took a different view and recommende fieldwar classification of soils corrected if necessary fo i’UDUKKOTTAI STATE LCHAP. circumstances of the land dealt with, on a regular ~ystem and on a valuation of the half-net.” In other words, the DewanRegent’s suggestions were not approved, except the prineiple of no r81DlSSlOn. The 5 years average, and the :old commutation rate of a little oyer a rupee were to be jettisoned, and a·:new average based on a period of more than 5 i;mmediately preceding years was to be adopted. Relinquishment was to be freely allowed contrary to the Dewan-Regent’s views. Trial Settlement, 1897.-As the exact effect of a settlement on these lines on the finances of the State could not be foreseen, a trial settlement was ordered in 1897. Some 20 villages in the Alangudi Taluk, which· had been already surveyed by the Revenue staff organised in 1893, were selected for the experiment. Lands were classified on the lines of the Madras settlements according to fertility, and the facilities for irrigating and manuring the fields. In fixing the rates, due consideration was given to the old arnani settlement rates, to the representations of local pancbayats, to crop-experiments, public records and the. ryots’ statements. Due allowance was also made for unprofitable areas and vicissitudes of season.. . The principle that the Government share should be half the net produce was finally applied, and the commutation rates were fixed at Rs. 1-5-0 for superior paddy, and Rs. 1-2-0.£01′ inferior paddy calculated on an average of 20 years (1871-1895 excluding famine years). Relinquishment was to be permitted. rrhe results of this experimental settlement as compare~ with the amani settlement were:- ;1; , Wet’ Revenue … , Aohukkattu’ Revenue , Dry’ Revenue Total Amdni Settlement. RS. A. P. 17,935 1 5 751 14 3 4,137 8 7 22,824 8 3 —- Tria.l Settlement. RS. A. P. 25,718 15 8 . 1,160 13 4 7,570 10 4 —– 84,350 7 4 —–. – XIII] LAND REVENUE ADMINISTRATION 359 The trial settlement gave an increase of revenue by 34 per cent for the area under investigation, and on this basis an addition of a lakh and a half for the whole State was ·to :he antioipated=-a conclusion that must have come as It surprise ‘to those who had hitherto considered the old settlement onerous. Resumption of the Chinnaranmanai.Jagir*-·Onthe death of the .r agirdfLrin 1903, the Chinnaranmanai J agir was managed for some .months by the State and finally resumed; money pensions were granted to the surviving members of the family. The lands were eventually brought under survey and settlement. The Settlement of 1908-12*–After the trial settlement in 1897, nothing further was done for another ten years. From. 1807 to 1903-4, action was delayed on the ground that the simultaneous maintenance of two departments-the survey and the settlement-would be too expensive, and it was hoped that the settlement might be taken up as soon as the survey was over. But the survey dragged on, as we have seen, till 1907; so that -actual settlement operations could not be begun before 1908. A scheme report for two taluks was ~ubmitted in December 1909. The actual settlement was begun in 1910 and completed in 1912 .. This was the first systematic and scientific settlement in the ·State. It followed in the main the same lines as the ryotwari settlements of the Madras districts conducted between 1885 and 1888. The work of such settlements falls into three natural divisions:-(i) the survey and demarcation of land into separate numbered fields; (ii) the grouping of such fields in classes called tamms according to (a) the distance of the land from communications and market, (b) the facilities for irrigation, and (e) the nature of the soil; (iii) the ascertainment of 50 per cent of the net produce involving Ca) the. selection of a standard crop, (b) the determination of the gross out-turn and ee) the calculation ~: Both· Devasta~am and Ayan lands were taken up for settlement in 1908-12, since the Devastanam lands had been amalgamated with Ayan. For details of this ama.l~amatioh, See chapter on “Deva.stana~ a-nd Charities,” 360 PUDUKK6TTAI STATE [CRAP. of its value having regard to current market prices and the average price of former years, and finally (d) the applioation of these rates to the tamms after making suitable deduotions for cost of oultivation, vicissitudes of season, and unprofitable areas. The essential difference between this and. the old amdni settlement was that instead of taking as basis the average of the ac~ual yield of eaoh holding for a number of years, the new settlement attempted to determine what a land of a particular quality might be expected to yield under normal conditions. The achukkattu lands which were’recognisedas a separate olass in all the previous settlements were transferred to’ wet’ if paddy was regularly grown, and otherwise to ‘dry’. This was done partly to simplify the system, and partly to discourage the multiplioation of small tanks irrigatIng achukkattu to the detrimentof larger and older tanks in the neighbourhood. Since almost all the villages were similarly situated with l’eferenc~ to markets, roads and railways, no regular classification was made of dry land; but where it was necessary’ to make some concessions the whole village in question was plaoed in a lower taram than it otherwise belonged to. The irrigation sources were classified into five clas!;les as follows :- I:i!irstclass-all irrigation sources whether anicuts, or river channels, or tanks, capable of irrigating their ayacuts fot not less than eight. months in the year; Second class-all those capable of irrigating their ayacuts for less than eight but Dot less than five months; Third class-all those capable of irrigating their ayacuts for less than five but not less than three months; Fourth class-all those capable of irrigating their ayacuts for less than three months but not less than one month; and Fifth class–all those capable of irrigating their ayacuts for less than one month. Only ~ ‘series’ of soils were recognised-Regar and ferruginous; and these~ were sub-divided into 3 ‘classes’ and 5 ‘sorts ‘; and grouped into 11 ‘tamms’ for’ wet’, and 8 tarams for’ dry’. The standard crop was paddy for wet land, and ragi and varagu in equal proportions for. dry . The out-turn was fixed on XIII] LAND REVENUE ADMINISTRATION 361 a combined basis of crop~experiruents, local enquiry, and the normal yield of adjacent and similar British areas. The crop experiments however were not considered to yield normal results, because when they were made, the season was less favourable than the normal, and consequently the results were enhanced arbitrarily by 20 per cent. There v:ms eonsiderable difficulty in fixing the commutation rates, since the statistics for 20 years required for striking the average were not on record, or if they were, could not be relied on. The averages of the Faslis 1288-1318 were finally taken, and a deduction of 15 per cent was made from them for merchant’s profits and carting expenses. The following’ were the rates finally fixed as compared with those of Tanjore:- Crop. Pudukk6ttai. Tanjore. Paddy Rs. 160 per garee. Rs. 121 per garee. Ragi ” 175 ,,134 ., Varagu .. 100 .. 76 .. A liberal deduction of 25 per cent was made in respect of seasonal vicissitudes and unprofitable areas, since it was considered that a more than tech~ical error had been committed in the Revenue survey by including channels and waste lands in the holdings. Another consideration was the absence of any provision for annual remission. For. superior lands under the first two classes of irrigation sources, a deduction of only 20 per cent was made. It may be noted here that in the Tanjore and r.[‘richinopqlY districts the allowance made for wet was 15 per cent in delta and 20 per cent in non-delta tracts, and for dry ~O per cent all round, and in Madura, 20 per cent for both wet and dry. The rates per acre for cultivation expenses finally fixed compared as follows with those of the adjoining districts :-. Wet. Dry. RS. A. P. RS. A.P. Pudukk6ttai 16-0-0 7-0-0 Tanjore 11–0-0 5-8-0 Trichinopoly 11-0-0 5-8-0 Madura •• ! lS-3-Q 3-6-4, 362 PUDUKK6TTAI STATE [CHAP. The money rates were finally fixed in 11 tarams for ‘Wet and 8 for dry lands as shown in the following _table:- I ,;, ‘l:! 1::\ ~ “‘” Q) ~ ,;, ‘8 ,~ “” t- A I ,;, l – s Corres- Corres- Corres- Chingleput ~ Settle- ponding ponding ponding _ re-settl~men E-t mentrate Tanjore Madura SOuth Arcot rates t- in the rates. rates. rates. inorea.sed ca State. S , —- by 15%. if With 121’% increase. t — I~ I 10-0 I 7-14/(7-0) 9- 9/(8-8) 110- 2/(9-0) 8–8 !)-o I 6-12/(6-0) 8- 7/(7-8)9- 0/(8-0) 7- 4 III 7″‘”8 5-10/(5-0) 7- 5/(6-8) _ 7-14/(7-0) 5-12 IV 6-0 5- 1/(4-8) 6- 3/(6-8) 6-12/(6-0) 4-10 V 5-0 4- 8/(4-0) 5- ] /(4-8) 5-10/(5.;,0) 4- 0 VI 4-0 3-15/(3-8) 3-15/(3-8) &- 1/(4..,8) 3- 8 VII 3-8 3- 6/(3:”‘0) 2-13/(2-8) 4- 8/(4-0) 2~14 VIII 3-0 2-13/(2-8) 2- 4/(2-0) 3-15/(3-8) 2- 4 IX 2-8 I 2- 4/(2-0) 2- 4/(2-0) 3- 6/(3-0) 2- 0 X 2-0 1-11/(1-8) 2- 4/(2-0) 2-13/(2-8) 1-12 XI 1-8 0- 0 0- 0 0-0 I 1~ 8 1 I I 3- 0 ‘i _3- 6/(3- 0) 2- 3/(2- 0) 3-15/(S- 8) 8-6 II 2- 8 2-13/(2- 8) 1-11/(1- 8) S- 6/(S- 0) 2-12 III 2- 0 2- 4/(2- 0) 1-61/(1- 4) 2-18/(2- 8) 2- 4 IV 1- 8 1-11/(1- 8) 1- 2/(1- 0) 2- 4/(2- 0) 1-10 V 1- 2 1-61/(1- 4) 0-13!1(0-12! ~-11/(1-8) 1-:- 4 VI 0-14 1- 2/(1.,. 0) 0- 9/«(}- 8 1-61/(1- 4) 0-12 VII 0-10 0-131/(0-12) o~t/(O- 6 1- 2/(1- 0) I ‘0- 8 VIII 0-6 0-,0/(0-8) 0-411(0- 4) 0-131/(0-12) (}-6 IX 0- 0 o-d/(O- 4) 0- 0 0- 9/(0- 8) (}-4 XI 0- 0 0- 0 0- 0 0’:’61/(0- 6) (}-O NOTE:-The figures within brackets were the corresponcUng rates prevailing at the time without the 121 per cent inoreaee. The following are extraots from the Darbar’s Orders on the Settlement Offioer’s Scheme Report:- j, Regarding -wet rate 20 per oent deduotion is allowed for vicissitudes of season for the first three Tarams and 25 per cent for the lower Tarams. “The speoial treatment of lands under the first three Tarams is justified by two considerations. In the first place, these lands are all irrigated, by 1st and 2nd class souroes of XIII] LAND REVENUE ADMINISTRATION 363 irrigation and are consequently less liable to failure. In the second place, the best lands under 1st and 2nd class sources (which comprise the first 3 Tarams) may be expected in normal years to yield a second crop for which no separate charge is made. Rs. 7-8-0 is the rate adopted -for the third Taram to bridge the drop to Rs. 6 acoepted for the fourth Taram. ” ” Reg~rding wet rates in the oase of Tanjore, Madura and South .Aroot, 12i per cent has been added to the existing rates as representing roughly the enhanoement they might be expected to bear if these districts were under resettlemen.t to·day. “The present rates obtaining in the State are so anomalous that detailed comparison is out of the question. The average incidence of assessment is increased by 3 annas 11 pies an acre or 5 per cent. _ “In making comparisons with the rates obtaining in Madras Districts, it must always be remembered that no charge is proposed for seoond crop cultivation in Pudukk6ttai. This concession (supposing the second crop to be half the value of the first orop) may be taken as equivalent to t the assessment of the first three ‘rarams, 1/8 the assessment of rrarams IV and V and 1/16 the assessment of Tamms VI and VII. Under rrarams VIII to XI the extent of double- crop land will be negligible. ” The rates thus oaloulated will be as follows ;- Rate. Deduct l. Single crop rate. Taram. Rs. A. P. Rs. A.- P. Rs. A. P.- Taram. I 10 0 0 2 8 0 7 8 0 I II 9 0 0 2 4 0 6 12 0 II III 7 8 0 1 14 0 5 10 0 III Deduct 1/8. IV () 0 0 0-12 0 5 4 0 rv V 5 0 I) 010 0 4 6 0 V Deduct 1/16. VI 4 0 0 0 4 0 3 12 0 VI VII 3 8 0 0 3 6 3 4 6 VII No deduction. 364 • PUDUKKOTTAI STATE [CHAP • Rate. Deduct t. Single crop rate. ‘Taram. Rs. A. P. US. A. P. Rs. A· P. Taram. VIII 3 0 0 3 0 0 Vln IX 2 8 0 2 8. 0 IX X 2 0 0 2 0 0 X XI 1 8 0 1 8 0 XI ” These theoretical figures correspond closely to the Tanjore rates (though in reality they are lower, the Tanjore rates not including any rate for first class sources of irrigation), and compare favourably with the Madura and South Arcot rates. “The incidence of dry assessment is increased by 3 annas 2 pies an acre or 20 per cent as compared with the existing assessment but after inspection by the Revenue Settlement officer it is anticipated that more correct classification will reduce the incidence by 6 pies an acre or 31 per cent at least. The rates compare favourably with the rates of selected Madras Districts except in the case of Madura where the rapes are abnormally low’:’ A uniform water-rate of Rs. 3 an acre for wet and·Rs. 2 for dry lands was introduced. No remission for baling or lifting was allowed, since there were very few lands where this was neoessary. Finally, it was decided that the Settlement should remain in force for 30 years. Simultaneously with the Settlement, some reforms of a minor character were effected in respect of (i) the tree-tax (ii) Swatantrama and (iii) Uliams. (i) Revi8ion of tree-tax.-U nder the old order of things much room existed for fraud and oppression in the matter of the tree-tax. The old rates were numerous and uncertain, and were charged even upon trees of little economic value such as the vilvam (Aegle marmet08) and the veta (different species of acacia XIII] LAND REVENUE ADMINISTRATION 365 or Vela). rrhe assessable trees were now limited to a smaller number at the rates fixed as follows ;- Mango, tamarind and jack Cocoanut, iluppai (bassia latijolicb), bamboo, and silk-cotton. Palmyra Trees were dealt with as follows ;- 4 annas, 2 annas, 3 pies, (a) Trees on Patta lands :-(i) \Vherever the tree pattadar and the land pattadar were the same, the tree tax or land tax whichever WItS less was remitted. ‘(ii) vVhere the tree pattadar and land pattadar were different, and trees were held on permanent leases, the tree tax or land tax ‘whichever was less was remitted provided that either the tree pattadar or the land pattadar surrendered his rights to the other. (b) Trees standing on Inam lands ;-The existing tax was continued and was regarded as part of the quit-rent due for the land. . (ii) Abolition of Swatantrams.–Another relief to the ryot was the abolition of the swatantrams of 1 per cent and it per eent payable to the mirasdar and the vettiyan in consideration of their services to the State and the ryot. Now that the amani days were over they had hardly any work to do, except by way of safeguarding collections till the clay of remittance, and assisting at clistraints. It was contended, and rightly, that if the Sirkar still required their services it was for the Sirkar to remunerate them; as for the mirasdar’s services, such as supervising repairs to tanks, and arbitrating in disputes about water, they were seldom if ever performed; at any rate they were not required. So the ryots refused to pay ‘the swatantram to the rilirasdar, except in a few villages where his personal influence was high. As for the vettiyan, he managed to secure his fees by acting as every body’s messenger and miscellaneous servant. The settlement abolished all swatantrams, and provided an increased scale of pay for the village sibbandis (menials). To cover the cost of the new scale, a village service cess of one 11nna in the rupee of assessment was recommended in place of the old kanakkuvari of 6 pies. S66 i’UDUKKOTTAI STATE [CHAf>. (iii) Abolition of uliams. *-The substitution of a light cess for minor uliams was another benefit that the new settlement conferred on the ryot. Every pattadar was bound· to render services to temples, and in the old days these were willingly rendered by a population wholly Hindu. But owing to efflux of time and social cha.nges, the minor services had become either obsolete or a cause of legitimate grievance. For example in a village where originally four chucklers (leather-workers) provided hides for the temple drum at one hide each, four hides continued to be exacted even though there was only one chuckler surviving. When a person held lands near two temples, his services were * Two other uliams may be mentioned here.-The Vettai uliam or furnishing beaters for His Highness’ shoots is a service that the people enjoy as a tamasha and voluntarily render out of loyalty to the Ruler. The service demanded of ryots where there is an imminent danger of the embankments of tanks or other irrigation sources brea.ching was made lawful by the Kudimaramat Regulation (IV of 1903), a Regulation drawn on the lines onhe Madras Compulsory Labour Act I of 185B. The nature of the w.ork that toe ryots have to execute, and the penalty levia,ble fcYr failure to execute such work are laid down in Ohapter VII of Regulation No. III of 1933 which was pasbed by the Legislative Council without a dissentient vote. Under Section 40 of the Regulation, every person holding lands in the ayacut of a tank is liable to pay four times the value of any work that he is bound to, but does not execute; and under Section 41, instead of enforcing the lia.hility to perform customary labour, the Darbar may levy an annual cess from those who are bound to contribute such labOOr. The Darbar have granted variou!:! concessions in regard to the enforcement of these obligations. In the first place they are only enforced in respect of tanks, the bunds of which have been put in thorough order. If ryots fulfilled them they are allowed to appropriate the fish in the tank, to which under the Regulation they pave no claim. With characteristic indifference for their own and the comlhon good, the ryots have generally neglected their obligation. In some tank~ it was found that the cost of works that had to be taken up by the Public Works Department owing to the ryots’ neglect and of which the cost had to be recovered from the ryots worked out to a very high rate per acre on the ayacuts. The Darbar have recently (September 1937) decided therefore that until further orders the amount recoverable from the ryots on this accour.t in any year shall be limited to a maximum of eight annas per aore on the a.ya.cut; XIII] LAND REVENUE ADMINISTRATION 367 required at both. The sta,te of things therefore called for a remedy and the new settlement provided one. Obsolete services were simply abolished, as were savari uliams such as furnishing supplies to officers on circuit. For information’regarding 1Uiams connected with temple services, the reader is referred to the cl1ap~er on ” Devastanam and Charity. ” . i\or the first time the right of relinquishment was conferred on the ryot. The commencement of the fasli was fixed as the time when such relinquishment would be accepted. Since the new settlement increased the revenue payable by some landholders of the old m.amul ijara and kadamai tenures by over a hundred per cent, it was ordered that the maximum of the new scale should be introduced gradually by 12 annual increments. Results and Review of the Settlement.-The result of the settlement on the whole was a 20 per cent increase in ‘dry’ assessment, a 2 percent illcrease in ‘wet’, and a total increase of 7 per cent on all lands taken together. rrhe leading features of the settlement were, to use the language of the Darbar’s Order n. C. 532/C of 1910, dated 11th July uno, ‘continuity of policy and simplicity.’ It was a natural and inevitable sequel to Sir Sashia Sastriar’s settlement of 1879. Its object was not to increase the revenue but to remedy existing inequalities and injustices. Under the amani settlement the wet rates were too high, and the dry rates too low. The incidence was also arbitrary and had no reference to the capacity of the land. Under the new system, the wet rates were lowered; the dry rates enhanced; and the burden on the land was adjusted to its fertility by a careful examination and classIfication of the soil. The amdni settlement had no doubt done much to curb the rapacity of the revenue official; but the ne\-v settlement carried the emancipation of the ryot from official tyranny still further by abolishing itlia11ls and swafantrams. Again, the old settlement, while it commuted grain rents into their mon~y value perpetuated a multitude of rates; the re-settlement replaced these by a few tarams, 368 PUDUKK6TTAI STATE [CHAP. The absenco of any provision for remission in the settlement will not surprise the reader who has closely followed the story of Land Revenue so far. The principle of ‘no remission’ was a feature of Sir Sashia Sastriar’s amdni ‘settlement, and of his proposals for are-settlement; it was defended in G. 0.359 dated 1893. It was retained in the s~ttlement coupled with such, compensating concessions as the 25 per cent reduction for vicissitudes of season and the freedom from any charge for Ii. second harvest. Remission is in fact not an universal. feature of Indian revenue settlements. On the contrary it is more or less peculiar to Madras. It is true that in the ,old taramjysal, remission had been allowed for some faslis in ‘some villages of the Viralimalai firka, but this was quite an exception. ‘ The Revenue department was not trained or could not be trusted to conduct ,the field-by-field inspection (azimash) that a ‘system of annual remissions necessitates. Above all, Land Revenue is the mainstay of the State finances; ‘and to subject it to the fluctuations inseparable from the grant of annual remissions was to jeopardise every scheme of reform and progress necessary to a modern administration. The Darbar in their orders on the Settlement Scheme Report decided that though remission was not to be allowed in ordinary years on the Madras system, yet in.· years when wet crops failed completely over extensive areas, suspensio.n of revenue collection would be permitted, ,and in exceptional cases when wet crops proved a total failure over w~despread and ,veIl-defined areas, remission of the whole or part of the kist would be granted. Extension of the remission principle beyond this was in their opinion impracticable; but on the other hand, as explained above, no charge is made for, double crop cultivation. In order to prevent the accumulation of arrears of suspended revenue, the Darbar, acting on the advice of the Madras Government, decided that all arrears that had remained unrealised for’three faslis should be automatically written off as irrecoverable at the beginning of the fOlirtp year. XIII] LAND REVENUE ADMINISTRATION 369 Old Arrears.-The grant of suspension in times of distress had led, during the period of the. amani settlement, to the accumulation of heavy arrears. In the years that immediately succeeded the amani settlement, such accumulation was checked by somewhat free recourse to coercive process, and by annually writing-off irrecoverable dues. In 1903 th~efore, the Madras Government remarked how useless and inadVisable it was to keep arrears pending when they had clearly become irrecoverable, and how such a course directly encouraged blackmailing and oppression by subordinates. In 1906-7 sanction was granted to the compounding of old a,rrears prior to 1904 at 50 per cent, but this was not done on the scale anticipated. The arrears amounted to 8 lakhs or nearly a year’s revenue, and the Madras Government again pointed out that ‘leniency which results in saddling the ryots of the State with a load of debt which they cannot be expected to clear off for many years appears to the Government impolitic ………… The accumulation of the arrears of assessment on land impedes transfers’ and mortgages, injures credit, interferes with the making of improvements, discourages the ryot and places him at the mercy of subordinate revenue officials ‘. (G. O. No. 102 dated 6th March 1907). ~till the old arrears had to be collected and the task seemed almost Herculean; but the Augean stables were finally cleansed by holding a series of special jamabandis between 1909 and 1912 at which, after the position of each ryot so indebted to the State had been examined remissions of from 5 to 95 per cent were freely granted to the poorer ryots while other balances were immediately collected. In this manner, arrears of Rs. 5,10,138 excluding Rs. 1,09,030 of quit-rents ‘were wiped off in a few years, a,nd D5 per cent of the landholders were finally freed from this burden by 1912 when the work was practically brought to a close. 370 PUDUKK6TTAI· STATE [CHAP. The Manovarti Jdgir.-The Man6varti or Ranis’ Jag!r the revenues of which were being enjoyed by His Highness the ·Raja was brought under the new settlement, and amalgamated with the ayan lands in 1911-2. At the same time ~ sum of Rs. 18,000 per annum was set apart from g~neral funds for the future maintenance of the Ranis . .sOME FEATURES OF THE REVENUE DEPARTMENT AT PRESENT. Land Records Section.-The special jamabandi alluded to above revealed that much of the delay in revenue collection was due to confusion in the revenue registers and accounts as a result of which it was not clear what revenue was due and from whom. A new department to look after land records and patta transfers was therefore created out of the old department of Land Records Maintenance and was charged with the preparation of field measurement books, etc. In fasli 1322, the Darbar sanctioned Rs. 9,000 for the . improvement of the Land Records Section. Much of this was spent in endeavouring to produce a satisfactory field measurement book that would show the sub-divisions effected at the original survey and subsequently at the Settlement. The work was attended with considerable difficulty, and progress was slow. In the next fasli, field measurement books of 71 villages were revised of which 20 were ferro-printed and 11 were handed over to the Revenue department. By fasli 1327, the books of all the villages except 9, had been revised. In 1329, the Darbar framed rules on the Madras model for the maintenance of Land Records. In 1332, the field books and demarcation sketches for karnams were supplied to the Taluks. Since it had been found in fasli 1334 that the field measurement books were not up-to-date and the village maps in the possession of the karnams were much damaged, the work of revising these was again taken up. In 1338, a Photo Section was added to the Land Records Branch, and ferro-copies of plans were prepared and village maps printed on the scale 16 inches to a mile by the Van Dyke process without the intervention of photography. The new sub-diyisions XIII] LAND REVENUE ADMtNtSTRATlON 371 were then incorporated in the village officers’ copies of the field measurement books and in those maintained in the rraluk offices. In fasli 1342, a special staff was appointed to replace damaged or missing pages in the field measurement books and bring them up..:to-date. ‘rhe primary work- of the Land Records Section is to maintain the origin1l.1 Survey and Settlement records, and to correct the block maps and land registers. A set of village maps is maintained up-to-date in this section. In fasli 1345 alone, village maps (on the scale of 16 inches to a mile) relating to 76 villages (15;843 survey fields) were revised. The Photo and Litho Section prepares all prints for the Revenue Department and supplies ferro-prints for the Public Works Department. In fasli 1325, the Darbar sanctioned the opening of a survey school to train Revenue subordinates and karnams in chain survey, and two batches vvere trained in that year. Though at first the school was meant to be temporary, it has been held in almost every year subsequently. All the Chinnaranmanai. Inam lands were brought within the scope of the Revenue Settlement. There were about 1,55,000 acres of Inam lands bearing a quit-rent of about Rs.1,36,300. Such records as there were, relating to them were neither intelligible nor reliable, and it was in many cases hard ·to ascertain who were the real owners. Much diffieulty was felt in the collection of the quit-rents, and a simple survey of these lands was necessary to facilitate the work of the Revenue officials. A beginning was made in fasli 1323, and before the end of the fasli, field work in 27 villages had been completed. By fasli 1324, the settlement of the minor inams had been completed and that of the major inams almost completed. Simultaneously the conditions of the ldvanams (service inams). were examined, and transfers of ldvanams were effected wherever necessary. It was at first proposed to prepare major inam adangals * to facilitate ~< The adangal is the detailed account showing the lands cultivated and the nature of the cultivation. 372 PUDUKKOTTAI STA’rE [CHAP. the disposal of patta transfer applications relating to major inams; but subsequently, the Darbar considered it sufficient to have all the lsanvaris tit transcribed on paper and the worn out leaves of the pymash and the fysal registers renewed. The survey and settlement of nathams or Chetti villages where encroachments were common, calle,d for attention. By fasl~ 1322, the survey of 24 n:athams and two unions had been completed. ‘:rhe work has sinoe been progressing steadily. A temporary establishment of two inspectors was sanctioned in fa.sli 1339 to bring the natham records up-to-date, but in faslis 1342 and 1343 only one Inspector was working. From July 1, 1935, another temporary staff was appointedurider a N atham Settlement Tahsildar, but in the oourse of the fasli, the Natham Tahsildar’s post was amalgamated with that of the Land Records Tahsildar. The groups of villages forming Konapet, Naohandupatti, Valayapatti,’ Ramachandrapuram . and Visvanathapuram are among the more important nathams surveyed. It is proposed to take up Melasivapuri, Embal and other nathams shortly. In fasli 1339, the Darbar revised the rules relating to the sale of Government lands for hO,use sites and the oonversion of agricultural lands to non-agricultural purposes. Government sites had previously been sold as freeholds, that is to say, free from payment of any ground-rent to the State for RIll time to come., Private agricllitural lands on which houses had been built were allowed to be converted into freeholds on payment of a lump sum called Redemption price ranging from Rs. 300 to Rs. 1,500 an acre. This method was found to be economically unsound. The State lost both the benefit’ of the rising land values and the agricultural assessment that it had been deriving from these lands. The Darbar therefore revised the rules so as to provide for the levy of a sma,ll Condonation prioe as it was called, (not exceeding Rs. 4 per kuli), for the con version of agricultural lands into house sites, and for the imposition ofa ~, Isanvaris are chittas or ledgers showing assessment arranged under the names of the several individual holders. XIII] LAND REVENUE ADMINISTB.ATION S73 ground-ient revisable once in 20 years, on all lands used as house sites-whether Government sites granted as such or agricultural lands on which’ houses wef.3bliilt. The initial ground-rents fixed were moderate. There wa,s a certain amount of agitation against the levy of ground-rent ell private agricultural lands used as building sites. 1’he Darbar disclJssed the matter with representatives of the Na.ttukk6ttai Nagarath;’u community mainly affected, and though they were not convinced that the imposition of a small recurring ground-rent could constitute any substantial hardship or inconvenience to the owners, yet, ‘in view of the cOlltinued’loyalty and well-known charitable activities of the Chetti community,’ and as a concession to their sentimental preference for the traditional system of dealing with their house sites, they ordered in December 1934, that the owner of patta lands who had built upon them might at his option either pay Redemp~ion price and hold the land free-hold thereafter or pay a smaller condonation price and annual ground-rent in addition. In fasli 1345 the preliminary demand on the N agarathars amounted to Rs. 1,07,628 (Rs. 48,404 by way of Redemption and Condonation prices, and Rs. 59,224 by way of cost of site encroached upon); but only a sum ofRs. 40,151 was actually collected. The Nagarathars who are hard hit by the economic depression have not been able to pay up the Redemption or Condonation prices, and the Darbar have granted an extension of time for snch payments in deservi!1g cases. The Land Records Deputy Tahsildar is now in charge of the Inam and N atham Settlement Sections. Disposal of ‘unoccupied lands.-The problem how to encourage the ryot to take up unoccupied’ but arable lands has fora long time engaged the attention of the Darbar. In 1901-1902, a special officer and staff were appointed to investigate it, and the Darbar declared their intention of lowering assessments and improving irrigation. The settlement of 1908-1912 stimulated the occupation of waste lands. 374 PUDUKKOTTAI STATE In fasli 1330 in order to E’.ncourage ryots to depend less upon common grazing ground$,<1ndto gro”, !oct(l”‘t for their cattle, the Darbar ordered thll”t kist on lamb used exclusively for raising fodder crops ~lhould be remitted. In fash 1335, the Darbar published in the State Gazette a. list of 30,000 acres of land fit for assignment for cultivation. ‘ro help the reclamation of waste lands they introd110ed the system of granting agricultural loans at low rates of interest payable in easy instalments and also loans for digging wells at 4 per cent interest repayable in 10 to 20 years. Attempts were also made to encourage arboriculture. A few compact and fairly big sized blocks in Alangudi Taluk under the control of the Revenue Department were planted with cashew trees, and wells sunk in them. The rule requiring the payment of a lump sum (Kudiswamiam) for waste lands assigned for cultivation was withdrawn and it is now the policy of the Darbar to assign such lands as far as possible free or in exceptional cases, to sell them by auction. In fasli 1345, as a further encouragement to ryots to take up waste lands for cultivation, the Darbar sanctioned the assignment of lands on the co-yvle system under which waste lands taken up for cllitivation are charged only i of the assessment in the first year, ff in the second year, and the full assessment from the third year onwards. As a result of these concessions, there was an increase of 490 acres under occupied ryotwari land in fasli 1B46. The following statement gives the extent of assigned lands and the amount realised as K udiswamiam in fasli 1345. Items. 1. Assignment under Darkhast Rules.- (ct) for fixed price (b) in auction sale 2. Special grant of lands under special or general orders of the Darbar or the Extent in acres. 344’66 10nJO Assess- Kudiswamiam ment. prices. Rs. A. P. Rs. A. P. 56tl 9 0 863 10 3 221 9 o 3,573 210 Dewan Peishkar 86’85 135 3 0 900 0 0 rrotal … 533’41 925 5 0 5,333 13 1 XIII] LAND REVENUE ADMINISTRATION 375 The following isa statement of Dharkast I1pplications in fash 1345.- 1 Number Disposal. pending at the Number …; .1 ….; Taluk. received $:l dl ea q) beginning of ea , 0 rn 0 in the fasli. ….; £h ~’$I _0 $:l the £asli. ea eaA ea ~ » »0 ~ rn 0 r::Q’s?’ 0· …. -.., 8 r::Q 8″0 r::Q Ali~ngudi … 256 425 681 109 338 4471234 Tirumayam ‘” 138 266 404 57 174 231 173 Kolattur … 328 523 851 150 333 483 368 / ———— Total … 722 1,214 1,936 316 845 1,161 775 Administration: The Revenue agency.-Mr. Blackburne’s report quoted above (page 339) is evidence of the utter confusion that prevailed a hundred years ago in the Revenue administration. There were revenue officials, it is true, with the Sirkfl and the Karbar at their head; but there was no cutcherry (office), no regular discharge of business, no issue of receipts, no permanent division of the country into .taluks and worst of all, no superviSIOn. Occasionally the wrath of the superior authorities was kindled and bolts descended in the form of sudden dismissal or suspensIOn. The appendices to Mr. Bayley’s report to Government dated 1841, give an idea of the revenue divisions that had come into existence since Mr. Blacl{burne’s time. There were 4,229 villages grouped into 75 vattams or circles, andcomprised in the following 5 taluks. 1. * Covenaud or southern taluk including Cavenattu Pannay. 2. Perumaunaud or western taluk. 3. Colatoor or northern taluk. 4. Aulangoody or eastern taluk including Karambacoody. 5. Keelanilai tal uk. In Mr. Morris’ time the number of taluks was reduced to three with a firka or revenue sub-division for each. ‘” The names of taluks are spelt as in the original. 376 PUDUKK6TTAI STATE [CHAP. The revenue divisions and the officers in charge were as follows at about the time of the Amani Settlement (1879-83):- Taluk. Officer. Vat tams. Villages. Alangudi …. Tahsildar 21 209 Deputy 8 61 Tirumayam …. Tahsildar 19 384 Deputy 9 156 Kolattur Tahsildar 23 522 Deputy 6 248 86 1,580 These officers were also Magistr:;ttes invested with second and third class powers; they were subordinate in revenue matters to the Karbar and Deputy Karhar. The yattam and. village sibbandis were subordinate to the Tahsildars and’ Deputy Tahsildars. The Sirkil now ceased to he directly connected with the details of revenue administration, and the days· had certainly gone by when he was expected to sign receipts for kist. Even in Mr. Morris’ time the Sirldl’s and the Karbar’s offices were identical. In 1880 the Karbar corresponded to a District Collector and Magistrate, and was assisted by a Deputy Karbar in charge of Devastanams and Chattrams. In subsequent years the latter officer was placed in charge of the Treasury also and was called the Treasury Officer. The vattam sibbandis were (1) the monigar, (2) samprati (clerk), (3) the kanakkan, (4) the”mirasdars, (5) the n6takaran (shroff), (6) the kangani, (7) the vettiyan; with a vicharanakaran or supervising officer for large vattams. The Administration Report of 1881-2 gives the following particulars relating to their duties and to th_e remuneration in grain fees and fixed salaries they received:- ” The first two and the last are paid officers of the Stg,te. The third is also a. paid officer sometimes, i. e.. when he is appointed by the State, but generally the ·kanakkans are hereditary office-holihm~: The mirasdars are hereditary, and are XIII] LAND REV.ENUE ADMINISTRATION 377 allowed umbalam8 or lnam lands from the State, and they also are entitled to 8watantarams or grain fees from the cultivators. The N6takaran is generally a paid officer of the State, but oftentimes he is also hereditary and appointed by Mirasdars. He collects the kist money and keeps it till remittance. Many incumbents are of the Paraiya caste, being most tr:ustworthy. The kangani is the peon of the vattam under the monigar. He is always a, pai.d,·officer of the State. The vettiyan’s chief duty in his relation to Sirkar is to handle the rod and to tell the tale at ~he measurement of lands. Be sometimes does duty as peon or N6takar. ‘ Amaram or militia peons who formerly used to watch the crops as kanganis, now sometimes assist the village officers in collecting the kists. ” There were in addition separate departments, with their numerous subordinate staffs, for Devastanams, Chattrams and J ‘ , aglrs. After the abolition of the amani the village staff was considerably reduced but its pay was improved. There was a further reduction of staff at the time of the resumption of the Jagirs and of the ‘amalgamation of Devastanam and Chattram revenues. In 1895, the Tahsildars were relieved of their magisterial responsibilities so that they might give their full time to revenue work. Concurrently with the settlement of 19G8-12, the pay of the lower staff was revised and improved. The settlement of the Inams and of the villages constituting the resuilled Chinnaranmanai Jagfr necessitated the appointment of a separate officer for Inam Settlement, and with effect from, January 1, 1920, the Inam Settlement Department was organised and the Land Records and N atham Sections were placed in the charge of a separate Tahsildar. In fasli 1333 the posts of Land Records Inspectors were abolished, ~nd the work of Land Records maintenance was entrusted to ‘the Revenue Inspectors. Infasli 1334, it was found necessary to bring the field measurement books up-to-date, and a Land Records Deputy 378 PUDUKKOTTAI STATE [CHAP. T,s.hsildar was therefore appointed. A special Tahsildar was in. charge of Natham settlement during fasli8 1337 and 1338. Since fasli 13M., the Dewan Peishkar. has been relieved of practically all his magisterial work’ by the appointment of the Additional Ohief Magistrate. Village Officers’ Special rrest Examinations are held annually. In 1340, the Darbar sanctioned the award of prizes for good work to Karnams and Moniams. The best karnam and the best moniam in each firka are now given a money prize of Rs. 9 each and the next best karnam and moniam are awarded certificates. With effect from· January 1, 1933, the TottEmham office ‘>ystem embodied in the Madras Revenue Department District Office Manual was introduced in the Dewan Peishkar’s office and in the Taluk offices. It has since been introduced in all departments of the State. At present the State is divided, for purposes of Revenue administration, into three taluks, Alangudi, Tirumayam and Kolattur, each under the control of a Tahsildar. Before February .1, 1936, each taluk was divided into five Revenue Inspector’s divisions, but as the result of the amalgamation of the Salt, Abkari and Forest. Departments with the Revenue Department, each Taluk is now divided into six firkas. Each firka is under the control of a Revenue Inspector who works under the Tahsildar of the tal uk and in addition to his Revenue functions, discharges those of an Inspector of Salt, Abkari and Forests. The Dewan . Peishkar is the head of the Department assisted by a Personal Assistant in charge of Devastanams, a Land Records Deputy Tahsildar in charge of settlement, survey and Nathams, and a Sheristadar, the head of the ministerial e”stablishment. . The present establishment in each village consists o( a moniam, a karnam, and one or more mirasdars, vicharippus and vettiyans XlfI] LAND REVENUE ADMINISTRATION 379 The names of the new Revenue Inspector’s firkas into which each of the three Taluks was divided with effect from February 1, 1936, and of the Vatpams comprised in each firka are given below :~ 1. Sembattur 2. Puthambur. 3. Mullur. 4. Vagavasal. 1. Mangadu. 2. Vadagadu. 3. Kilattur. 4. l\felattur. 5. Pallattividuti. 1. Varappur. 2. Semmattividuti. 3. Va,davalam. 4. Ma,naviduti. ALANGUDI TALUK. I. Ptlill£kkottai firka. 5. Pudukk6ttai. 6. Kavinad East. 7. Kavinad West. S. Tirug6karnam. II. Alangu,di firka. 6. Vennavalkudi. 7. Kuppagudi. S. Kolandirakottai. 9. Alangudi. 10. pachikkottai. III. Vdrdppw’ fi1’kn. 6. Perungalur. 7. Adanakkottai. S. Sothuppalai. 9. Kallukkamnpatti. 5. Perungondanviduti. 10. Ganapatipuram. 1. Pa,llavaranpattai. 2. Tirumananjeri. 3. Mullankmichi IV. MalaYlw.firka. 6. Pa,nnamviduti. 7. ‘Mangottai. S. Malaiynr. 4. I{arukkakurchi East. 9. AdiranviduLi. 5. Karukkakurichi West. 10. KaruppaLtipatti. 1. Senc1akkuc1i. 2. pala,yur. 3. Kathakkurichi. 4. Vallathirakottai. 5. Vandakottai. V. vallandd firka. 6. puvarasagudi. 7. Tiruv: m. S. Manjamvl<.luii. 9. Kovilur. VI. Kmmnbakkudi f£rka. 1. I{at tathi. 2. Sengamedu. 3. Thithanviduti. 4. Kammbakkudi. 5. PilavidutL 6. Ambukkoil. 7. Vac1akkallll’. 8. 9. Raghunathapuram. Kilangadu. 10. Kirathur. 380 PtJDUKKOTTAl STATE [CHAP, TIRUMAYAM TALUK. I. Ktldnilai firka. 1. Nedungudi. 7. Valaramanikkam. 2. N allambcilsamudram. 8. Kurungalur. 3. Pudunilai. 9. Madagam. 4. Kummangudi. 10. Embal. 5. Karamangalam. 11. Irumbcinaau. 6. Agavayal. 12. Arasur. II. Sengimi firka. 1. Sengirai. 5. Mira ttunilai. 2. Panangudi. 6. Arimalam. 3. Thekkattur. 7. KiIappanayur. 4. Perungudi 8. TMnjur. III. Tirtlmayam firka. 1. Pilivalam. 6. K6napet. 2. Kottayur. 7. Pillamangalam. 3. Tirumayam. 8. Tholayanur. 4. Unayur. 9. Melur, 5. Adanur. IV Virdohilai firka. 1. Virachilai I Bit. 6. Melappanayur. 2. Virachilai II Bit. 7. K61amangalam. 3. Kannanur. 8. K6ttur. 4. Rangiam. 9. ,peraiyur. 5. Kulipirai. 10. Lam balakkudi. V. Kdmyttr firka. I. Karayur. 7. N erinjikkudi. 2. Idayathur. S. Nallur. 3. Mara vamadurai. 9. Arasamalai. 4. OliamaHe;alam. 10. Valakkurichi. 5. MelatMnyam. 11. Sevalur. 6. Kilathanvam. 12. Sundaram. VI. Ponnamardvati firka. 1. Melamelanilai. 6. Tirukkalambur. 2. Mulangudi 7. Palakurichi. 3. Ponnamaravati East. S. ThUthur. 4. Ponnamaravati West. 9. Alavayal. 5. Varpet. 10. Ammankurichi. XIII] LAND REVBNUE ADMINISTRATION 381 K0LATTUR TALUK. 1. TTirdlimalai firka. 1. Kunnathur. 7. Theravur. 2. Budagudi. 8. M:Inaveli. 3. Kalkudi. 9. Poyyamani. 4. Viralimalai. 10. Kl1ayur. 5. Viralur. 6. KodumbaIur. II. NiTpalani .(irka. 1. Kathalur. 7. Kalamavur. 2. Amburappatti. 8. Nirpalani. 3. Mathur. 9. Nanguppatti. 4. Mandayur. 10. Paiyur. 5. Latchumanpatti. 11. Perambur. 6. Thennathira yanpa t ti. III. Ktlnndnddrkoil firka. 1. . Kunnandarkoil. 6. Chettipatti. 2. Oda yali ppatti. 7. Sengalur. 3. Kilayur. 8. Killuk6ttai. 4. Piliyur. 9. Themm:ivur. 5. Visalur. 10. Minnathur. IV. ](imnm .(irka. 1. ThennaJ 19udi. 6′ Valamangalam. 2. Vaithur. 7: Kolattur. 3. Andakkulam. 8. Klranur. 4. Killanur. 9. Marudur. 5. Virakkudi. 10. Valiyampatti. V. Ndrttdmalai firka. 1. Thodayul’. 6. Vilathuppatti. 2. Vellanur. 7. N art tamalai. 3. Madianallur. 8. Thayinippatti. 4. Sathiamangalam. 9. Odukkur. 5. Annvaasal. VI. Ktulumidmalai firka. 1. Kadavanpatti. 5. MangudL 2. Kilikkudi. 6. Tiruvengaivasal. 3. Parambur. 7. Perumanadu. 4. Kudumiamalai. 8. Pulvayal. The firkas take their names· from their headquarters exoept the Vallanad firka the headquarters of which is ~riruvarangulam. 38’2 PUDUKKOTTAI STATE [C1iAI’. Demand and Collection.– The total Land Revenue current demand for fasli 1345 (1935-36) was made up as follows.- 1. Assessment on Ayan lands 7,43,046 Deduct Remissions 1,847 7,41,199 2. Quit-rent on lnam Lands including the late } 1,05,119 Chinnaranmanai lands 3. Cesses on lnam lands 15,683 4. Assessment on assessed lands occupied without patta 7,084 5. Charges for occupying Poromboke lands 9,628 6. Water rate 2,336 7. Tree revenue of all sorts 25,723 8. Sale proceeds of Kudiswamiam rights 5,334 9. Sale proceeds of house-sites in non-chetti places 7,554 10. Other miscellaneous items, fines, forfeitures, etc. 14,371 9,34,430 PllM-adjustments in Dewan Peishlmr’s and Darbar offices which do not pass through village accounts 808 Total … 9,35,239 Out of the total demand a sum of Rs. 8,23,604 or a little less than 90 per cent was collected in the fasli. Fasli 1339 records a collection of Rs. 14,58,002, the largest sum realised under land revenue in any single year. As has already been stated above, though remission is not ordinarily allowed, it is granted whenever there is a total failure of crops over widespread and well-defined areas. Occasions when such remission has been granted have been briefly mentioned in Chapter I (pages ’21 and 22). Conclusion·-A little more than 100 years ago the ayan lands in the State were 17,958 velis in area out of a total area of 54,960 velis of cultivated land. The Land Revenue amounted to Ii lakhs. Just before the amani settlement the Land Revenue Was a little less than 3 lakhs, while the Jagirs and XIII] LAND REVENUE AD¥INISTRATION 383 Devastanam lands yielded an income of about 5t lakhs. After the amani settlement, consequent on the resumption of the Western Palace and Chinnaranmallai ,J agirs, the enfranchise~ ment of service inams, and the amalgamation of Devastanam lands with ayan, the revenue rose t,o about 8 lakhs. Since the resettlement, as a result of the natkam survey and the assignment of unoccupied lands, the revenue has risen to between 9i and 10 lakhs. rrhis steady increase has enabled the Darbar to accumulate a substantial reserve on which they have drawn heavily in seasons of severe drought or floods. CHAPTER XIV. SAL T, ABKARI AND MISCELLANEOUS REVENUE. Hiatorical.-rrhere is evidence in the inscriptions that, in addition to the land-tax, a large number of imposts were levied in early times. They were variously called kadamai, vari and peru, and were levied on trades, occupations, and commodities; but they are now mostly unidentifiable. A Tiruvarangulam inscription dated 1261 A. D. mentions stations for the collection of duty on salt, dholl, betel, etc., and another in the same place dated 1300 A. D. refers to a tax of 3 kdsus on smithies. Another at Kottaiyur of the 13th year of an unidentified Kulasekhara Pandya refers to a tax of half a paJp,n kdsu on looms. An inscription on the Melamahti hill at Narttamalai, dated the 12th year of Maravarman Sundara Pandya I (1228 A. D.), directs the collection of a wedding tax of 200 kdsU8 from the bride and 180 kdsus from the bridegroom to meet the cost of temple repairs–voluntary subscriptions for such purposes are still made on the occasion of marriages. The names of imposts found in the State inscriptions bear out the following observations in Mr. K. V. Subrahmanya .Aiyar’R ” Historical Sketches of Ancient Deccan “–” Looking at the list of taxes, it is clear that all professional men ………… had, in ancient times, to pay a small fee or tax to the State. These taxes resemble to a great extent the profession and trade tax of modern municipalities, but were very minutely and carefully ascertained ……………. But there is no doubt that these items should have made a large sum to the State.” The very names of the taxes indicate in some cases the amount to be paid. Mr. W. H. Bayley (9J former Resident) in his report to the Madras Government shows that about the year 1841, the revenue, in addition to the land-tax, was derived from salt, abkari, sayer, mohturpha, ill iron-smelting works and forests and also from fines, nazzars, and confiscations. ‘:’ For explanation please see next page. SALT, ABKARI AND MISCELLANEOUS REVENUE 385 By 1875 sayer had ceased to be a source of income, mohturpha had oome into greater prominenoe, and registration fees had been introduced. In 1879, Court fees formed a fresh source of income and the revenue from Post-offioes increased with the opening of Sub-offices in the Taluk headquarters. Revenue is now derived not only from salt and abkari, registration and forests as of old, but also from market and cart-stand fees (first shown separately in the Budget in 1895-6); tolls (town-tolls introduced in 1889-90 and frontier tolls in 1901); stamps (introduoed in 1908); rents; educational and medioal fees; income from the Press, Jail industries, the State Farm, and the Workshop; and un dial (votive offerings in kind or in cash or in the shape of ornaments) and other collections from Dovastanams. Sayer.–8ayer is the Muhammadan term for the old Hindu va.~idyam (6lI b~ ~iLJLD) or land customs collected at the frontier on goods of every description ranging from articles of luxury to necessaries such as paddy, gram, and salt. It was collected in cash or kind at customs houses called chowkies. It was finally abolished in about 1814. Mohturpha (Urdu-Mutarifa-a tax corresponding to our modern house or ptofession taxes) was introduced in 1861 by Sirkfl Annaswami Aiyar. There is a tradition that the Paraiya and otb.er poorer classes of the town resorted to passive resistance, deserted their homes and camped round the Sirkil’s house. Mohturpha was levied not only on houses but on shops, looms, and oil presses at the rates shown below:- 1. Houses 2. Shops 49 Terraced Tiled Thatched Huts Draper’s Grocer’s Butcher’s Betel and flower seller’s …. Rs. A. P .. 100 080 040 006 300 200 200 080 886 3. Looms 4. Oil Presses . PUDUKKOTTAI STATE Silk Cotton, blanket, and mat. [CHAP. Rs. A. P. 100 o 12 0 200 Houses and looms in sarvamdnyam villages were exempted from mohturpha. In 1887, Sir Sa,shia Sastriar exempted the houses of the poorer classes from this tax as some compensation for the increase in the price of salt due to the suppre~sion of the manufacture of earth-salt. House tax is now one of the items of revenue enjoyed by Unions and Panchayats and by the rrown Municipality. Salt.- Earth-salt: its manu!aclure.-l’be State has no sea-board; but saline deposits occur in various parts of the State, from which a quantity of earth-salt was manufactured from immemorial times for local consumption. The process of manufacture was simple. The salt-earth was scraped up and lixiviated in earthernware pots provided with a vent at the bottom plugged with rags, through w:oich the solution filtered into pans prepared on the ground. The solution evaporated in these pans, and the crystals that formed were subsequently scraped up with iron ladles and stored in pits. The professional manufacturers belonged to the U ppiliyan caste. The salt so manufactured was whiter than sea-salt, and not unwholesome. The Chemical examiner to the Madras Government reported in 1875 that it contained 97’6 per cent of sodium chloride. It was chiefly consumed by the poorest classes who could not afford the more costly sea-salt. The State had always claimed a monopoly in the manufaeture and sale of salt, and exercised it in former times by leasing out ,its rights, along with those of sayer, for a term of years-for example in 1841 for 4 years. But later on, when relations with the Madras Government necessitated a closer watch over the business, in order to prevent smuggling and other illicit practices, XIV] SALT, ABKARI AND MISCELLANEOUS REVENUE 387 the State· manufactured salt departmentally. Advances were given to the Uppiliyans, from whom the State took the salt over paying a kudivdram share calculated at eight ann as per. kaIam, and later at 12 annas and 10 annas for the first and ‘second qualities respectively. Wholesale disposal was forbidden, to prevent ( corners’, and the State sold the salt direct by retail at 17 mundie8 ot: depOts situated all over the country. In about 1881-~, the prices were Re~ 1 per kalam at the capital, and about 12 annas elsewhere. The monopoly that the State enjoyed was at best partial. Private manufacture was no doubt forbidden but there was no preventive staff except the rfahsildar and his deputy. British salt was imported and sold in large quan,tities. Again, owing to the incompetence of the salt makers enough salt was not manufactured to meet the local demand, and the poor often had to buy British salt. rfhe total output for 1875, for instance, was 15,000 kalams or about 131b. per head of population whereas a conservative estimate of the demand per head would be 20lb. The result was that the StatE) monopoly was not always very profitable. Suppre88ion of the .. manufacture of earth-salt.-The settled policy of the British Goyernment from the early days of the East India Company was to secure control of salt manufacture throughout India; and this led gradually but inevitably to the total suppression of manufacture in the State. Even when the Carnatic was under the rule of the N awab, the British had bargained for a salt monopoly with him. In 1815 they entered into a convention with the French in India. to buy their output of salt for 4 lakhs of sicca Rupees annually, and three years later covenanted for the entire suppression of the manufa.cture in the French settlements in consideration of an annual subsidy. It was only natural that at about the same time similar overtures should be made to the dependent Ruler of Pudukkottai. 388 PUDUKKOTTAI STATE [OHAP. The Tanjore Collector complained in 1813 that State salt was being smuggled into his distriot, and suggested the suppression of salt manufacture iIi thie State. But there was not much ground for this complaint. Tn -SmUggle salt into Tanjore Distriot evading the vigilant ohowkidars of the Madras Government and the State was not easy. Moreover, as Mr. Blaokburne pointed out at the time, ‘,I it was notorious that in the Southern part of the province of ,Tanjore the people made the earth-salt f01: their own consumption …….. at the same expense which it cost the inhabitants of Pudukk6tts.i.” He also observed that the suppression of the manufacture would be injurious to the State on eoonomic, political and moral grounds; that it would be an economic oalamity to the poor ryots who already suffered from ‘the poverty of the soil and the frequent failure of scanty crops,’ if they were prohibited from’ picking up the salt which Providence had scattered- over their fields;’ that such a course would be politically inexpedient as. it would undermine the faith in the British Government ‘which had never yet been considered by the Rajah Bahadur and his subjeots in any other light than that of a beneficent and guardian angel;’ that on moral gro\lnds the measure was open to objection; that entire suppression would be by no means easy since thereby a premium would be put upon evasion, fraud” and perjury; and that above all the game was not worth the candle, because only a very limited quantity of salt was made in the State, hardly sufficient even for the poor. For the time being Mr. Blackburne’s representations carried weigkt, and the question was shelved. Steps were taken.to put down iUluggling and illicit manufaoture. The State took the manufaoture into its own hands, and restricted it to a few factories in the interior. But the question oropped up again and again throughout the last century, repeatedly raised by the suspicions of the British Salt department, and as often set at rest by successive Political Agents who knew the facts. On one occasion, when XIV) SALT, ABKARI AND MISCELLANEOUS REVENUE 389 re-criminations had: become unpleasantly acute, Mr. Pennington who was Political Agent at the time wrote to say :- ‘Even though as much salt were made clandestinely as by Government, I cannot for my part see on what grounds the British Government could claim to interfere with the action of the Pudukk6ttai Government in regard to the manufacture of an article like salt, even if that Government should resolve to encourage the private manufacture as much as possible. It is certain that no better means could be adopted f~r developing the agricultural resources of the country.’ Mr. Pennington considered the salt monopoly of the State a worse evil than the poll tax, and advised that it should be abolished and manufacture freely permitted and that the consequent loss of revenue be made good by a slight enhancement of the mohturpha levied on the houses of the rich. Though the M::tdras Government did not view these proposals with favour they decided for the time being not to interfere with the production of salt in the State ‘as exportation to British territory was not suspected to prevail.’ But the suspicion rose again in 1882, when the State had just put its salt bus,iness in order, and was rejoicing in a steady increase of revenue. And so to meet the wishes of the Madras Government, the exi~ting penal rules w’ere codified and embodied in a Regulation (I of 1882) which prescribed stringent penalties for smuggling and illicit manufacture, The beginning of the end of the controversy came in 1886. rrhe Madras Board of Revenue put forward the proposal that as an alternative to total suppression the State. might bind itself to prohibit the manufacture of earth-salt within five miles of the frontier, and to equalise the price of the local salt with British rates. The first condition was impossible and the second ruinous. Since all the salt-earth of the State lay near the frontier, compliance with the first stipulation would have been tantamount to an entire suppression of the manufacture. Equalisation of tLe prices was bound to drive the earth-salt from the market. 390 PUDUKKOTTAI STATE [CHAP. In order to remove a source 6f frequent friction between the State and the British Salt department the State agreed to total suppression. The Salt convention of 1887-Under the Salt convention which the Madras Government concluded with the State in 1887 a non-recurring sum of Rs. 5,000 was paid towards the cost of dismantling the factories and to. help the workers thrown-out of employment. An annual compensation of Rs. 38,000 was granted to the State, of which Rs. 15,000 was for loss of Salt revenue, Rs. 13,000, Mmpensation for the partial abolition of Mohturpha, and Rs. 10,000 for the cost· of maintaining a Salt preventive force. A Regulation called the Earth-salt Suppression Regulation (I of 1887) was passed, and a preventive staff was established in 1888. Some correspondence took place regarding the supervision of the Force by an officer of the British Salt department, but this proposal was dropped as incompatible with the sovereignty of the State. The immediate effect of these measures was thus described by Sir Sashia Sastriar;- ‘” “‘rhat the measure created great unpopularity goes without saying. Unfortunately the unpopularity was enhanced by the simultaneous raising t of the excise d’uty on salt in British India …….. The stringency with which the law has to be enforced by the Preventive Police against, as happens, the weakest and poorest descriptions of the people and the sudden and the frequent enhancement of the selling price at the fairs by the tradesmen engaged in the traffic are still matters of irritation and bitter complaint. ” The convention did not put an end at once to friction between the State and the Madras Government. Immediately after. the passing of the Regulation, ‘Salt’ offences increased, 4< Quoted from Mr. B. V. Kamesvara Aiyar’s “Life of Sir Sashia Sastriar.” t It was at this time :y.ised by 25 per cent. XIV] SALT, ABKARI AND MISCELLANEOUS REVENUE 391 though after some years they declined. The Madras Government attributed this increase to laxity of supervision, taking their stand mainly on the statistics of the British factories in respect of quantities declared for sale in Pudukk6ttai. But the complaints of the Madras Government were groundless. The factory figures were misleading. Salt dribbled into the State through petty traders who, when they pure,hased salt at the factories, did not declare it for export to Pudukk6ttai. In regard to the prevention and detection of Salt offences, the State had always been anxious to fulfil its obligation. It gauged the efficiency of its Salt Force by the mJ!):L~er of offences brought to light, so that the officers tended if anything to become overzealous. Kolattur and Karambakkudi where salt crime was rife were placed under a special officer. Salt registration stations were opened at· the. close of 1900 on 12 frontier roads and maintained for six mooths, and the statistical information so collected proved tl1[1~’ ~nnual consumption was not less than a lakh of maunds or more than twice the’ declared’ figures. In 1903-4 the Police were instructed that their responsibility in respect of Salt crime was as great as if there had been no separate department to deal with it. Owing to these causes and also to a reduction of the Salt duty in 1903, the nu;mber of offences in the State fell considerably, but the Madras Government still opined that there was something radically wrong with the detective agency, that offences were not reported, and that the matter required thorough investigation. Such an investigation was accordingly made in 1904-5 which, it would appear, finally set at rest all doubts and fears. In recent years there have been hardly any offences under the Regulation. An unsuccessful attempt was made in 1901-3 to get the convention of 1887 revised on the ground that the Madras Government realised by way of duty levied on the salt consumed in the State a net income of Rs. 2,00,000, far in excess oft~e sum of Rs. 38,000 paid to the State under the convention. The same subject is at present under correspondence. 392 PU’DUKK6TTAI STATE [CHAP. Sea-salt.-The State now depends entirely on British sea-salt. The chief sources of supply are the factories at Adirampatnam, Kattumavadi, Vattanam, Thithandathaniam and Negapatam of which the most important IS Kattumavadi. In 1917-18, when the duty on salt was raised the quantity sold to the State contractor in the Kattumavadi factory at the favourable rates offered by the Madras Board of Revenue was 1l1uch below the demand, but salt bought at auction at the factories by petty traders was brought into the State and found a ready sale in the market. Salt then sold at 11’32 Madras ,seers per rupee in the State markets. Later the State contractors were able to get salt f:r:om the factory at Kattumavadi at a concession rate of 22’57 Madras seers ‘per rupee. At present the price of salt ranges from 14’51 to 18’42 seers per rupee. Between faslis 1340 and 1345 there were only two prosecution for offences against the Salt Regulation both of which resulted in conviction. Abkari.- Oountry Liquor.-. The manufacture and sale of arrack and toddy have always been a State monopoly. In modern times the monn. Ba.lance. Rs. A. p. Rs. A. P. Rs. A. P. Liquor-Cost price 9,649 S 6 9,649 S 6 Duty 26,245 14· 0 26.255 14 0 Shop license Fees:- Current 34,608 0 0 34,608 0 0 Arrears 440 14 0 440 14 0 Toddy-Shop license £ees:– CUlTent 91,083 0 0 91,497 5 11- 1,329 15 6 Arrears 3,19114 0 2,712 14 4 478 15 8 Tree tax :-:- Current 54,744 9 0 57,730 14 6 122 t 0 Arrears 1,800 0 0 1,306 7 6 494 5 6 Opium and ganjaShop license fees 5,028 0 0 5,028 0 0 8ale of ganja. 2,571 4 0 2,571 4 0 Sale of opium 5,755 12 0 5,755 12 0 Foreign liquor’ … 4,872 0 0 4,872 0 0 Country Beer .. , 3,600 0 0 3,780 0 0 Miscellaneous .,’ 1,949 2 3 1,949 2 3 ——-. – — —— Total 2,45,719 8 9 2,48,147 13 0+ 2,425 8 8 ——- ——- —– * These ~1’es inoluda the excess oolleotionof the previous fasli. tThiB figureinoludes amounts written off under different ifiems; the actua.l collection for the fa.sli was only RI. !l,4.8,166-15-4. . SALT, ABKARI AND MISCELLANEOUS REVENUE 399 The total cost of the department in fasli 1344 including that of the Salt Preventive Force was Rs. 26,093. In fasli 1346, it fell to Rs. 10,639 owing to the amalgamation of this department with the Revenue Department. . Offences against Abkari Regulations.-The number of offences detected in 1935-36 was 70 affecting 82 persons. Of these 12 were committed to magistrates, 55 were compounded for Rs. 622; and 3 were pending at the close of the year. The commonest offences wero illicit transport or unlicensed sales of liquor and illicit manuffwture of toddy. Such offences as illicit distillation, using false measures, and adulteration are very rare. Matches.-The Pudukk6ttai Matches (Excise Duty) Regulation III of 1934 became law in the State on August 1, 1934. In fasli 1344, there was only one match factory run by Mr. Asaph on a small scale entirely by mannallabour. The value of banderols issued to the factory in 1934-35 Wft,S Rs. 1,022 and the duty levied, Rs. 982. The Pudukk6ttai Match Factory which took over Mr. Asaph’s business was started in May 1939 at Tirug6karnam. The face value of the banderols issued to the factory during fasli 1346 (1936-37) was R~. 4,270, and the gross duty levied, ·Rs. 3,948. The net amount realised by the sale of banderols was Rs. 4,048 and the net duty levied, Rs. 3,743. In addition to this, a sum of Rs. 41,808 was received in the fasH from the Government of India pool. Administration.-U nder the early system of periodical leases, the Abkari staff was limited to a low paid amin (on Rs. 8 in 188J.-82) with a few menials to collect Sirkar dues. In connection with the State manufacture and sale of salt however, a large est~1blishment was employed, consisting of watchmen in charge of the mundis under the supervision of Inspectors and Revenue officials. In 1881-82, the entire salt establishment cost only Rs. 20l. The suppression of manufacture necessitated the creation of a Salt Preventive Force. rrhe Abkari Department under the Deputy Peishkar was amalgamated with the Salt Department in r890. The combined department was under a Superintendent 400 PUDUKK6TTAI STATE [CHAP. assisted by three Inspectors and six sub-inspectors. Between 1897 and 1908 the Forest Department formed part of the Salt and Abkari Department. ,It next worked as a separate department till 1918 when it was again amalgamated with the Salt and Abkari. The department of Salt, Abkari and Forests was under a Superintendent assisted by six Circle Inspectors till February 1, 1906, when the Darbar ordered the amalgamation of this department with the Land Revenue Department under the Dewan Peishkar. The Dewan Peishkar and the three Tahsildars are now performing the duties of the Superintendent of Salt, Abkari and Forests, subject to such instruetions as the Darbar may issue from time to time in regard to the powers to be delega.ted by the Dewan Peishkar to the Tahsildars. The executive duties previously performed by the Circle Inspectors of Salt, Abkari and Forests are now performed by the Revenue Inspectors. . To cope with this work an additional Revenue Inspector has been appointed for each taluk. The liquor depots at Viralimalai and Ponnamaravati have been transferred to the control of the respective Sub-Registrars who are responsible so far as this work is concerned, to the Tahsildars and the Dewan Peishkar. The Town Distillery is under the immediate control of the Personal Assistant to the Dewan Peishkar. Stampl.-The question of introducing stamps for documents filed in judicial proceedings was mooted in 1857 but held in abeyance for the time being under the advice of the Madras Government. A Stamp Regulation (No. II of 1905) was passed in 1905, but stamps were not actually issued till 1908. The Registrar of Assurances was ex-officio Superintendent of stamps, but since 1920, the Superintendent of Printing and Stationery has been in charge of Stamps. In 1935-36, 4,72,708 stamps valued at Rs. 4,50,719 were manufactured; and 5,40,213· stamps valued at Rs. 4,13,966 were issued rromthe Stamp central dep6t to the Huzur treasury. The total income from the sa.le of stamps of all descriptions was Rs 3,96,487 in fi1,sli 1345. The expenditure under’ Stamps’ ill the same fasH was Rs. 8,545. XIV] SALT, ABKARI AND MISCELLANEOUS REVENUE 401 Income-tax.-The State levies no income-tax. Other miscellaneous item •. – MisceIlaneous items of revenue, for example, Pou!lds, Tolls, Market fees, Cartstand fees, and license fees for motor cars, etc., together yield an a.nnual revenue exceeding two lakbs of rupees. CHAPTER XV. LEGISLATION. History of Legislation.-From time immemorial proclamations have been issued by the Rulers and held to have the force of law though no attempt was made to collate and codify them. From 1850 onwards as a result of the influence of successive ~esidents and Political Agents, British Indian Laws, were gradually introduced jnto the State, and the rulings of British Indian High Courts began to be followed. The Ci”y~l Procedure Code was introduced in 1859, and the Indian Penal Code and Criminal Procedure Code in 1868. Similarly the Revenue and other executive officers adopted and enforced as they saw fit the departmental codes and rulings of the Madras Government. But this practice was not formally authorised. In 1876 for the first time two Regulations, now obsolete, relating to Registration and the formation of a Police Force were enacted by the Raja. In the same year the Appeal Judge was entrusted with the task of drawing up a code of laws for the administration of justice. But nothing was done till 1882 when an omllibus Regulation was passed adopting, among other laws, the Civil Procedure Code, the Criminal Procedure Code, the Indian Penal Code, the Indian Evidence Act, and the Limitation Act of British India. These were declared. to be applicable, mutati8 mutandis, with due regard to local customs, and circumstances, as well as to the constitution of the State, and subject a.lso to such reservations and rules as might from time to time be issued by the· Huzur Adawlut Court and published in the Gazette. The Regulation laid down that the rulings of the local Huzur Court should be binding on the lower courts, and all courts in the State should ordinarily be guided by the decisions of the High Courts in British India. LEGISLATION 403 The original procedure in framing a Regulation was for the Dewan to draft a bill and circulate it to the Karbar, the Civil Judge, the Appeal J ndge, and the Heads of Departments concerned for opinion before it received the final sanction’ of His Highness. In 1904 a Law Committee was appointed to draft Regulations, and advise the Darbar’ on legislative matters. An Advisory Council was created in 1915 as one of the Silver Jubilee “boons” and ~was consulted about legislation. It consisted of the members of the State Council, the State Vakil, two members elected by the Representa~ive Assembly and two more nominated by.His Highness. Its legislative deliberations were purely advisory. The Representative Assemhly.-The experiment of asso~ ciating the people in some measure with the administration originated in the year 1902 when for the first time an Assembly of Nominated Representatives was convened. It was composed of 30 members representing various interests and selected from among persons nominated by the Heads of Departments and certain public associations. The results of the administration of the State in the preceding year and a programme for the future were placed before the Assembly, and members had the right to make interpellations and suggestions on ma.tters touch~ ing the administration. The term of membership was at first annual but was after a time extended to three years. An elective element was introduced in 1907 ; the Assembly that met on July 26th of that year was renamed the Representative Assembly and included 18 elected members out of a total of 30. In the next year members were granted the privilege of proposing matters of public importance for discussion. The number of elected members was 13 in 1913, but ~it was raised to 25 in 1916 as a “boon” granted by His late Highness Boon after his wedding. 404 PUDUKKOTTAI STArr:rn [CHAP. The Assembly served a useful purpose in bringing before the Darbar the needs and requirements of the various parts of the State which the members represented. Apart from the annual meetings, the members were occasionally consulted on questions about which the Darbar desired to ascertain public opinion; sometimes by correspondence, and sometimes by holding a special session. His Highness the Raja was present at the 1914 and 1915 sittings of the Assembly and watched the proceedings with in.terest. The Legislative Council.-In the year 1924, the Representative Assembly and the Legislative Advisory Council were replaced by a single institution designated, “The Pudukk6ttai Legislative Council.” The Representative Assembly was created in order to ascertain from the representatives of the people what ‘he people wanted the Government to do for them; the Legislative Advisory Council was constituted for the purpose of giving the people a voice in legislation; and the Legislative Council was created in order to associate the people of the State with administration. It was constituted on a statutory basis. Raj kumar- Vijaya Raghunatha Dorai Raja, the Regent, promulgated the Pudukk6ttai Legislative Oouncil Regulation No. IV of 1924. The Council was inaugurated on Monday, September 29, 1924, by the Regent. Mr. C. W. E. Ootton, 1. O. S., Agent to the Governor-General, Madras States, was present at the inauguration ceremony. The Legislative Oouncil consists of fifty members of whom thirty-five are elected and fifteen nominated by Government. The nominated members include the officials in charge of the several departments. Since the yeal’ 1927, the nominated members have included a lady and an Adi-dravida. The Dewan was formerly ex-officio President of the Council. When the administration of the State was vested in an Administra.tor, th~ xv] LEGISLA’lION 405 Administrator became the President. In his absence, the Assistant Administrator presides. over the Council, and in the absence of both the Administrator and the Assistant Administrator, the Deputy President presides. The office of Deputy President of the Council was held by a retired official till 1933, when it was for the first time vested in a non-official elected member. The Legislative Council has the power of making laws and Regulations. When any Bill has been passed by the Council, it has to he submitted through the Dewan to His Highness the Raja for his assent; and” no such Bill shall become law until His Highness the Raja shall have declared his assent thereto.” During the minority of His Highness the Raja, bills. are, submitted to the Administrator for his assent. But nothing contained in the Regulation (No. IV of 1924) “shall be deemed to have affected the Prerogative right of His Highness the Raja to make and pass Regulations and Proclamations independent of the Council,” which right is by the Regulation “expressly declared to be and to have been always p~ssessed and retained by His Highness the Raja.” During the minority this power is exercised by the Administrator. Under Section 11 of the Regulation, it is not lawfu1-fQr the Council to consider or enact a.ny measure relating to or affecting:- (a) the ruling family of Pudukk6ttai; (b) the relations of His Highness the ;Raja with the Paramount Power or with foreign Princes or States; (c) matters governed by treaties, conventions or agreements now in force or hereafter to be made by His Highness the Raja with the Paramount Power; (el) extradition of criminals; (e) European vagrants; (f) European British subjects; (g) Imperial Post Office ‘and Telegraphs and Railways; (k) wireless and aviation; or (i) the provisions of this Regulation. 406 J?UDUKK6TTAI STATE [OHAP, The annual Budget of the State is laid before the Council in the form of a statement.. The Government submit proposals for appropriation of revenue to the vote of the Council in the form of Demands for Grants. The coml.cil discusses the Budget generally in what is known as the General Discussion of the Budget, and particularly in regard to specific items by raising. cut motions on Demands for Grants. Under Section 16(4) of the Regulation proposals for the appropriation of revenues for the following matters are not subject to the vote of the Council:- i. expenditure relating to any matter removed from the cognizance of the Council by proviso to Section It of the Regulation (enumerated above); ii. the military forces; iii. expenditure which is obligatory under any law; iv. pensions and gr~tuities granted by Government; v. salaries and allowances of officers of and above the rank of Heads of Departments; vi. interest on loans and sinking fund charges; and vii. Palace expenditure and expenditure classified by Government as ‘ P.olitical. ‘ Since 1930 a Sta.nding Finance Committee is being constituted annually for the purpose of advising the Government on schemes of new expenditure and appropriation of revenues. The Fina.nce Committee consists of seven members,-the President, three elected by the non-official members of the Oouncil from among themselves and three nominated by the Government. Suggestions on matters of general public interest are made by the members of the Oouncil in the form of Resolutions, which only have the effect of recommendations. Every Oouncil ordinarily continues for three years from the date of its first meeting; but Government have the power in special circumstances to dissolve a Council before the expiry of xv] LEGISLATION 407 three years or to extend the period. When a Council is dissolved, the Dewan (now the Administrator) appoints a date, not more than six months from the date of its dissolution, for the meeting. of the new. Council. Four Councils have been constituted so far. The elections Jor the fifth Council were held in September 1936. The following’is a statement of the business transacted in the four Councils between 1925 and 1936. First Oouncil. 1334} 1335 1336· Second Council. 1337} 1338 . 1339 Third Council. 1340} 1341 1342 Fourth Council. 1343} 1344 1345 Number of Number of Number of Numlbt~r of LNu~bletr. of questions resolutions resolutions re~o, u 10ns egiS a lve d dis”ussed. . d wlthdrawn measures answere . v carne . . t d ‘d d or re]ec e . conSl ere . 1.650 82 31 51 23 1,126 56 6 52 30 966 232 206 17 1,491 109 77 26 The Oonstituencie8 oJ the Legislative Oouncil.-Section 4 (4) of the Legislative Council Regulation No. IV of 1924 runs:- ” The Pudukk6ttai Legislative Council shall consist of not less than forty and not more than .sixty members of whom seventy per cent shall be eleoted and the rest shall be nominated; (As already stated, the Council, now consists of thirty-five elected members and fifteen nominated members.) “Provided that Government may for the purposes of any Bill introduced or proposed to be introduoed in the Council, nominate not more than two mp,mbers having special knowledge 408 PUDUKK6TTAI STATE [CHAP. or experience of the subject matter of the Bill, and those persons shall, in relation to the Bill, have, for the period for which they are nominated, all the rights of members of the Council and shall be in addition to the numbers above referred to. ” The elected members are elected by the constituencies specified in the subjoined table. Class Number Name of constituen~y. of of constituency. members. 1. Pudukk6ttai Town Genera.l 4 2. Pudukk6ttai Division ” 1 3. Vallanad Division ” 2 4. Alangudi Division 2 5. Varappur Division 2 6. Karambakkudi Division ” 2 7. Ponnamaravati Division 2 8. Karaiyuf llivision ” 2 9. Tirumayam Division .. 2 10. Imanilai Division ” 2 11. Sengirai Division ” 2 12. Viralimalai Division 2 13. Nirpalani Division .. 2 14. KiranurDivision ” 2 15. Kudumiamalai Division ” 2 16. Kunnandarkoil Division .. 2 17. The V~hammadan constituency Special 1 18. The Christian constituency … .. 1 Total … 35 The Electoral Roll.-In order to be entitled to be enrolled as an elector of the Legislative Oouncil, a person must ‘have resided in a constituency for not less than 100 days in the year preceding the date of preparation of the electoral roll, and must be a pattadar or holder of inam lands or both, paying a landrevenue assessment of Rs. 10 or more, or must be assessed either in a municipality to an aggregate amount of not less than Rs. 3 per annum in respect of one or more of the following taxes, xv] LEGISLATION 409 namely, propelllY tax, tax on companies, or profession tax, or in a Union Panchayat or Village Panchayat to not less than Rs. 2 per annum in respect of house tax, or must derive an annual income of not less than Rs. 350 per annum in the State from sources other than agriculture, or must be a graduate of a· recognised Indian or British University, or must be in receipt of a pension of not less than Rs. 25 per menaem from any Government, or local or special body constituted by law. No person shall have his name entered in the electoral roll of more than one general constituency. Persons who have been adjudged by a. competen~ court to be of unsound mind or who are below the age of 21 shall not be enrolled. Persons convicted of an offence under chapter IX -A of the Indian Penal Code (offences relating to elections) punishable with imprisonment or who have been found guilty of corrupt practices in violation of the election rules in force in the State shall have their names removed from the roll and shall p.ot be registered thereon for a pel’iod of five years from the date of conviction or the report of the election commissioner, or if not on the electoral roll, shall not be registered for five years. Reg’lilati0’n8. The following IS the list of Regulations in force In Pudukk6ttai State. 1880 II 1882 II 52 Short title. Repeals and Amendments. Revenue Arrears Recovery Regula- Amended by Regulation. tions V of 1908; III of 1904; II of 1911;’ and I of 1932. A RegUlation to declare certain ActS of British India as l~the State:- I 1. The Indian Oaths Act X of 1873. 2. The Prisoners’ Testimony Actl XV of 1869. …… 410 Year. I Number.j 1891 ·1892 1893 1895 1896 1896 I III IV I II I III I II III IV PUDUKK6TTAI I::lTATE Short title. rCHAP. Repeals and Amendments. A Regulation to provide for the Amended by Regulapunishment of breaches of contract by tion I of 1932. Artificers, Workmen and labourers in certain cases. Arms Regulation Extradition Regula.tion Amended by Regulations II of 19] 5 ; and I of 1932. Amended by Regulations VI.of 1912; V of 1921; I of 1932; and Vof 1937. Earth Salt Suppression Regulation. Amended by Regulation I of 1932. Police Regulation Amende’d by Regulations III of 1907 : n of 1920 ; III of 1923; Repealea in part and amended by Regulation III of 1931; Amended by Regulations I of 1932 ; II of 1984; and IV of 1934. A Regulation for avoiding loss default of Public Acoountants. by Amended by Regulations V of 1926; VII of 1926; I and III of 1932. Court Fees Regulation Amended by Regulations 11 of 1896; . IV of 1908 j II of 1909; III of 1921;10f 1932; IUand IV of 1935 and VIII of 1936. A Regulation to assimilate the law Amended by Regularelating to Post Offioes in Pudukk6tta.· tion I of 1927 . . to that in force in British India. A Regulation amending the Court Fees Regulation. A Regulation to afford greater protection to Judicial Offioers. A Regulation to give effect to oertain unregistered leases of immovable property belonging to the Clrinnaranmanai J agir. ….. …….. xv] 1897 1898 1899 1901 1902 1903 I II I I III IV I II I I II III V VI LEGISLATION Short title. Repeals a.nd Amendments. 411 The Pudukk6ttai Gambling Preven- Amended by Regulation Regulation. . tion I of 1920. The Epidemic Diseases Regula.tion. ‘Amended by Regula.- tion I of 1982 .. The Pudukk6ttai Sanita.ry Regula- Repealed in part by tion. Regula.tion IX of 1980; Amended by Regula.tipn I of 1982. A Regulation to amend Section 75 of the. Indian Pena.l .Code. A Regulation for the extradition of Amended by Regula.. . Crimina.! Tribes. tion I of 1982. A Regulation to compel persons Amended by Regula. resorting to Publio Offioes to record tion I of 1982. their finger impressions when required to do so by certain officers of the State. The Prevention of Cruelty to a.nimals Regulation. The Pudukk6ttai Tolls Regulation. Do. Amended by Regulations III of 1908 ; III of 1915 ; I of 1921; III of 1924 ; II of 1927 ; Repea.led in part and amended by Regulation IX of 1930 ; and amended by Regulation I of 193~. The Pudukk6ttai Glanders and Amended by RegulaFarcy Regulation. tion I of 1932. The Pudukk6ttai Compulsory, Va.c- Amended by Regulacination and Town Vital Statistics tions III of 1912; I Registration Regula.tion. of 1932 a.nd V of 1936. The Pudukk6ttai Registration· of Amended by RegulaBirths and Deaths Regulation. tion I of 1932. The Pudukk6ttai Tolls Amending Regulation. Revenue Recovery Amending, Amended by RegulaRegulation. tion I 01 1932. Railway Protection Regulation· … \ I . Do. 412 PUDUKK6TTAI STATE [CHAP. Y ..r.!Number.! Short title. Repeals. and Amendments. 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 I II III I I Registration Regulation Stamp Regulation Revenue Recovery Regulation. Amending , Amended and repealed in part by Regulation III of 1909; Amended by Regulations II of 1917; II of 1925; IV of 1925; I of 1929; VIII of 1930; IV and XI of 1931 ; Iof 1932; VI of 1935 and II of 1936. Amended by Regulations IV of 1911; II of 1918; IV of 1923; I a.nd II of 1932; II of 1935 and VII of 1936. The Press and Registration of Books Amended by RegulaRegulation. tions IV of 1907; VIII of 1928; and, I of 1932. The Pudukk6ttai Majority Regula- Amended by Regulation. tions IX of 1926; VIII of 1931; and I of 1932. II The Pudukk6ttai Guardians and Amended by RegulaWards Regulation. tion I of 1932. III The Pudukk6ttai Police Amendment Regula.tion. IV . The Press and Registration of Books Regulation. V The Copyright Regulation Amended by Regula.- I IV II III IV The Pudukk6tta.i Transportation Regulation. The Pudukk6ttai Court Fees Amendment Regulation. The Pudukk6ttai Court Fees Amendment Regulation. The Pudukk6ttai Registration Amendment Regulation. tion I of 1932. Do. The PuduJ. .p Q;)~…, Po. >”, .. Q;) “” I1J 0 “” 0 ‘” ~..oo IX! <: Z i:-t <1 —.-.— -‘—” I I ! Sq. ! I I miles, 1. Pudukkottai State. I 1.179 4,00,694 9 I 8i 17 69’3 23,570 . ..1 4,314 19,13,245 I 36 ! i 2, Trichinopoly 13 49 88’0 39,046 I i I ; I 3, Ramnad … ) 4,819 18,38,955 i 34 I 18 52 ~2’7 35,364 i I 4, Tanjore ”’i 3,742 23,85,920 I 43 I I 13 56 66’a 42,605 I I i 5, Madura “,I 4;911 21,95,747 43 i 9 52 94’4 42,226 • 444 PUDUKKOTTAI STATE· [CHAP. SECTION IlL-PRISONS. The Central Jail.-Convicts sentenced to hard labour were origin””lly confined in the old fort at Tirumayam. They were removed to the capital in about 1810 to improve the roads, dig wells, and repair tanks. The old r~rown Jail was built in about 1830, and to it all offenders sentenced to imprisonment for over a fortnight were sent. Though pronounced a ‘most excellent J a,il’ by Mr. Blackburne in 1846 it stood in a congested locality close to the bazaar. Though its accommodation was sufficient for only 44 prisoners under British rules, it was considered to be large enough to house a maximum of 130. Its sanitation and discipline were anything but satisfactory. Its occupants were huddled together in ill-ventilated rooms without even the convenience of a latrine. The present Jail was planned in 1887 and completed and occupied in 1889. It stands outside the Town in an airy locality with every arrangement necessary for the proper housing of convicts. Since its erection, convict life in the Jail has conformed more and more to the standards of discipline and humanity obtaining in British India. The Madras Jail Code was introduced in 1895, and under it provision was made for the appointment of women warders, the grant of remission for good conduct and the substitution of ragi for rice as the normal diet. The old practice of fettering convicts even when ill was abandoned in 1897. Life convicts had been a source of danger to their fellow-prisoners and the officers; and arrangements were therefore made in 1900-1 to confine them apart, and in 1908 to send them to the British penal settlements; but this latter arrangement, as we have seen (see page 433), had to be discontinued from 1921. Since 1934, a portion· olthe Central Jail has been set apart for the detention of lunatics. Increased accommodation has recently been provided. The Jail and its perimeter are lit by electricity. XVI] ADMINIl:lTRATION OF JUSTICE-LAW AND ORDER 445 Attached to the Jail is a dispensary under the charge of a Sub-Assistant Surgeon assisted by a full-timed compounder. The Ohief Medical Officer of the State inspects the Jail and its inmates about once a week. Oonvict In.bour has differed from time· to time, but the change has been gradually in the direction of making it lesB humiliating and more useful in the way of providing an oc.cupation for after life. Oonvictswere originally employed on streetsweeping and road-making. Bell-metal casting was introduced in 1894. In the following year the convicts were relieved of the street scavenging. In 1903, labour outside the Jail was abolished. Gardening is now a popular occupation and eonvicts take to it with zest. The main industries carried on in the jail are weaving of cotton, gingeUy oil pressing, carpentry and smithy \vork. In 1933-34, the Darbar sanctioned a scheme by which prisoners who were employed on jail labour could earn an addition to their gratuity or remuneration if their out-turn of work reached the required standard. rrhe soheme is intended to give the convicts a greater interest in their work by ena.bling them to earn something which will be a help when they come to be released. It promises to be successful. Population.-The table below shows the number of prisoners admitted to and released from the Oentral Jail during 1936-37. Convicts. — Undertrials. I Civil. I Lunatics. I~M -IWO~1 M IwoJ~~ Iwo. M Iwo- ____ ~~~_~~~~:~ __ men.,_. __ en. men. en. men. – ._— Numb the Numb fasl Numb the Numb clos er at the beginning of fasli. .er admitted during the 1. er discharged during fasli. er remaining at the e of the fasli. I 111 I 1 I 280 156 ! I [ 272 I 55 I 119 21 I I 15 1 I 9 … 1 8 … I I I 171 5! 169 i … I 11 … I · .. 1 177 6: 166 12 … I 9 • 12 ”’1 7 ”’1 … 446 PUDUKK6TTAI STATE [CHAP. Consequent on the rrown riot and the Andakkulam and Kannangudi dacoity cases a supplemental jail attached to the Central Jail was temporarily opened in September ID31 to accommodate the large number of nnder-trial prisoners, and \vas closed in the next fasli. Oonduct of Prisoners.-The conduct of the prisoners has been satisfactory on the whole; and jail offences are few. In the riot that broke out in the capital on July 15, 1931, the Centlal Jail was broken into by the mob and the prisoners set at liberty. Shortly after order was restored; most of the prisoners either surrendered or were arrested and restored to custody. The convicts who surrendered voluntarily within thirty-five days from the date of the riot were awarded remis- 81Ons. r:rhel’e IS a convicts’ school in the Central Jail, and the illiterate inmates are ttl,ught to read and write. Religious and moml instrnction is imparted. Finance.–The receipt8 from the Jail, (chiefly from the industries) amounted to Rs. 11,602 in 1D36-37 ; and the expenditure to Rs. 26,617. The average cost· of diet per head per diem was two annas. Adminislration.-Tho supervision of the jail was formerly vested in the Kotawal. It was subsequently transferred to the Police Amin, to the Civil and Sessions .Tudge, and then to the Deputy Karbar in 1867. The Central ,T11il is now under the J ail Superintendent under whose orders the Jailor and his staff work. Sub-Jails.-Besides the Central Jail, there are 8 subordinate jails situated at the following places~-Alangndi, rl’il’Ulnayam, Roln,ttur, Karambakkudi, Ponnamal’avati, Kflanilai, Viralimaiai and Annava8al. In these civil and under-trial prisoners and con viets senteneed to a week and less are confhled. These subjails are under the control and supervision of the Additional Chief Magistrate. XVI] ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE-LAW Al’dJ ORDER 447 SECTION IV.-REGISTRATION. Registration was introduced into the State III 1875 by Regulation I of 1875 which was subsequently amended and consolidated by Regulations I of 1885, I and III of 1888, and IV of 1895 which were again repealed by Regulation I of 1905. This Regulation has since been amended by Regulations I and III of 1909, II of 1917, II and IV of 1925, I of 19~9, VIII of 1930 and XI of 1981. The existing law makes registration compulsory for mortgages, sales, gifts, exchange or leases for a year and over of immovable property, while it is optional for bonds and promissory notes (compUlsory till 1909) and revenue and court sales (compulsory till 1917). rrhere are at present 10 Registration offices distributed as follows :- 1. Pudukk6ttai (1875) 6. Tirumayam (1877) 2. KWmilai (1875) 7. Kolattur (1877) 3. Karamhakkudi (1875) 8. Ponnamaravati (1886) 4. Viralimalai (1875 and 1886) 9. Perungalur (1890) 5. Alangudi (1877) 10. Annavasal (1896) rrhe year in which each was opened is shown in brackets. r.I’he average cultivable area per Registration office is 79 square miles and the average population served by an office is 40,069 according to the last census. The earliest stations were not, as the list shows, the Taluk Headquarters, because for two years (18,5-77) the Tahsildars exercised the powers of Registrars in their own stations. ‘rhough Viralimalai is one of the earliest offices it remained closed between J 881 and 1886 for want of work. For similar reasons the office opened at Kudumiamalai in 1893 was transferred to Annavasal in 1896; that opened at Arimalam in 1896 was closed in 1918; and the offices opened at Karaiyur in 1896 and at Malayur in 1904 were closed in 1923. A. Sub-Registry office was also constituted for the Pudukkottai Sub-district in 1908 hut it was amalgamated with the office of the District Registrar in 1911, 448 PUDUKK6TTAI STATE [CHAP. The office of the District Registrar is also a central record office to which are sent annually the registers and books of the several offices for safe custody and issue of certified copies. All the Sub-Registrars excepting the Town Sub-Registrar are small-cause judges and with the exception of the Town Sub-Registrar and those at Taluk Headquarters, third class magistrates also. An examination of registration statistics shows that the number of registered documents has· had two marked periods of increase and two of decline. The periods of increase synchronised with the amdni settlement and the enfranchisement of inams, as a result of which owing to the creation of a property in the land, it was freely sold and mortgaged. The two periods of fall were those of the amending Regulations of 1909 and 1917 when the registration of certain classes of documents was declared optional. Otherwise the fluctuations in the figures can be explained by the following general principles :-(i) The immediate effect of an unfavourable season is to increase registration, but a succession of bad years causes a falling off, because all the money that could be raised by the sale or mortgage of land has been l’aised .. (ii) In’a prosperous year succeeding years of adversity, there is slight increase in registration. (iii) When good’ and bad years alternate over a somewhat long period, registration generally increases in bad years and falls off in good years. (iv) If however a number of consecutive years are prosperous, registration either declines or is stationary. Apart from such incidental variations, since the introduction of Registration in 1875. there has been a stea.dy increase in the number of documents registered, and an equally steady rise in the value of land as recorded in the Registration books, both of which point to a general· improvement in the economic condition of the people. Since 1928, however, there has been a fall in the number of registered documents which evidently has to be attributed to the prevailing economic depression and the fall in the value of land. XVI] ADMINIsTRATION OF .JUSTICE-LAW AND ORDER 449 There was a perceptible fall of 1,227 documents in 1935-36; the decrease was largest under sales and mortgages. The total number of, documents registered during faslis 1344 to 1346 is as below :- Fasli 1341 11,238 1345 11,011 1346 10,823 220 documents were registered in 1936-37 by or on behalf of Co-operative Societies; and the amount leviable but foregone by the department on this account was Rs. 1,365. Documents by or on behalf of Co-operative Societies were registered free till 1935 ; but now they are registered on payment of half the’ usual fees. Financial.-The total receipts of the department in 1935-36 amounted to Rs. 3 J ,227. The expenditUl’e on the department excll\ding the portion debitable to “Law and Justice” on account of the Sub-Registrars exercising small cause and magisterial powers, was roughly Rs. 27,200. Notary Public.-With effect from July. 1, 1935, the rrown Sub-Registrar was appointed Notary Public for the whole State. Rules for the conduct of this office were issued on May 14, 1936. The following table shows how the State ~s equipped with Registry offices as compared with the adjoining districts. j ~ Z dI ./:: aI C1.J 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Area District. in square miles. I Pudukk6ttai State 1,179 1 Trichinopoly 4,314 Ramnad 4,819 Tanjore 3,742 Madura 4,912 P opulation. 4,00,694 1 9,13,245 18,38,955 2 .3,85,920 2 1,95,757 ..o ~ 00 • G’l P …… q>CD ca 00 q) p ~ Q aI (.) ~o~ &;:.,0 “‘aI~ ca ~ 0 ..or-. ~0i:’ q> “0 .;; ~ aI.!!l ca …., “‘;:.~ ~ ‘” CD aI”‘~ ~.6’c ~~ sq. miles. 118 40,069 180 79,718 161 61,298 98’5’~ 62,787 169 75,715 P ul t· . { PUdukk6ttai, State 340 per square mile. * Density of op a lon lD … , Tanjore District 638 per square mile. CHAPTER XVII. THE PALACE ESTABLISHMENT. The Palaee establishment includes a variety of departments more or less domestic in nature and intended to minister to the personal comforts, pleasures, and dignity of the Raja. According to a list prepared in 1881-2 it consisted of nine hundred and twenty-four ha.nds, Of these, 280 including 126 Sepoys, 21 Troopers, 25 Bardars, 40 Razll \HUTiors, and 27 Bandsmen constituted a Military force and Body-Guard; 155 were employed in the Stables; 153 in the Palace stores; and 51 in conducting worship and performing other religious ceremonies; lmd 326 others formed a motley group of dependants, pensioners, favonrites, insignia bearers, palanquin-bearers, cooks, musicians, and menials. Since the year mentioned above, there have been frequent reorganisations of staff, and redistribution of duties; but in the main the several departments of work have practically remained the same; and these are noticed below except the milita,ry an account of which has been given in a separate chapter. The Stables.-The Stables formerly ~omprised an A nai layam for elephants, a Periya layam for horses and bullocks, a Vandi mal for carriages and a tent establishment. rrhe Periya or Aramanai ldyam contained the horses intended for the Raja’s personal use only. The Bdpu layam which housed the horses of the Baja’s friends and relatives, and Kutti ldyam w?ich contained the Glwalry mounts were later merged with the Periya ldyam. At present the Stables comprise tlu’ee sections, the Elephant Stables, the Garden StableR (containing the bullocks used in the garden), and the Palace Stables containing the carriages and carriage-horses, the horses of the cavalry and hacks. There are also the State motor cars. rrhe Department was originally under all officer styled the Laya Madyasth (Stables correspondent), and included two Sdldstris (Veteriua:ry Surgeons), THE PALACE ESTABLISHMENT 451 The officer in charge is at present termed the Stables Superintendent who is under the control of the Palace controller. The Surgeon in charge of the Town Veterinary Hospital inspects the animals in the Stables every day. The Pujai Vidu establishment looks after the worship in the Sri Dakshinamurti temple in the Old Palace, and the several charitie~ enjoined on the State by the Sage Sadasiva Brahmam, such as the distribution of doles to girls on Fridays, and to Brahmins during Navardtri. The establishment consists of two classes of men, (1) those connected with the worship in the temple-Archakars (priests), cooks, Parickdrakas (waiters), servants, etc., and(~) those connected with the Ugranam (Stores)-Vicharanakars (Supervisors), Bampratis, (Storekeepers) and watchmen. A cow-stall was originally attached to the Pujai Vidu, (to supply the milk, butter and ‘curds necessary for the worship) and possessed its own staff of cowherds, and Kanganis (watchmen), but it has now been dispensed with as superfluous. The Ddndclkikdr or Almoner is at the head of the priestly staff, supervises the charities, and attends to the proper performance of the religious functions in the Palace. He is consulted in the matter of Japams (public prayers), and V ida pdrdyanams (Vedic recitals), and is an examiner ill the Dnssam examinations. He is assisted in his work by a Pa,lace ,Pur6kit (Priest), and an Astrologer. The Music Establishment.-There are two halls in the old Palace known as the Sangita Bdla (Music hall) and the N atya S,ila (Dancing hall). In one of them was kept a stock of musical instruments such as Vinais, Bdrangi8, Sa.ragatks, Violins, and flutes. A company of dancers, singers’ and instrumental lllusicians were attached to the Palace, and required to entertain the Raja during Sanndhams (processions), and whenever he worshipped publicly at the Sri Dakshnfunurti or Sri BrihadambaT temples. This c,Ompany has since been disbanded,and there are 452 l’UDUKK6TTAI STATE [CHAF. at present two bands of musicians and singers called respectively the Periya milam, and the Ghinna milam.· There are also two bands-a” Carnatic band” which plays Indian music on western instruments, and a Military brass band which plays at the New Palace once a, week, and also at State dinners, Garden parties, and on similar occasions. It also plays once a week in Ananda Bagh and at the Holdsworth Park. There is also a Muhammadan orchestra of cymbals, pipes, (Karna, and 8’Urna) , and drums (Dolera, Nagara, etc.), This plays every morning and afternoon at the entrance to the New Palace-a traditional practice in India. The Bokkusham is the Palace Treasury containing jewels, robes, and other valuables. The officer in charge of it is called the Bokkushakdr. The Vaidyam establishment looks after the health of the Haja and his family, and formerly included Ayurvedic or 8iddha physicians. The Chief Medical Officer of the State now attends . I on the Palace, assisted by a special Sub-Assistant Surgeon. The Palace kitchens.-rrhese contain a store-room (formerly called Periya Ugrdnam), and two separate kitchens, in one of which vegetarian food is prepared by a staff of Brahmin cooks, and in the other, non-vegetarian food by non-Brahmin cooks. Domestic Establi$hment.-Besides the cooks employed in the kitchen, there were formerly numerous other domestics such as the Panddrams who were in charge of the wardrobe; G6lndyaka who attended to lighting; Imarti~maistris who saw to the Palace repa,irs; B6gis (palki-bearers), Thombarams (sweepers), gardeners, tailors, dhobies, and barbers. ‘].lhese are still employed, though their number and name have varied from time to time. rrhe Menial Establishment is also numerous. Originally the ma,jor-domo W:1S ealled Adappakdran or Pdn-servai, because it was he who b:tnded betel leaf and areca nut to the Raja. He had nnder him t,vo gra.des of attendants–the Periya Pillayanddn8 (senior servants) and Ghinna Pillay4ndans (junior servants). ,’, See Chapter III, page 135. XVIl] THE PALACE ESTABLISHMENT 453 The menial staff consists at present of ~ number of daffadars and dalayats under the control of the J emddar. There is also a valet in charge of the ward robe. The Dignity E.tablishment.-Foremost among the men of this establishment are the Brahmin Harikars who distribute Pansupdri (betel leaf and areca-nut) during II\arriages and Darbars in the Palace, and during processions and festivals. There are also numerous insignia bearers such as Kodaikkdrans, Divatti servais and Thadi sertlQ,is. rrhe Kodaikkarans are umbrella bearers of whom there were two classes formerly called respectively, the Ul-kudais and the Veli-kudais aC00rding as their duties lay in or outside the Palace. The Divatti servais are torch-bearers. rrhe Tkadi servais carry the different OhoMa sticks. In addition to these are other persons who at the~ time of processions carry the various paraphernalia-such as the standard, the Jaya Beri (victory drum), Javelins, Ganda-bherunda (a figure of a two headed eagle), etc., and are in charge of the State horses and ‘the elephants carrying the gold and silver Howdahs. rrhere are again some personal attendants, and the holders of the insignia-Ohowri and Ohdmaram (Yak-tail and whisk). Formerly there were also a class of poetasters called Kattiyakdrans and Bkattu Rdzus who recited on public occasions laudatory verses, and proclaimed the titles, and valorous deeds of the Raja and his ancestors, and a court fool who was also story-teller. The Personal staff of His Highness the Rdjd.-An English Tutor is in charge of the education and upbringing of His Highness the present Raja who is now a minor. He is assisted by special Urdu, Tamil, Sanskrit and Physical Instructors. His I Highness’s brothers and sisters have their own governess and teachers. His Highness has an A ide-tie-camp who is an officer of ga.zetted rank. 454 PUDUKKOTTAI STATE i.ldmin’8trative.-The administration of the various departments mentioned above was originally under an officer styled the Private Manager, and later the Palace Manager. The present head of the Palace establishment is styled the P~lace Controller. The Dewan Peishkar has charge of the Pujai vidu. CHAPTER XVIII THE DAR BAR AND DAR~AR OFFICE. The Darbar,,-‘rhe head of the administration was originally termed kdriakarta. It would appear that towards the end of the 18th century the de8ignation of Sirkfl was adopted. During the minority (1807-1817) of Raja Raghunatha Tondaiman Bahadur the affairs of the State were managed by two Managers who were near relatives of the Prince, acting under the adviee of the Resident. Between 1815 and 1817 (or 1822?) the place of the Sirkil was taken by a Principal Councillor assisted by two Subordinate Councilors. During the minority of Raja Rarnachandra rfondaiman Bahadur (1839 to 1844), a Council of Regency composed of the Dowager Rani, the Fouzdar and the Sirkfl carried on the administration. From about 1851 the Sirkfl was assisted by a Deputy Sirkfl. ‘fhe designation of the Ministtr was changed from Sirkfl to Dewan in 1885. During the minority of His Highness the late Raja, the Dewan became Dewan-Regent, and he was at the head of the administration assisted by an Assistant Dewan. In 1898 when the late Raja went to England for the first time a Councillor was appointed” to conduct the administration conjointly with the Dewan.” The· post of Councillor was abolished in July 1908. In March 1909, a State Council was constituted to exercise some of the powers of the Raja, as he had to be absent from the State for reasons of health. It consisted of a member of the Indian Civil Service designated State Superintendent, a Dewan, and the Chief Judge ex-officio. The Superintendent and the • A chronological list of the heads of the administration from 1807 to the present day is given at the end of the chapter on ‘History.’ 456 PUDUKK6TTAI STATE [CHAP. Dew~n each had his own portfolio; but the Chief Judge h’ad none, but all questions on which there was a difference of opinion between the Superintendent and the Dewan were referred to him for his opinion. In 1922, His Highness the Raja decided to reside permanently out of India, and arranged in c~>nsultation with the Supreme Government, that with effect from October 23, 1922, the administration of the State should be carried on by a Regent. The Regent exercised the powers of the Raja and was assisted by the Dewan in the ,executive administra·tion of the several departments of the State. His Highness Sir Marthanda Bhairava Tondaiman Bahad,ur died on May 28, 1928, and in November 1928, the Agent to. the Governor-General proclaimed His Highness Raja Rajag6pala Tondaiman Bahadur, Ruler. The Regent however, continued in that capacity till March 1929 when, under the orders of the Government of India, the State was placed under a Council of admiilistration consisting of a President, a Dewan and the Chief Judge of the State as ex-officio member. The President was deputed to attend the Round Table Conference in London as adviser to the delegate for the South . Indian States, ‘and during his absence (September 26, 1930 to February 25, 1931), the administration was entrusted to the Dewan-in-Council, consisting of the Dewan and two Councillors. The President again left for England in September 1931 as delegate for the Madras States, and the Dewan-in-Council (consisting of the Dewan and a Councillor) carried on the administration. This arrangemen t lasted till N ovem ber 17, 1931, when the GovernmE:’nt of India directed tha~ the future administration of the State during the minority of His Highness the Raja should be carried on by an Administrator assisted by an Assistant Administrator. This is the present arrangement. The Darbaroffice.-In the beginning’ of the 19th century the Sirldl had hardly any cle:rical or other’ staff. Subsequently ~ single office establishment was considered sufficient for the XVIII] THE DARBAR AND DARBAR OFFICE 457 executive, judicial, and revenue administration. The Sirkil himself issued receipts for revenue payments, and till about 1882 when the Chief Court was reorganised, the Huzur or Appellate COUrt was conducted as a branch of the Sirkil’s (or Huzur) office, the .Sirkil combining in himself the functions of the highest executive and judicial officer. In Mr. Morris’ scale of establishments dated 1867 no mention is made of a separate Sirkil’s office, but the Sirkil and the two Karbars had an office in common styled the “Office of General Control.” The Sirkll later acquired a separate office, and by 1881-2 this consisted of a Secretary, litn English writer and his assistant, Vernacular Javabnavises,· Record-keepers and Gumastas (clerks) and the usual menial staff. The Secretary’s place was abolished in 1899, and the office was placed in 1908 under a Registrar, with the rank and powers of the Head of a Department, empowered. to dispose of routine matters. After 1909 the Dewan’s office was called the Darbar office. An audit branch was added to it in 1896, and all bills relating to establishment, travelling allowance, and contingent expenditure were subjected to pre-audit; and the accounts of the Town and some of the mofussil offices, to an annual local audit. rrhe head of the office was styled the Registrar. The Correspondence Section was then separated and placed under a Manager who was later styled’ Secretary to the Dewan.’ In 1923, the Registrar’s designation was changed to that of the ‘Comptroller of Accounts.’ In 1929, the two sections were again placed under a common head-the Chief Secretary to Government; the post is now kept under abeyance, and the two departments are now managed by Office Superintendents under the direct control of the Assistant Administrator. • Litera.lly “clerks who write replies” (to petitions, etc.) 58 CHAPTER XIX. DEV AST ANAM AND CHARITIES. Hiatorical.-Tamil literature of the Sangam period (4th century B. C. to 4th century A. D.) is full of references to K6ttams (Hindu, Buddhist and Jain temples). They were built of perishable material such as timbe~. In the State we find Pallava rock-cut shrines to some of which later structural additions have been made, and also structural temples of the Cola, Pandya, Vijayanagar and Madura styles (Prof. Dubreuil’s c] assifica tion). There are a very large number of inscriptions in the State relating to endowments of lands to temples made either by Rulers themselves, or by governors or vassal chiefs, or sometimes by merchants or merchant -guilds. These endowments were mostly gifts of land, but there were other gifts. for the daily recital of the Vedas and Tamil hymns (the tevdram or the prabhandarn), or for dancing and theatrical entertainments. These lands endowed to temples under royal authority were known as devaddnams, and were tax-free (iraiyili). -The temple committees often assigned the right of cultivation and enjoyment of the det’addnam lands to private individuals in return for a fixed share of the yield (Kara.I).kilamai). Sometimes a village assembly or township (Babka) agreed that temple lands should be tax-free and distributed the tax due on them pro rata on the other holdings so that the total revenue due to the State from the village was not affected. Such lands are described in the inscriptions as urH~ iraiyili (tax-free under the township). Private donors making some endowments often agreed to pay the taxes on the land, and deposited an amount of gold or a sum of money in the temple treasury as security. Donations in gold or money were often made to cover the cost of daily services, commonly for lamps to be kept always burning. Herds of cattle were given to temptes to ensure a supply of ghee. DEVAl:>TANAM AND CHAlUTIES 459 Brahmadeyams were gifts to Brahmins. Villages given to Brahmins versed in the four Vedas were known as caturvedimangalam or agarams. rrhe inscriptions ill the State refer to about 15 caturvedimaIigalams. Gifts to monasteries, feeding houses, and water-sheds called in the State inscriptions. Matjappuram or Palliccandam, Sdldbhogam, Sdlaiu??u, etc., were common. One such palliccandam was a gift to the Jain Al).qarmadam (~onastery) of rrenimalai. An inscription of Vikramakesari (lOth century A. D.) in the Kodumbalur Ml1varkoil mentions the building of three temples, and the institution of a monastery (matha) with eleven villages attached to it for Mallikarjuna, a preceptor of the fanatical Saivite Kalamukha sect and his disciples. A Kumaramangalam inscription records the grant of lands to a Saiva teacher Visvesvara jiyar and his maqam at rriruvanaikoil; one at Neivasal mentions a grant to a maqam in the same village, and another at Ponnamaravati to a grant to the Nilamai Alagiyan tirllmaqam in the Hajendra C6lisvantm temple there. The de’vaddnam lands granted to Siva temples were demarcated by boundary stones marked with a trident (tirucculakkal), those granted to Vif]l).u temples by stones marked with the cakra (tiruvdlikkal) and those granted to .Tain institutions (Palliccandams) had stones with triple umbrE”lllas carved on them (tirumukkurJaikkal). Lands endowed to maqams or feeding houses were demarcated by stones bearing the impression of a ladle (tiruc-cattuvakkal). The rrondaimans yielded to none in pieby and in their desire to perpetuate these charities. Raghllnatha Raya Tondaiman (1686-1730) enlarged the temple at Kudumiamalai. 1’0 this Ruler is ascribed the building of the chatrams in the Town and at Tirug6karnam. Vijaya Raghunatha Raya Tondaiman (Sivagfianapuran Dnrai), the disciple of the Sage Sri Sadasivendra instituted the Dassara festival at Pudukk6ttai and built the Shrine of Sri Dakshinamurti within the old palace. 460 PUDUKKOTTAI STATE [CHAP. He also built and endowed chatrams not only in the State but in distant Benares. It was he who built the famous Adhistdnam (shrine over a tomb) of Sri Sadasivendra at N erur in the Trichinopoly district and granted two village& in the State for its maintenance. Raja Vijaya Raghunatha rrondaimanbuilt a number of chatrams and made endowments to many temples, both within and outside the State. Ceremonies known as Tondaiman kattalais instituted by this Ruler are performed to this day in well known shrines. outside the State, such as Rameswaram, Madura~ Palni, Trichinopoly and Tirupati. Raja. Ramachandra Tondaiman Bahadur attached the utmost importance to the proper maintenance of the temples and their endowments. Under Devastanams may be included the endowments made to mosques (Pa?lifJdsal mdnyam), monastic establishments (Maif,appura mdnyam), temple-gardens (Nandavana mdnyam) and temples outside the State. (Parardsh!ra mdnyam). Three endowments deserve special mention because for a long time separate accounts were maintained for them, viz.: (1) a tract of 24 villages in Valnad, the revenues of which were assigned to the palace shrine of Sri Dakshinamurti Svami, (2) two villages for the maintenance of the Adhish!dnam of Sri Sadasivendra at N erur, and (3) the lands granted for the temple at Malai<;lu close to the capital where the Rani of Raja Vijaya Raghunatha performed Sali. Among the classes of inam lands enfranchised in 1888 were the Brahmadeyams (gifts to Brahmins) a:nd a few minor M dnypms (gifts) such as those granted for the up-keep of water-pandals, which may be said to constitute charitable institutions. A brief account of the terms of enfranchisement of these classes is given in the chapter on ” Land Revenue. ” Till forty years ago, the lands assigned for the up-keep of Devastanams, Chatrams and other charitable institutions were separately administered. Every Devastanam village had its XIX] DEVASTANAM AND CHARITIES 461 local establishment, controlled by the taluk Devastanam establishment including separate sub-treasury officers; above the latter were the establishment in Deputy Peishkar’s and Dewan Peishkar’s Offiaes. The Devastanam villages had their own irrigation works, which were independent of those of the Ayan lands. In fasli 1306, the Devastanam lands measured 1,07,159 acres or about lth of the total extent of 6,90,080 acres under cultivation in the State. The receipts and expenditure under Devastanam and charities for faslis 1301 and ] 306 are tabulated below:- .- ~ Receipts. Q).::’l ‘_( F ]. ~ ~ Q) til ~I as 1. .:=;,J::l Land ‘” Q) SD’ t~ 15 Revenue·1 ~ ~ ~ I Total. o I~ tilt::!. 1301 1’2,40,26911,86,3371,19,56812,05,9051 1306 j 1,75,829 , 1,83,751 ; 10.605: 1,94,3561 Total. ui …, , I=l Q) Q) ~ 8 ~ i:S Balance. 4’46’li~-1~~3’8941 2,42,280 3,70,185 1,98,268 I,71,917 Amalgamation of Devastamam and Chatram lands with Ayan lands.-‘rhe permanent reduction in land assessment and the abolition of tree-tax effected by Sir Sashia Sastriar in 1892 resulted in a fall of Rs. 22,000 in the Devastanam receipts; but the Dewan Regent had not provided for any corresponding redu~tion under e~penditure. Sir Sashia entertained the idea of abolishing the taluk Devastanam establishment and entrusting the work of collection and keeping the accounts to the revenue officel·s. He did not however do so since there was a substantial surplus to the credit of Devastanam funds, but his successor Mr. Vedantacharlu found it necessary to abolish the taluk Devastanam establishment and transfer the~r duties to the revenue department while retaining the village and Headquarters staffs. In 1897 rather than reduce expenditure on temples and charities, the Government incorporated the Devastanam and charity revenues with the Ayan. The advantages of this arrangement were thus explained by the Dewan in a letter to the Political Agent. 462 PUDUKKOTTAI STATE [CHAP. ” ‘rhe expenditure on account of Devastanam collection and connected charges will be adequately redueed without trenching on the pagoda services. The pagoda services will be permanently ensured without the chance of fluctuation on account of vicissitndes of seasons and consequent oscillations and uncertainties in annual allotments, and in fact the pagodas will be supported permanently relieved of the inconvenience and difficulties of collection of revenue assigned for the purpose. The irrigation works connected with the tanks of the assigned villages will be done along with State tanks, the allotment necessary being provided in future under the head “Irrigation.” The present anomaly of a portion of the revenue collected by State agencies not being brought within the scope of the general bndget and review will be removed. Such of tho servants who may be retained and who may be absorbed as vacancies occur in other departments of the State, will continue as public servants and enjoy the privileges and advantages of leave, pension, etc. ” The solitary exception to this scheme of amalgamation was the village of Madukam assigned to the Avadayarkoil temple in Tanjore District, which W~1S still continued under the amani tenure at the request of the Tamburdn of the temple. The following allotments were made in 1897, the year of the amalgamation. Temples inside the St!1te … outside Chatrams ” Dassara festival etc. Es. 71,774 10,774 10,607 25,000 Total … 1,18,155 Results of the Amalgamation.- The original annual allotment of Us. 1,18,000 for the Devastanam and charitable institutions has always been exceeded. In fasli 1307, the amount aotually spent was Us. 1,21,000; iIi 1315, Rs. 1,46,078; in 1325, Rs. 1,:-39,775 and in 1335, Rs .. 1,87,120. XIX] DEVASTANAM AND CH.{\.RITIES 463 In 1912-13, the Darbar ordered the preparation of a register showing the major services that landholders were required to render at temples; and this was compiled and published in 1914-15. In 1916-17, a Personal Assistant to the Dewan Peishkar was appointed and was placed in immediate chal’ge of the Devastanams. An Inspector and an Assistant Inflpector were. appointed to assist him. In 1929-30, three Devastanam Inspectors were appointed, one for each taluk, who worked under the Tahsildars. In 1931-32, the posts we~e abolished and the Firka Revenue Inspectors were entrusted with the direct supervision of temples. Honorary non-official visitors were appointed in 1919-20 to inspect Devastanams and other charitable institutions periodically and bring defects or suggestions for improvements to the notice of Government. The Devaltanam Committee.-(1922-23). In respect of paq,itharam (daily allotments) and management, the religious and charitable institutions in the State may be classed as follows :- ‘ 1. temples which have allotments in cash for daily puja and festivals; 2. those which have no money dittams (allotments) but only mdnyams or lands endowed for the conduct of , puja daily or once every few days according to the value and extent of such lands and the popularity and importance of the temples; 3. those which besides having mdnyams receive money grants for festivals; and 4. chatrams and other charitable institutions, either managed by the State or by private agencies, but liable to be taken over by the State under the Religious and Charitable Endowment Regulations if mismanaged. Under the first group are the major institutions which receive a daily paif,itharam ranging from one anna to about Rs. 35, besidf’R a.llotments for festivals. After the Gl’eat ‘Var of 464 PUDUKKOTTAI STATE [CHAP. 1914, the general rise in prices made it prohibitively costly to conduct worship on the same scale as before except in a few temples that had been provided with Sdmdn dittams (daily allotment in kind of rice, oil, etc.) The festivals were not conducted so well as before, owing alike to the apathy of the people and to the frequent failure of the ‘1i”t,iamddrs to perform their uliam services. The numerous minor institutions of the second and third classes suffered similarly. The pujakans (priests) came to regard endowed lands in their enjoy~ent as their private property and neglected their duties. Institutions of the fourth class are mostly ckatrams. In 1922-23, there were fifteen such institutions under State management and ten under private management. However indispensable they might have been in former times they had lost much of their usefulness after the introduction of the railway and of motor bus services. Of 1. Ichiyadi chatram. the 14 principal chatrams noted in 2. Kolavaipatti chatram. the margin, those numbered 1,4,5, 6, 3. Chinniah chatram 7, 10, 12 and· 13 had ceased by the (Tirumalaira yapuram). 4. Vamban. 5. Ayipatti. 6. Tirumalairayasamudram. 7. Tirumayam. 8. Kolattur (Ammachatram.) 9. Viralimalai. 10. Rengammal chatram. 11. Mathur. 12. Kayampatti. 13. Kodumbcllur. year 1922-23 to provide food for travellers and ‘become mere resthouses. In one year on the average one Brahmin a day was fed at the Viralimalai chatram. At Ammachatram, which was once very popular, the daily average had fallen to four or five. In many chatrams, the people fed were not travellers but local 14. Town chatram. residents. The question, therefore, arose whether all these institutions should be maintained, whether it was any longer necessary to provide food at them and whether the amounts allotted for running them could and should not be redueed. Some of the temples had lost in importance. They no longer attracted worshippers in such numbers as formerly and the offerings made at them had correspondingly dwindled. The XIX] DEVASTANAM AND CHARI’l’IES 465 continuance of puja and other services on the old scale could be justified, if at all, only on sentimental grounds. Numerous services for which assignments had been made, had ceased, but the ldvattamddrs responsible for ,their performance were still in the enjoyment of the ldvattams or endowments attached to them. ffhe question arose whether such ldvattams could not be enfranchised, that is whether the holders could be relieved of the obligation of service and the lands subjected to assessment. On account of the increased cost of living, the establishment clamoured for increase of pay. Increases were sanctioned here and there, but in view of the facts already mentioned the question naturally suggested itself whether there should not be a general reduction of the establishment accompanied by a revision of the scales of pay. A suggestion calling for consideration was that many of the temples could be better supervised by local panchayats. Another knotty problem related to the u.~iam& (services to be rendered in temples and at festivals) about which we shall say more later, and yet another to what are usually known as the (( temple respects “-that is traditional marks of honour accorded to particular persons such, for example,. as the bearing of torches before them, which often led to disputes resulting in civil suits and criminal complaints. It was suggested that these disputes might be decided by taluk panchayats specially created for the purpose. The Darbar had also to decide on what conditions State Institutions should be transferred to private management. Private persons sometimes-asked that the management of certain temples should be transferred to their hands, and this was sometimes done. For instance, the Sri Submmania Svami temple at Viralimalai was for some years under the management of a Chettiyar. In 1922-23, the Darbar appointed a committee of officials and non-officials with Mr. (now Rao Bahadur) Krishnamachariar, then the Huzur Secretary, as President to examine these 59 • 466 PUDUKK6TTAI STATE [CHAP. questions III detail and to report 011 them. ‘rhe Committee submitted their report in 1925. rrheir first recommendation was ” that at the present stage of the History of the State and her people, it is necessary to maintain the Devastanam and to continue to spend public moneys on it.” The Committee considered that the total expenditure on Devastanams, etc., might appropriately be 2/7ths. of the total land revenue of the State, or about 2£ lakhs of rupees a year but that for the present, about 2 lakhs would be sufficient. ‘rhe Committee recommended an increase of ParJ,itharam in 25 major temples (other than the Tirug6karnam temple and the pujaivifj,u in the palace which have sdmdn dittams) by 50 per cent to begin with, and for the minor temples, a total increase of about Rs. 4,000 a year. The Committee opined that “it is far better to arrange for the proper conduct of festivals in a few temples than to seek to get them well performed in a large number of them, which will only mean attempting the impossible,” and hence only proposed increases for the more important temples which celebrated two festivals a year and had an annual ditpam of not less than Rs. 150 for festivals. The Committee did not recommend any drastic reduction in the strength of the establishment of the institutions while they suggested an increase of at least 25 per cent in the pay of the servants of some of the more important ones. ‘rhe Committee were not for any enhancement of expendi ture on parardahtram katpalais. * r.Dhough the Government – – • Pamrashtmm kaHalais are 32 in number. KaNalais in the following 23 temples have money allotments-I. Arantangi; 2. Avadayarkovil; 3. Kunnakkudi; 4. Mamundi Andavankovil; 5. Srirangam; 6. Tiruvanaikovil; 7. Trichinopoly (Tayumananasvamikovil); 8. Kadambarkovil; 9. Trivadi (Ayan Kattalai); 10. Trivadi (Western Palace Kattalai); 11. Tiruvadaimarudur; 12. V n.idiswarankovil ; 13. Chidambaram; 14. K i val u r ; 15. Tiruvarur;· 16. Mannargudi; 17. S w ami mal a i ; 18. Madura; 19. Palni; 20. Tirupati; 21. Tirupparakkunram; 22. Ramesvaram, and 23. Nerllr. Inams have been granted for the following nine institutions-24 to 27. Feeding at the Kanjappa Mudaliyar and the Manikka Mudaliyar chatrams at Trichinopoly, and at Avadayarkovil and Tiruvadllturai, 28-29. Watersheds at Tanjore and in the Amman Sannadhi at Tiruvanaikovil, 30. Nandavanam or flower-garden at Srirangam, 31. the temple of Ayyanar at Kovilpatti (Marungapuri) , and 32. Sahasrandma a-rchanai (offering of flowers aCcOmpanied by th~ repetition of the thousand names of the God) at Srirangam. XIX] DEVASTANAM AND CHARITIES 461 were ultimately responsible for the proper management of the minor institutions under private management, l1 list of which had been published in 1918, the Committee thought that it was not necessary for them to interfere actively in regard to them except in order to correct mismanagement. The Committee recommended that the village officers should maintain a.register specifying in regard to each institution the amount of any Government grant enjoyed by it, the, nature of all services to be rendered by members of the public in relation to it, the persons liable to render them, etc. rrhe Committee recommended the abolition of a number of chatrams. It did not approve the proposal that temples should be supervised by Panchayats, or that disputes regarding “respects” in State temples should be decided by taluk Panchayats. While recommending the retention of the major uJ.iams, it suggested the abolition of the minor u.~iams and the substitution for it of a money cess of 6 pies in the rupee to begin with, and ultimately of 2 ann as in the rupee of the assessment of both Ayan lands and enfranchised inams. I.Jastly, the Committee advised that no stereo-typed conditions should be laid down regarding the transfer of State temples to private management. The orders of the Darbar (1931}.-Hn,ving regard to the financial position of the State at the time, tbe Darbar decided to carry out certain reforms and ilnprovements without increasing the existing allotments, which were much higher than the amount proposed by’ Mr. Ved~1ntacharlu when the Devastanam and Ayan lands, were amalgamated. Where services lvere no longer rendered, or no longer necessary, the Darbar considered that the esta.blishment should be suitably reduced while, taking care that the “essentials of worship” were retained and improved and” non-essentials and excrescences and unnecessary or undesirable establishments and practices” discontinued and abolished. rrhe conditions in each temple should be considered 468 PUDUKK6TTAI STATE [CHAP. before introducing any change.· All the chatrams maintained by the State except the Town chatram were to be closed since thflY had ceased to be necessary or useful. Subject to these general principles the Darbar approved the recommendations of the Committee. Uliams.-The nature of uliams has already been described in the chapter on. “Land Revenue. ” The Major uJ.iam consists of the service to which the landholders are liable, of dragging the cars and chaprama (light cars) of the State temples. In a Press Communique dated September 17, 1930, the Darbar notified the abolition of this liability, in lieu of which a cess called the “u.~iam cess” was to be levied at the rate of one anna per rupee of land revenue assessment by all ayan landholders in the State who had been liable to perform the ukiam. ‘fhe imposition of the cess did not find favour with the majority of the ryots. In the Legislative Council Session held in January 1931, all the non-official members in a body vot~d for its abolition. Two deputations-one of members of the Legislative Council and the other of the ryots preferred the same request to the Darbar. It was admitted on all hands that the obligation to drag the car was a legal incident of land-holding in the State. The Hindu representatives of the ryots contended that they regarded the service not only as a religious duty but as a privilege, a.nd did not wish it to be replaced by the payment of a cess. In July 1931, the Darbar decided that the cess should be abolished and the old system of personal service restored. A local non-official committee was appoin~ed for each of the temples to supervise the car festivals, and it was ordered that a sliding scale of fines varying· according to the amount of assessment payable by each should be levied on defaulters. ‘.’ In his note on the Report of the Devasta.nam Committee the then Dewan, Bao Saheb G Ganapati Sastriar, recommended a.mong other things the abolition of the services of the Devaddsis and the Chinnamelam establishment in all temples and the enfranchisement of their Id·vatJ~ms. The Government prohibited in 1925 the dedication of minor girls as dtlsis. XIX] DEV ASTANAM AND CHARITIES 469 Minor uliams consist chiefly of furnishing bearers for the idols and their paraphernalia in processions, and supplying kids for sacrifice, cocoanuts for offerings, plaited cocoanut leaves, festoons and green leaves for decorations, making rafts on which the idols are floated round the teppakuf,am or temple tank (lit- (mft-tank.’) People neither wish to perform the customary services gratis nOl’ consent to their discontinuance. Default of these customary services is visited with a fine amounting to twice the actual cost of getting them performed. The arrears of such fines are known as vasakkaHu arrears. Before fasH 1321, the Devastanam accounts were maintained in the Taluk offices, and Devastanam funds were freely advanced to hire labourers to perform the services. when necessa,ry. Since fasH 1324, the Dewan Peishkar has been provided with funds from which to incur expenditure for the performanee of the services which should be recouped by fines levied on the defaulters. Such advances have not been promptly recovered in the past. The vasakkatfu arrears outstanding on the last day of June 1937 amounted to Rs. 9,982. Nowadays, however, no expenditure of this sort is incurred except for a few important temples: if the services are not performed gratis by those responsible they are not performed at all. * Appointment of a Special Officer: Reconsideration of the 1931 orders and issue of fresh order, in 1935.-To give effect to the orders that they had passed in 1931 on the recommendations of the Devastanam committee, the Darbar appointed a Special officer to report in respect of each temple whether the patj,itharam should be revised, or the establishment reduced, and on other points raised by the committee. After a careful consideration of the Special Officer’s detailed report on the Tiruvengaivasal temple, and the Dewan Peishkar’s recommendation in respect to it, the Darbar came to the conclusion that the effect of the instructions issued in 1931 would be to *’ But major U!iams are enforceable and the penalty for default can legally be collected, since their performa.nce is expressly stipUlated in the cowles issued to landholders where the amdni was converted into ka4amai tenure. 470 PUDUKKOTTAI STAT~ LCHAP. introduce drastic changes, such as ought not to be made by a minority Administration. They, therefore, directed that. the essential services in terrlples should not be modified, that neither the number of daily pujas ItOI’ the quantity of food cooked or distributed should be reduced, that no posts that were not manifestly superfluous should be abolished, and that Saman dittams (See page 464) where they existed, and the Devadasi service where it was still rendered should not be abolished. The Special Officer was directed to confine himself to reporting briefly what the staff and the expenditure on parJitharams in each temple were when the amalgamation of the Devastanam with the Ayan took place, and what they were at the time of reporting respectively, to give a detailed explanation of any variations, and to make such suggestions as might be practicable to effect economy and eliminate waste. rrhe 1931 deeision on the question of major 1{~iams was confirmed. Regarding minor uFams, it was ordered that where supplies were made gratuitously and not as consideration for the enjoyment of service inams, they should be optional. Personal services such as bearing the deities were to be regarded as burdens attaching to the land. Landholders were to be regarded as under an obligation to render such services when the accounts maintained in the temples concerned showed that they were liable to do so. N on-pattadars were exempted from such obligation. A-uy pattadar who was disqualified by caste or religion from rendering personal serviee, was permitted to compound his liability by payment of a cess at a rate not exceeding one anna in the rupee of his assessment. Persons holding Sarvamanyam (Brahmadayam) lands were not to be regarded as exempt from the liability unless they could show that for a long time they had n()t been rendering the service. Persons holding enfranchised inams other than Brahmadayam lands were declared to be exempt. r,rhe Special Officer was directed to examine the temple records and determine who ,vas liable to service on these principles. XIX] DEVASTANAM AND CHARITIES 471 The estimated cost of this investigation exceeded Rs. 5,000 a year. In November 1935, .the Legislative Council passed a resolution recommending that the investigation should be discontinued. In view of the extreme financial stringency due to the severe drought, the Darbar accepted this recommendation, and in December 1935, suspended the inquiry indefinitely. The working of the department at present.-1’he department at present controls 889 institutions in the State and 32 outside it. The institutions in the State may be classified as follows:- 1. Institutions under the direct control and) management of the State and maintainedf’ 100 (90 of these are temples.) entirely at State cost. 2. State institutions handed over to private I r 8 (all temples.) persons for management. J 3. Institutions under private management 1 receiving State grants in money with or I· 99 (all temples.) without mdnyam lands. 4. Institutions under private management) ( ) ; ” 682 623 of them are temples. enjoying mdnyams. 5. Institutions under private management “I and under no obligation to renderJl 59 (18 of them are temples.) accounts to the Government. 6. Private institutions taken over for State) management at the request of the foun- r 1 (temple.) d~s. J 7. Institutions managed by private personsl and maintained from private endow- 196 (105 of them n.re temples.) ments. The State has the right to enforce the proper maintenance of institutions under private management, under the Charitable Endowments Regulation of 1912. The Dewan Peishkar is ex-officio trustee in respect of all funds belonging to private endowments that have been taken under State management, the total of which amounted on June 30, 1937, to approximately Rs. 2.33,600. 472 PUDUKKOTTAI STATE [CHA.P, There are besides 3’2 Pararashfram kat/a/ais (see page 466). ‘J.’he Hindu Religious Endowment Board of Madras claimed control of one of the Pararashfram institutions-the Sri Kasi Visvanatha Svami temple together with the Adhis!anam of Sri Sadasiva Brahmendra at N erur (Trichinopoly district), but after enquiry exempted it from the operation of the Hindu Religious Endowment Act. rrhis institution is under the full control of the State. Administration.-f~rhe Dewan. Peishkar is the head of the department of Devastanams and Charities. His Personal Assistant is in immediate charge of it under his control, and in turn supervises the work of the Tahsildars and Revenue Inspectors. The ordinary village temples are looked after by the vattam moniams. Important temples such as the Tirugokarnam templ~, Sri Dakshinamurti temple in the Palace, the , \ Sandarkoil together with the Town chatram, and the temples at ‘J.’irumayam, Ne~ungudi, Peraiyur, Tirukkalambur, Kilanilai, Kudumiamalai, Kfranur and Viralimalai are managed by special officers known as Vicharanaigars, Sampratis or Karnams. Financial.-The revenue of the department during fasli 1346 including the collections on accou’nt of Vasakkattu arrears amounted to Rs. 9,468, and the total expenditure to Rs. 1,51,090. The main items of expenditure were as follows :- 1. Paditharam, and establishment 2. Patrams (Vessels) and Parivattams 3. Tiruppani (rellairs) 4. Dassara. Rs. 1,14,111 4.388 19,591 19,590 Dassara.-The Dassara is perhaps the most important festival conducted in the State. It was instituted by Raja Vijaya Raghunatha Tondaiman (1730-69) under the direction of his preceptor Gopalakrishna Sastriyar to secure fOf himself expiation of past sins, and for the State continued prosperity. (See 9hapter Ill-‘ The People’ page 93, and Chapter X-‘ Education, ‘ page 285). XIX] DEVASTANAM AND CHARITIES 473 The Poor Home.-No account of the charities in the State would be complete if it did not mention the Vijaya Ragbunatha Poor Horne. Immediately after he became Regent in 1922, the late Rajakmnar Vijaya Raghunatha Durai Raja called on Heads of DepHlrtrnents to submit proposals for the institution of a Home to afford relief to the neglected orphans, the helpless, the infirm and the poor of the State by providing them \yith food, clothing and lodging. After consideration of their suggestions, a scheme was drafted and published iu 1925. On March 27, 1925, a public meeting was held in the Darbar Hall presided over by the Dewan, Rao Bahadur P. K. Kunhunni Menon, to consider the draft. It was resolved at this meeting to start a Poor Home at Pudukk6ttai and to appoint a Committee to collect subscriptions. By 1928, nearly a lakh of rllpees had been collected, most of which was subscribed by Nattukk6ttai NHlgarathars, among whom the late Dew~n Bahadur Dharmabhushanam ‘1\ N. Muthiah Chettiar of Ramachandrapuram’ individually contributed Rs. 20,000. ‘rhe Hmne was opened on March 5, 1928, by Mr. C .\V. E. Cotton, c.!. E., the first Agent to the Governor-General for Madras States and is housed ina State Bungalow which was wnnerly used as a guest house and had once tbe distinction of accommodating Lord Wenlock, GoVerI,lOr of Madras. ‘rhe Home has two sections-tbe infirmary and the ,orphanage. In 1928 there were 14 orphans on the rolls and 16 inmates in the infirmary. In 1937, tbe strength was 86 orpbans and 5 inmates in the infirmary. The boys and girls in the orph!mage are educated free in the State schools. Some are n,lso trained in carpentry, motor mechanics and tailoring. The girls are taught needle-work. In 1930-31, a poultry was started. ‘rhe poultry farm and apiary are now flourishing. At a public meeting held on February 8, 1935, in the Town Hall to concert measures to celebrate the Silver ,Jubilee of Their Imperial Majesties King George V and Queen Mary it 60 474 PUDUKK6TTAI STATE was resolved that the subscriptions collected to commemorate the occasion, excluding any sums ear-marked for payment to the Central Fund, the amount spent on feeding the poor and similar objects on the Silver Jubilee day and the expenses of collection, should be used to augment the endowment of the Vijaya Raghunatha Poor Horne. The response to the appeal of the Committee was astonishing and a matter for legitimate pride, especially when it is remembered that to say nothing of the general economic depression,. the season 1934-35 was one of the worst on record. More than Rs. 91,000 was collected inoluding the Darbar’s contribution of Rs. 10,000 out of which approximately Rs. 76,000 was added to the funds of the Poor Home. The table below shows the financial position of the Home on June 30,1937. Rs. A. P. Opening balance … 1,76,353 2 9 Donations and other 1,862 8 3 receipts. Interest.on 9.onations 8,240 lO 3 Total … 1,86,456 5 3 Rs. A. P. Expenditure… 10,740 3 4 Closing balance. 1,75,716 1 11 CHAPTER XX. MiLiTARY. The military services that the early Tondaimans rendered to the NawH,b of Arcot ~nd the British East India Company in the 18th century were due to a well-organised feudal system under which it was possible to summon a numerous body of fighting men for instant action. When a call came from the Suzerain, the Raja had only to communicate his wishes to his Sardars and Servaikars who forthwith summoned the Amarakdrs or warriors, and led them to battle. ‘The army thus marshalled consisted of a combatant branch composed of the Amarakars, Sardars, and Servaikars mentioned above, and an equally large body of camp-followers including a commissariat under the supervision of Peishkars and Karnams. A number of men and also women were requisitioned to look after the bullocks that dragged the gUllS and carried the stores. A grass-cutter accompanied every mounted soldier. There were numerous Harikdrs who combined the duties of messenger and spy. rrhe weapons used were the sword and shield, spear, dagger, pike, matchlock, sling, bow and vaf,ari;* and the fighting men were grouped according to their arms. rrhe forces that the Tonda,imans were thus a.ble to (:oll~ct for the use of their allies were certainly not to be despised either in numbers or in fighting quality. Aecording to old Inam office records they sometimes amounted to 8,000 men; but the figures probably included camp followers also. 3,000 men were actually sent out in 1752; and 1,500 horse in 1757. In 1795 the Nawab conferred on Raja Vijaya Raghunatha a mansab t· of 1,500 -_. .—- ” VaJari is a short crescent-shaped weapon, made of iron, of which one end is heavier than the 0ther, and the outer edge is sharpened. It is held by. the lighter end and hurled at the enemy. A similar missile but made of hardgrained wood is Vajai-ta4i. These are the peculiar weapons of the Kallars and Maravars; and in Marava families, they are presented to the bridegroom as part of the wedding dowry. t Mansab was a military title and rank (instituted by the Moghuls) • regulated by the supposed number of horse the holder of the title could, if required, bring into the field.’ (Wilson.) 476 PUDUKKOTTAI STAT£ [CHAP. horse. It would therefore be fairly accurate to say that the Tondaimims \vere able in the 18th century to put into the field an army of 1,500 horse and 3,000 ‘infantry. It is unnecessary to speak here of the efficiency of this army, which will be sufficiently evident from the events chronicled in the chapter on the history of the State. It is enough to say that in those times when personal bravery and skill eonnted for much more than they do now, the fighting men of Pudukk6ttai proved themselves a match for the annies of ‘ranjore, Trichinopolyand Madura and helped to overthrow dynasties, and establish two great Powers in Southern Indiafirst the Nawab, and afterwards the British. After the cessation of the Carnatic wars at the beginning of the 19th century, the fighting qualities of the men deteriorated owing to ina/ction. There was still a Milita,ry Department composed of the ancient irregular militia, and 11 Battalion of regulars. But since the men had no work to do they were employed to watch the am-ani crops (See Chapter XIII, page 343). rrhe Regulars were ill-dothed and ill-dressed, and were not subjected to proper drill and discipline. By about 1875 the militia had seriously deteriorated, f0r in that year when aI~ endeavour was made to organise some of them as State Police, there was hardly a man fit for the service. With the enfranchisement of service inams in 1888, feudal ties were snapped, and the militia ceased to exist as a fighting unit. rrhe Regulars who were still maintained were better equipped and provided for tha.n before. r:rhey consisted of a Bodyguard of lU cavalry and 110 infantry including five commissioped and 17 non-commissioned officers- all Indians. The infantry were employed to guard the Palace, the Treasury, and the quarters of the State Superintendent and the Dewan. The cavalry were used to escort His Highness the Raja, the Political Agent, during his visits, and the Administrative officers on ceremonial occasions. xx] MILITARY 477 As a sequel to the riot that occurred in the capital town on July 15, 1931, a scheme for the reorganisation of the force was drawn up by Mr. Hume of the Madras Police whose services had been placed at the disposal of the Darbar for the purpose. In the course of the re-organisation, it was found necessary to replace a considerable number of the old officers and men as in(‘olllpetent. The infantry are now divided into two elasses,- ” A” consisting of men of superior physique trained on the lines of the Armed Police Reserve and intended to function as an additional striking force in emergencies; and” B ” consisting of men of inferior physique who furnish the routine guards and ordinary ceremonial escorts. ‘rhe pay of all ranks of the ” A ” class is higher than that of the” B ” class. In fasli 1342, the” Hume lines”, for the” A ” class military force, were built, so that the men might be kept under regular and constant discipline and be ready for immediate mobilisation in case of need. An armoury and magaJzine, and quarters for the non-commissioned officers were also built. Part of the P. W. D. buildings has been remodelled to serve as the headquarters of the military officers. In all about Rs. 21,000 was spent on buildings. rrhe infantry was rearmed in fasli 1341 ·with 410 muskets in place of their old and ineffective muzzle loaders. rrhe sanctioned strength of the military force is 19 cavalry (Bodyguard) and 110 infantry. Nine posts in the cavalry and 13 in the infantry are at present vacant as a measure of economy. ‘:rhe force is under the supervision of the European Sergeant-Major of the Police Armed Reserve. The State Band (See Chapter XVII, “Palace Establishment,” page 45~) consists of 2’7 men including the Indian commissioned officer and non -commissioned officers. rrhe 8ubahddr’8 place in His Highness’s Bodyguard which had long been vacant was -filled in 1935-36 by the appointment of an ex-Jemadar of the Q. V. O. Sappers and Miners. rrhe head of the State Military force was formerly called Fouzdar, then Risaldar and later Conllnandant. He is now styled ., Officer in charge of the Military Forces”, and the post is held by the Superintendent of Police ex-officio. No. , ArP1s of sen’ice. I I 1 I Cavalry i 2 ISappers I 3 iArtillery , 4 lInfantry ! 5 lImperial Service troopers i I Strength of the military forces in fa.1i 1346. I Number of fighting officers Details of Force at the end of I u:i . and men. , 00 f~sli 1346. I ::: ‘] Casualties. ~ ] I Number of men. II’~ ~ .~ ] -~ ~ ~ i ~o ~ I @ ~I·~TI.·!I·.-··-·-·· p:; .- • ….. I::: 0 u:! S ‘” I .’ Ie I 0) 1$1”0 “‘. ~o I ~I 0 ~; 00 IEf ~ ~ • …, _ ::: 00 0 01′- 0, II’-.::l (0 ~ as ~!’-.::l o,g.~1 ‘0 ~-e olE: S-e’j’ S i:””” 0 ~ ali i: .-< ~ ,… al’ ‘8 4) I. al co ~ 001 Q) ~ ca all ~ ce i: I 0 I :::’ ~ Q)”‘” :;;l ce~llQ) ]::;::;1] ~.o ~-elgO!.9 ; • _ -!”‘4 ,’····.h…-4 .,….jj ~ 1:5 ;.::: -e ce ~ I’:Z a ca ~.~ …~ .., ::: ill ill i ::: ::: …. -e .0 0 1.’99 1..-: r:.. A .:l A ‘..-: z I Z ,r:i1 8 .:1;:;;z ! r:.. Remarks. 10 1 I 1 I 81A private and anon-comI ‘I ! missioned officer serve as gunners. ! i ! 10 i … i! iii … i 97 i 1 [ 1 2 195 i’ 3 114 I 78 !’ i I I I ! : i . i! i ‘”10 • 6 ‘IBand __ J_.,.________ Total … i : .. I ,,”. . .. I I . . .. I ••• I 25 i 2 i … : .. . , … I 27 I . . . . , . . ..! I! 4 1 22 __ .. -‘.. ]132 ]-31-1 1~1-~I~,J-, … ~ … =l~~L::]-.. _.-~11~1_1O_8 … _._, ___ …. _ .. • 9 places vacant. t 15 places vacant. The total cost on account of pay and allowa.nces, etc., of the Force in {asli 1346 was Rs. 40,244. (Military Rs. 32.575 and Band Rs. 7,669). ~ -:l 00 “d c: t:1 d ~ I:’:: o~ 1-3 1-3 …. …. t.a 8- …. 8- t>.i CHAPTER XXI. FINANCE. rrhe earliest document that throws any light on the finances of the State at the beginning of the IHth century is the report dated Blst December 1808, submitted by Major Blackburne to the Madras Government. According to it, the Income and Expenditure for fash 1217 (1807-8) were 1\,S follows ;- Total Hevenue in star pagodas 55,695 Disbursements, charges of collection, Palace ex- 34,125 penses, feasts, etc. Paid to creditors’ servants (waiting at Puduk- 324 k6ttai). Paid to creditors according to their receipts 16,195 BnJ:mce realizable 5.050 (Oue star pagoda = Rs. 3-8-0). “~Vith the exception of informers, no checks existed in the Hevenue Department. No double set of accounts as in Tanjore and the Carnatic; no curnarrls; no regular cutcherries in the District with officers appointed by Government; no regular dufter in the capital; no office anywhere in which the accounts of the country were recorded. The Revenue Divisions of the country seldom continued the same two years together. As caprice or interest dictated, portions of land separated from one division were added to another. ………… I attribute the geneml poverty of. the country which is very great and striking chiefly to the Amani system.” rrhese remarks of Major Blaekburne explain why the finances of the country were very low in the beginning of the 19th century. 480 PUDUKK6TTAI STATE [CHAP. Seventeen years later in fasli 1234 (1824-25) conditions had not materially improved. The following is a statement of Receipts and Disbursements for the fasli:- .. Receipts. ” By cash received from the Taluks Star pagodas. 40,655 From Pannai villages (those cultivated at Sirkar 4,619 cost). From customs … From Jaghfr villages From Arrack rent Profit in exchange of money Borrowed from merchants Received in advance from renters Grand Total ” Disbursements. ” Taluk establishments (Tahsildars, Peishkars, etc.) … For Dussara feast expense Pay for Sirkar servants … For Sirkar expenses For Horse stable and Elephant expenses For rnams or Presents For extra expenses including Maramut and Buildings. For debt Grand Total 3,635 376 2,730 52,015 4,829 2,075 2,044 60,963 4,828 2,692 15,855 8,277 6,335 3,097 11,888 3,200 56,172 “At the end of the fasli .” different articles such as grains and stuffs” to the estimated value of 2,750 star pagodas remained with the cust(.oo -” .. ~ to be disposed of.” From the statement for the year VIJaya (1826-27), we learn that 26,700 velis (i2,500 wet and 14,200 dry) of land were under cultivation, the income of the State was Rs. 1,68,020, and the expenditure Rs. 1,68,920 leaving no balance or deficit- XXI] FINANCE 481 a remarkable coincidence !.,But by the end of fasH 1349 (18::39-40), the area under cultivation had increased to about 55,000 vel is, (of weich only 18,000 were under the direct management of the Sirkar); and the revenne to Rs. 2,18,751. The details of income and expenditure relating to that fasli are as follows :- Receipts. Land Revenue By Ta.xes on Jagirs a.nd Amarams, Sr6triams and by loan and Mohturphatax. Income from land customs, salt, Abkari, .Jungles and Monopoly for digging and smelting iron. Sundry receipts Disbursements. For Pa.lace expenses ••• Salary of establishment For buildings, tank repairs and maramut Palace funeral expenses … For interest on account of Sirkar debts Do. Rajamahal debts For purchase of jewels, horses, band instruments, etc. l!’or advance fer indigo ‘Yorks Rs. 1,45,943 30,401 42,1.8.1 226 2,18,751 53,161 83,551 7,143 11,726 4,582 7,978 11,292 3,210 1,82,643 The’ Sirkar debt’ was the result of the severe famine of 1836, when the State had to borrow about Rs. 50,000. The Raja.mahal (lit. King’s p::tlace) acconnts related to the Raja’s personal expenses, and in 1839, the year in which Raja Raghunatha Tondaiman died, they showed a debt of Rs. 1,34,166. The Raja. had set apart certain Sirkar and Man6varti villages, and the revenues from the Sayer (land customs) and Salt for the gradual liquidation of his debts. When Raja Rama.chandra Tondaiman Bah&dur ascended the gddi, the State was heavily indebted; but during his, minority, the ,Resident, Mr. Bayley, ~1 482 PUDUKK6TTAI STATE [CHAP. curtailed expenditure and improved the financial position of the State. In 1846, Mr. Blackburne reported to the Ma.dra.s Government that Rs. 1,00,000 had been invested in the Company’s paper. By way of digression, it may be observed here that in 1858 the system of keeping accounts in MaraUd, long prevalent in the State, was abolished,. and in 1864, English figures were substituted in the aecounts for ‘ramil figures The Raja, however, again ran into debt, and by 1856 his debts amounted to 5! lakhs of rupees. ‘ro mark their displeasure the Supreme Government deprived the Raja, of the title of ” His Excellency.” Such was the state of Pudukkottai finance when Sir Sashiah Rastriar aSlmmed office as Sirkfl (Dewan). In fasli 1288 (1878-79), the first year of his administration, the land revenne was less than 2! lakhs, but in fasli 1304 (1894-95), in which year he vacated office, it was 4! lakhs. The increase was due to the a.mani settlement, the enfranchisement of inams and the resnmption of the vVestern Palace J’agfr (see pages 346- 355) which together brought in an additional annual income of about 1! lakhs. But for the remission of special taxes 011 garden lands and on trees on patta lands and the reduction in the ama,ni rates ordered by the Dewan Regent in 1892 (see page 3{)5), the increase would have been much higher. In 1887, Sir Sashiah suppressed the manufacture of earthsalt in the State and negotiated with the Madras Government for the grant to the State of an annual compensation of Rs. 88,000. In 1890 he reformed the’ Excise Department, abolished private stills and arranged for the manufaeture of country liquor in a central distillery at the capital, from which it was issued on payment of cash price and still-head duty. The revenue from Excise which was about Rs. 20,000 in 1886 went up to nearly Rs. 56,000 in 1894-95 as the result of this reform. As a result of Sir Sashiah’s casuarina plantations the revenue under Porests which had formerly been no more than XXI] FINANCE 483 Rs. 140, rose to between Rs. 15,000 and 20,000 during the last three years of his administration. Hf\ also created a new source of revenue from stone-quarries. By practising the utmost economy Sir Sashiah was able to lay by It surplus every year and to report in 1883-84 that “for the first time in the history of Pudukkottai, there was no !’oom in the Treasury for the money that had accumulated. I thought it advisable rather than so much money should be idle, to invest some of the surplus in Government securities not only as a source of profit but generally as an insurance fund against future years of adversity.” There was in that year a surplus of over nine lakhs. Out of this five lakhs were invested in Government securities. ‘rhe annual surpluses were utilised in public works .and works of a reproductive character. He constructed a number of public buildings which are in the words of Sir Henry Bliss, “permanent memorials of Sashiah Sastri’s tenure of power.” Town improvement, the repair of irrigation sources (the Kavinad tank in particular), sa!!itation, improvements to ‘drinking water tanks and the construction of the Pudukkulam and the laying out of metalled roads are among the major items of expenditure taken up during Sir Sashiah’s administration. The vexed question of the Rajamahal debts was also solved. Sir Sashiah sold certain State jewels that had long been lying .with Messrs. P. Orr & Sons, and utilised the proceeds to make a last· pro-rata payment to the Raja’s creditors. The financial results of Sir Sashiah’s administration cannot be better described than in the words employed by Lord Wenlock, the then Gover110r of Madras, when installingtthe late Raja- “The inheritance upon which you are this day. entering was twenty years ago financially and in every other respect in a dilapidated condition. The aspect of affairs is now very different; YOll will. have made over to you a ,State not only nneneumbered with debt but possessing a balance of .between two and three lakhs. The result of his (Sir Sashiah’s) labours has been so successful that what was at the time .of his accession to office almost a wreck is at the present moment a prosperous possession,” 484 PUDUKKOTTAI STAT1~ [CHAf:’. The next Dewall, Mr. Vedantacharlu, was in sole charge of the administration for about three years (18!H-liH), and during 1898 shared his authority with a Councillor. The completion of the Brahmadayam settlement and the amalgamation of the Devastanam lands with Ayan, resulted in an inereatw ill land revenue. During this time, the privy purse of His Highness the Raja was raised from Rs. 7~,000 to B.s. 1,00,000 per annum. ‘rhere was “laxity of control over the finances” during this period. * Before he sailed for Europe in 1898, the late Raja formed a Council of Administration consisting of the Dewan and a councillor. In 1899 Mr. Venkataramadas Naidu became Dewan. Rajakumar Vijaya Raghunatha Dorai Raja was the Councillor. This administration rectified the irregularities of the previous administration. There was a fund, known as the amanut, composed of all sorts of miscellaneous receipts not brought to the general accounts from which the Dewan could make disbursements irrespective of any budgetary proYision. The Council of Administration closed this fund, and reorganised the Treasury department and placed a special officer in cha,rge of it. They effected some retrenchment and also created a few additional sources of revenue,-in 1900, toll-gates were established, l),lld in 1905 stamp papers were introduced. Bxpenditure on Irrigation and Agriculture was increased. In 1909 thE;} general revenue rose to nearly 16 lakhs, and the surplus was about IH lakhs. From 1909 till 1922, the Administrative Council consisted of three members-a member of the Indian Civil Service as Superintendent of the State and President of the Council, a. Dewan and an ex-officio Coullcillor (the Chief Judge). ‘fhe first Superintendent was Mr. (now Sir Geoffrey) Bracken (1909-13), and the Dewan, the late Rajakumar Vijaya Uaghunatha Dorai Raja. To them goes the credit of completing the Settlement scheme and making an equita.ble readjustment of the ‘:: S. Radhakrishna Aiyar: General History-Page 459. XXI] FINANCE 485 increase of land assessment (see pages 359-3(38). Sir Geoffrey Bracken held a special j~mabandi to clear off the arrears of 5i lakh8, caused by suspensions of collection. He collected the arrears ill full where possible, and granted remission where necessary (see page 369). The’ jamabandi became an annual institution. rrhe increase of land revenue after 1912 is largely due to resettlement, the survey, and the tax on nathams (see page 372), and the resumption of the manovarti jagil’. Mr. GWYlln, the next Superintendent, (1913-16) systematised the village and tahik accounts. Both Mr. Gwynn and his successor, ¥r. Sidney Burn (1916-22), augmented the land revenue by the incolue derived from the sale and redemption price of house sites in Chetty nathams, and from the assignment of waste lands (see page 374). The land revenqe in fasli 1331 exceeded 101 lakhs. During the Silver Jubilee. of His late Highness in 1913, the tax levied on bangle makers and dhobies’ earth was remitted permanently, and the Kanakku vari (village karnam’s cess) amounting to Rs. 25,000, and house-tax commonly known as Mohturpha amounting to Rs. 5,000 were remitted for a period . of three years. The kanakkuvari was permanently remitted in 1915. ‘fhe opening of a distillery for the manufacture of arrack in the rrown, and the enhancement of the taxes on cocoanut, palmyra and date trees resulted in an increase of about 3 lakhs in Excise revenue from fasH 1331 (1921-22). Improvements effected in the forests, especially by way of opening new plantations, yielded’ an enhanced revenue of a Httle over t lakh by fasH 1331. The expenditure however also increased from about 141akhs in fasli 1319 to 24i lakhs in fasH 1331. Expenditure on Education and ‘Medical. services trebled during the same period. There was an increase under Irrigation and Public VV orks also. Salaries of officers of all grades in all departments were raised in 1920. 486 PUDUKK6TTAI STATE [CHAP. .Between 1915 and 1919 a sum of more than t\VO lakhs was contributed to the different War-funds, in addition to a periodical contribution to the maintenance of the Hospital Ship” Madras.” The extensions to the rrrichinopoly Palace and the erection of the New Pahoe at the capital involved heavy expenditure. Yet in spite of all these, the surplus at the beginning of fasli 1331 amounted to about 40 lakhs. In 1922, the late Raja decided to reside permanently in Europe and delegated his powers and prerogatives to his brother Rajakumar Vijaya Raghunatha Dorai Raja who became head of the administration with the title of Regent (1922-29). Assisteji by Ra’o Bahadur P. K. Kunhunni Menon, as Dewan, he pursued a policy of retrenchment. Fasli 1331 showed a deficit of 3’53 lakhs, but fasH 1332, in which a deficit was anticipated, closed with ·a small surplus. Years of drought followed necessitating the postponement of collec~ion of land revenue and partial remission, rrhe land revenue was only about 6t lakhs in fasH 1336 (1926-27), and 5t lakhs in fasH 1337. In fasli 1338 (1928-29) however, as the result of the collection of arrears, the figure went up to 11 1akhs. Excise and Stamps contributed more than 3 lakhs each; Forest, between Rs. 57,000 ftud Rs. 88,000; Registration, about Rs. 4C,OOO; and Civil worka showed a steady improvement from a lakh in fasli 1333 to two lakhs in 1:338. Irrigation and Public Works accounted for a large proportion of the expenditure since relief works had to be started during the years of drought. An extraordinary item was the grant to His late Highness of Rs. 22 lakhs; and this heavily depleted the State balance. The general revenue of the State stood at Rs. 20,47,360 in the year when the Regency terminated. A Council of Administration with a President, a Dewan and an Ex-officio Councillor succeeded the Regency. Dewan Ba.hadur Raghaviah Pantulu assisted at first by Hao Saheb Ganapati Sastriar and later by Rao Bahadur E. K. Govindan as Dewan paid much attention to Develonment the expenditure on which rose steadily. x). J FINANCE 487 The riots in the Town in July 1931, and the serious organized dacoities at Kannangudi and Andakkulam in the sa.me year led to an increase under ‘Law, Justice and Police I (the expenditure nnder this, head was Rs. 3,48,743 in fasli 1341, and Rs. 3,16,295 in fasli 1342). rrhe COllllcil of Administration was terminated in November H)31 when Mr. B. G. Holdsworth, I. c. S., an officer lent by the Government of ~fadras was appointed Administrator. He held that office till January 3, 1034. Mr. (now Rao Bahadur, R. Krishnamachariar, the Dewan Peishkar, was appointed Assistant. Administrator to exercise such powers as might be delegated to him from time to time by the Administrator. During this administration some bridges and an important causeway were built (see pages 238-239). Mr. Holdsworth practically reeonstrueted the Valnad anieut, now known as the’ Holdsworth anicut, , across the Vellar near Kadayakudi. In ,January 1934, he was succeeded by Sir A. fl’ottenham (I. c. s., Retd.). In faslis 1343-45 the State had to face a heavy fall in the receipts accompanied by an enormous rise in the expenditure. The receipts under Interest fell owing to reduction of interest on the fixed deposits with the Imperial Bank of India. In honour of the visit in 1933 of His Excellency the Viceroy to the, State, the Darbar cancelled all interest on outstanding agricultural loans. In fasli 1343 the season was not favourable and tbj:? Darhar sllspended the collection of 50 per cent of the kist due ort the lands which had practically failed owing to the nOll-supply of ,vater, in accordance with the principles laid down during the Reyenue Settlement. In fasli 1344, the State experienced perhaps the severest drought on record followed’ by a wide-spread absence or failure of crops and a real drinkingwater famine affecting both men’and cattle. Hir A. Tottenham granted remissions of land revenue on a scale as unprecedented as the situation that had made them necessary. He ordered a. remission of half the revenue Oll wet lands that owing to shortage 488 PUDUKKOTTAI STATE [CHAP. of water had either been left uncultivated, or if cultivated, had failed to yield at least a four anna crop. The number of kists was increased from 4 to 6. A moratorium of one year was declared for the repayment of State agrieultural loans. The tree-tapping license fees were temporarily reduced, and 50 per cent of the rent due under green-leaf leases was remitted. ‘rhere \vas no “famine,” and it was not found necessary to open any free kitchens.vVhat was necessary was to enable the agricultural labourers to earn money for their subsistence. Relief works were therefore started. These mainly took the form of repairs to tanks. In all Rs. 3,63,672 were spent on Relief works dnringthe faslis 1344-46. About 4t lakhs of miits of ,,,ork were provided (a ‘unit’ being one day’s labour of a man, a woman or a minor of either sex). The revenue for fasli 1344 fell to Rs. 16,65,929, while the expenditure rose to Rs. 23,79,326 in fasli 1344, H,lld stood at Rs. 23,01,456 ill fasli 1345. ‘rhe combined deficit of faslis 1344 and 1345 ,vas Rs. 9,35,702. In his opening speech at the April-May 1035 session of the I…Iegislative Conncil, Sir A. ‘rottenham, the President, warned the members that the Darbar would have to follow a policy of retrenchment in order to recoup the reserves that had been so seriously depleted. As a gesture towards this, there was a cut in official salaries till the end of June 1907. It will be necessary forisome years to restrict expenditure as far as possible to what is essential, and no ambitious new schemes of any kind can be undertaken. However the Darbar have not stinted expenditure on the EducH,tion and Medical departments as the figures in the tables below evidence. Concluaion.-Receipts -The total revenue of the State which was a little over 31 lakhs in fasli 1288 (1878-79) rose to 11 lakhs in 1308 (1898-99), and to 20 lakhs in 1327 (HH 7 -18). It has not since fallen below 20 lakhs except in faslis 1336 (1926-27), 1337 (1927 -28) and 1344 (19’34-35), when, owing to drought, large remissions had to be granted. l’he present average reveuue may be safely taken as 211akhs. The present normal Land Revenue XXI] FINANCE 489 demand is Hi lakhs. Extra. receipts under sale of house-sites, redemption prices, etc., in Chetty villages amount on an a.verage to i lakh. Thus the average total demand under Land Revenue is about ten lakhs, or about half the total revenue. Next in importance is the Revenue from Abkari which since msli 1328 has averaged about three lakhs. The quantity of liquor issued which ill the period 1900-190D ranged between 13,000 and 15,000 gallons, fell to less than 8,000 gallons in HJ25 and to about 6,000 gallons in ID35-n6. There has been a corresponding fall in the quantity of toddy consumed; and of late there has been n. eonsidern.ble fall in the rentals of toddy and liquor shops. ‘1.’he Excise duty on matches is a welcome new source of revenue yielding about Rs. 35,000 annually. The next important head is Civil Works, Tolls, Motor licenses, etc., yielding annually two lakhs. ‘ Stamps’ have yielded a revenue of about three lakhs for the past 12 years. Between faslis 1322 (1912-13) and 1340 (1930-31) the revenue under ‘Forests’ ranged between Rs. 67,000 and Rs. 90,000. It has since fallen. In fasli 1344 it was about Rs. 35,000 and in fasli 1345, about Rs. 37,000. rfhe demand for firewood at the Government fuel dep6t has decreased owing apparently to private competition with the result that Government have been obliged to reduce the price of casuariana and jungle wood, and the bids at the auctions of the green-leaf leases have not been very encouraging of late. The general” economic depression is apparently responsible for the faU in the number and value of documents registered and hence for the lower revenue under , Registration. ‘ Expenditure.-‘ Religion and Charity’: When the Dev.astanam lands were amalgamated with Ayan, an annual allotment of Rs. 1,18,000 was fixed for the Assignments to Religious and Charitable Institutions, but the figure is freely exceeded year after year. rfhe expenditure under ‘Palace’ which was over three lakhs before fasli 1338 has now fallen to a little above two lakhs. ,490 PUDUKK6TTAI STATE [CHAP. ‘Education’ which accounted for an expenditure of about Us. 13,000 fifty years ago now claims nearly Rs. 2,70,000. This enomlOUS increase is due to the maintenance and growth of a Second Grade College, to the development of Secondary education both in the Town and in the .rnofussil, to the expansion of primary education consequent OIl the introduction first of free education and later of a progressive scheme of compulsory education, and to the liberal scheme of State aid to deserving pupils of the backward communities. ‘rhe expenditure under , Medical’ which was about Rs. 7,000 fifty years ago is now a.bout Rs. 1,20,000, and the increase reflects the development of the Town Hospital into an up to date one provided with all the facilities and equipment including bacteriological, denta.l and X-ray sections, and of the Rani’s dispensary into a Hospital, the increase in the number of rural dispensaries and the opening of an Ayurvedic dispensary in the capital. The variations in the other service heads’ do not call for detailed examination. Statialica.–Financial Statement Jor Ja8li 1346. 1. Receipts for fasli 1346. Main Heads :- Land Revenue Salt and Excise Stamps Forest Registration Interest Civil Works Other receipts Rs. 9,48,027 3,23,289 3,30,000 38,500 32,200 89,700 2,26,500 ] ,20,400 Total… 21,25,750 XXI] FINANCE Expenditure for fasli 1346. Religion and Charity Palace Land Revenue Salt and Excise Registration Forest General Administration Law and Justice and Police Eduoation Medical and Vaccine Political Superannuation … Statio~ery and Printing … Coutribution to Municipality and Unions … Irrigation Civil Works Military and Band Other Expenditure Rs. 1,53,880 2,15,433 1,89,384 21,126 27,172 18,875 81,261 2,69,488 2,60,900 1,24,595 6,259 1,03,654 42.349 32.524 72,801 2,93,644 39.152 3,20.208 Total 20,69,810 Revenue Expenditure Surplus Opening balance … (1) Closing balance (2) Cash assets. net Balances (134(;). Rs. 21,25,750 20,69,750 55.940 15,90,387 16.46,327 13,03.494 3,42,833 ]6,46.327 491 (1) The balance of Rs. 13,03,494 together with Rs. 6,29,216 being the balance at the credit of the State Provident Fund on the last day of the fasli and other sums derived from other deposits was invested as follows :- (i) Rs. 22,80,900 in. Government Securities. (ii) Us. 22,000 in shares in the Pudukkotyai Electric Supply Corporation. 492 PUDUKKOTTAI STATE [CHAP. (iii) Rs. 500 in Reserve Bank shares. (iv) Rs. 2,000 in shares in the Pudukkottai Match Factory. The total amount to the credit of individual religious and charitable institutions under the control of the State is Rs. 2,33,626 of which Rs. 2,860 is included in the State general treasury balance and the rest is invested in the names of the institutions themselves in the Post office Savings Bank and Cash Certificates, in Co-operative Societies in the State, in 3! per cent and 4 per cent Government Promissory Notes and Stock Certificates and in 4 per cent vVar Loan. (2) The sum of Rs. 3,42,833 represented the cash balance in the State rrreasuries and in the Darbar’s current accounts with the Imperial Bank of India, and the National Provincial Bank, London. 11 Statement 8howing the gr088 Receipts and Expenditure 0/ the State from fa8li8 1288 to 1346. “-“‘—“”-‘—‘-“—1 -.. —.. __ ._.-.- Difference Fasli. Receipts. – deficit. Expenditure. + surplus I Closing halance. —+——i–3-,-12~~;~—-··-r—··~—–·~~,535 3,77,901 I – 35,524 1288 3,34,910 90,524 lj5,OOO 2,19,391 3,29,790 4,55,862 1289 3,42,377 1290 4,76,480 1291 5,18,851 1292 5,01,407 1293 1 4,65,102 1294 5,46,034 1295 . 5,65,864 1296 6,73,653 1297 6,09,819 1298 6,99,895 1299 7,15,433 1300 7,76,553 1301 8,47,906 1302 7,11,613 3,12,089 /1 + 1,64,391 4,08,452 + 1,10,399 3,75,335 I + 1,26,072 4,44,262 4,64,983 5,13,127 4,83,494 6,29,974 8,85,781 7,95,002 7,43,454 7,76<;400 8,77,476 + + + + 20,840 81,051 52,737 90,159 20,155 – 1,85,886 – 79,569 + 33,099 + 71,506 – 1,65,863 4,76,702 5,57,753 6,10,490 7,00,649 6,80,494: ~,94,608 4,15,039 4,48,138 5,19,644 3,78,781 ,;, • Rs. 25,000 in fasH 1302, and Rs. 1,00,000 in fasH 1303 were borrowed from the Man6varti surplus funds. Rs. 1,00,000 were repaid in fasli 1305. Dn] FINANCE 493 —-_ .• _——_ .. _—,———,——- i Fasli. I Receipts. I 1303 1304 1305 I 1306 I 1307 ! 13081 1309 I 1310 I 1311 I 1312 I I 1313 I 1314 ‘I 1315 1316 ! 1317 1318 I 1319 I’ 1320 1321 I’ 1322 1323 1324 1325 1326 1327 1328 1329 1330 1331 1332 7,81,125 6,96,791 8,06,338 8,14,271 9,54,864 11,22,258 10,47,443 10,09,273 10,46,891 11,25,877 11,28,174 11,23,323 8,90,955 15,49,317 13,22,699 15,63,318 15,21,678 16,23,358 16,70,287 18,48,354 18,15,207 18,31,272 18,71,088 19,05,865 20,03,493 20,83,697 21,25,431 21,43,203 21,38,916 23,17,155 Expenditure. Difference + surplus – deficit. Closing bala.n08. i —–‘] .. _ ……….. __ ._–_._-_._._._j — 8,35,238 I 54,113 4,24,668- 3,87,881 2,75,451- 4,64,376t 4,95,441t 7,33,578 II 36,787 8,18,768 12,430 7,97,262 + 17,009 10,23,799 68,935 10,17,535 8,51,057 8,70,332 8,95,156 10,92,804 11,04,791 10,75,840 12,68,994 10,76,124 10,74,559 11,57,717 14.12,339 14,04,556 15,62,934 14,07,567 15,56,821 20,49,122 18,60,429 16,93,345 19,73,3J8 16,62,551 18,14,330 20,65,938 24,52,565 41,55,201 + 1,04,723 + 1,96,386 + 1,38,941 + 1,51,735 + 33,073 + 23,383 + 47,483 – 3,78,039 + 4,73,193 + 2,48,140 + 4,05,601 + 1,09,339 + 2,18,802 + 1,07,353 + 4,40,787 + 2,58,386 – 2,17,850 + 10,659 + 2,12,520 + 30,175 + 4,21,140 + 3,11,101 + 77,265 – 3,13,649 -18,38,046 6,89,377§ 8,04.f>85li 9,00,527 10,66,221 11,30,128 11,75,461 12,09,230 8,23,459 12,69,189 15,17,329 19,22,930 20,32,269 22,51,071 23,58,424 27,99,211 30,57,597 28,39,747 28,50,406 30,62,926 30,93,101 30,14,241 38,25,342 39,02,607 35,88,958 17,50,912 – Rs. 25,000 in fa.sli 1302, and Rs. 1,00,000 in fas1i .1303 were borrowed from the Man6varti surplus funds. Re. 1,00,000 were repaid in fasH 1305. t This figure includes Rs. 1,71,916 under • Deva.stanam and Charities’ incorporated with the State Revenue. t This figure includes Rs. 1,00,000 transferred from the Amdnut to the Sta.te funds. § This includes the amount adjusted to State funds from Man6varti funds. II The figures for faslis 1309-1314 include miscella.neous items under debt heads. 494 PUDUKKOTTAI STATE [CHAP. —, _._—_._.– .. ~—-.——-., … -.–.. -.-…. -..•. — Difference I Fasli. i Receipts. Expenditure. + surplus IClosing balance. I – deficit. i I ______ I ._–.1 __ . ___ …. _ … ____ . __ …………. -.-….•.•. …………… _ ..•… _._- .J ····m······.·.· .•…. ” …. _ …………. ____ ._._ …. _ …. __ ..• …. _._—- 1333 21,23,H32 19,29,060 + 1,94,872 19,45,784 1334 22,60,993 19,43,972 + 3,17,021 22,62,805 1335 22.78,941 19,9~},897 + 2,79.044 25,41,849 1336 19,04,972 20,23,323 – 1,18,351 24,23.498 1:337 17,53,787 22,98,238 – 5,44,4t:i1 18,79,049 1338 22,84,046 20,14,960 + 2,69,089 21,48,133 1339 I 26,72,657 20,47,369 + 6,25,288 27,73,421 1340 22,47,736· 21,47,953 + 99.783 28.73.204 1341 21,55,377 24,51,702 _. 2,96,325 25.76,879 1342 23,11,472 22,66,288 + 45,184 26.22,063 1343 20,50,885 21,46,859 95,974 25,26,009 1344 16,65,929 23,79,326 – 7,13,397 18,12,692 1345 20,79,151 23,01,456 – 2,22,305 15,90,387 1346 21,25,750 20,69,810 + 55,940 16,46,327 I I I Statement showing the Receipts of the State uncler the principal heads of Revenue: LfJ,ncl Revenue, Excise, Forests and Registrati~n, from faslis 1281 to 1346. Pasli. I ~:~.- i Revenue. , i I I Excise. Forests.! Registration. I i -·–·–·············-···-····–·-C··—-·············· ……. -.————-,—- 1288 .. ·1 2.78,343 5,495 139 I 10,933 1289 … , 2,89,720 8,645 298 I 9,882 1290 3,40,466 9,089 541 9,233 1291 … , 3,97,076 11,262 761 9,308 1292 ”’1 4,15,626 12,970 695 9,292 1293 …… ,. 3,86,878 14,719 638 9,032 1294 4,32,907 19,480 707 8,336 1295 … , 4,46,126 19,462 3,027 12,414 1296 … ; 4,52,081 20,531 3,262 14,592 1297 … ! 4,51,098 24,393 4,757 13 J592 XXI] ~/ 1303 1304 1305 1306 1307 1308 1309 1310 1311 1312 ]313 1314 1315 1316 1317 1318 1319 1320 1321 1322 1323 1324 1325 1326 1327 1328 1329 1330 1331 1332 1333 1334 1335 1336 1337 Fasli. … ‘” … ‘” … … … … … … … … … … ‘” … … .. , ‘” … ‘” … … … … ‘” … ‘” ‘” … … … … … … Land Revenue. … 5,32,174 … 4,31,219 . .. 5,20,147 … 5,22,959 . .. 6,46,447 … 7,35,970 . .. 6,75,169 … 6,80,879 … 7,24,978 … 7,83,990 . .. 7,96,946 … 5,20,709 … 4,94,238 . .. 11,20,377 ‘” 9,04,178 . .. 10,28,550 . .. 9,31,104 … 9,55,915 … 10,43,736 ‘” 9,78,917 … 10,16,315 … 10,20,907 … 10,30,761 … 10,52,101 … 10,35,199 … 10,10,683 … 10,42,189 … 10.11,154 ‘” 10,35,165 . .. 10,29,787 … 10,31,235 … 10,49,887 ‘” 10,31,663 ‘” 6,63,503 … 5,48,378 FINANCE 495 .— I I Excise. I I Forests. Registration. I : 42,597 22,169 25,414 55,767 15,828 24,778 54.718 18,048 23,703 62,002 16,004 24,761 59,415 25,343 28,160 I 56,369 21,157 25,893 57,839 27,698 31,236 57,120 28,093 22,767 57,144 30,751 28,311 72,741 29,782 27,417 83,794 35,243 29,207 97,536 41,895 30,281 96,512 35,283 31,630 1,06,094 34,835 32,452 1,16,637 31,302 36,865 1,27,442 36,055 35,672 1,22,223 45,783 34,726 1,43,540 45,747 31,421 1,66,182 53,177 31,889 2,03,346 67,060 35,926 2,03,875 68,498 34,476 2,05,272 76,037 34,992 2,37,135 73,461 34,069 2,55,458 81,773 33,017 2,60,100 79,630 32,022 3,30,151 90,554 35,633 3,27,576 79,399 37,549 3,40,324 83,766 36,230 2,98,982 76.815 36,921 3,00,278 72,952 38,492 3,23,634 76,160 42,820 3,47,428 86,575 42,719 3,41,273 88,855 43,552 3,35,617 68,568 41,685 3,12,684 77,798 40,860 196 PUDUKKOTTAI ST A.TE [CHAP. Fasli. Land Excise. I Forests. Registration. Revenue. -. 1 I 1338 … … 10,96,087 3,33,368 57,501 37,442 1339 … … I4,79,632 3,22,317 76,050 36,515 1340 … ‘” 9,61,893 3,24,420 71,111 34,616 1341 … ‘” 9,76,659 3,17,527 59,733 34,163 1342 … … 9,98,457 3,11,917 54,670 34,287 I343 … … 9,40,814 3,18,190 43,172 33,544 1344 … … 6,24,094 2,94,933 35,546 31,635 1345 … … 10,09,111 2,52,467 37,390 28,486 1346 … … 9,48,027 2,85,289 40,257 31,222 IV Statement showing the Expenditure under the heads “Education” and “Medical” from faslis 1288 to 1346. -…. _ …… __ … _—_._-_.-. Fasli. Expenditure Expenditure on Education. on Medical. Rs. Rs. 1288 5,070 5,262 1289 4,758 5,108 1290 4,966 4,978 1291 7,122 4,968 1292 7,860 6,692 1393 9,510 5,805 1294 12,062 7,242 1295 11,594 7,058 1296 13,857 8,201 1297 20,913 9,161 1298 23,711 10,292 1299 23,732 10,384 1300 27,576 10,884 1301 31,602 12,891 1302 32,561 12,821 1303 31,216 18,256 1304 33,084 18,559 1305 41,216 27,476 1306 41,939 23,016 1307 42,330 27,796 “_.-_.- – ._. __ ._. XXI] FINANCE 491 Fasli. Expenditure Expenditure on Education. on Medical. Rs. Rs. 1308 45,008 22,169 1309 36,392 21,897 1310 . 36,348 20,407 1311 37,301 31,435 1312 38,073 26,312 1313 ••• i 39,’152 27,265 1314 37,799 27,341 1315 40,520 30,562 1316 39,356 32,140 1317 45,579 27,530 1318 ••• t 55,608 39,114 1319 59,210 42,474 1320 64,851 41,582 1321 72,547 44,926 1322 68,815 44,650 1323 81,887 30,823 1324 85,821 55,109 1325 92,542 39,900 1326 1,00,927 56,261 1327 1,07,881 58,921 1328 1,12,943 67,818 1329 1,27.794 78.180 1330 1.52,315 94,751 1331 1,80,614 1,24,512 1332 1,80,899 1,09,766 1333 1,73,303 81,049 1334 1,73,408 1,04,961 1335 1,88,000 99,541 1336 1,92,981 98,563 1337 1,99,298 1,09,174 1338 2,06,122 1.05,167 1339 2,16,885 1.12,069 1340 2,43,041 1,00.843 \1341 2,66,926 1,06,869 ‘1342 2,54,944 1,05,828 1343 ‘2,49,679 1,05,519 1344 2,63,713 . 1,08,621 1345 2.68,827 1,21,369 1346 2,60,900 1,24,595 63 498 PUDUKXOTTAI.STATE Administrative.-·· In his report·· submitted to the Madras Government on December 31, 1808, Major Blackburne remarked . I that there was “no office anywhere in which the accounts of the country were recorded.” He laid down that” ali public money should be kept in public Treasuries, fr0In which such sums as might be.requirecl should be ·takep. out when necessary.’.’ The Rajamahal or the Palace Private accounts of which we have an account as early as 1832, continued till .they were abolished by Sir Sashia Sastriar.Mr. Vellkataramadas Naiduabolished the amdnut, a special fUnd from·. which the minister. incurred expenditure’ free from .Budgetary restriotions,’ aIid’ reorganised the Treasury Departmantbyplacingit under the control ofa Treasury Officer. The Personal Assistant to the Dewan Peishkar is DOW the Huztir Treasury Officer. TheTaluk Treasuries are under the immediate cO)ltrol of the Tahsildars. The Audit of the expenditqre of the”several departments of the State is ‘conducted by the Audit Branch of the Darbar Office and by local test audit of the accounts maintained in the subordinate offices. CHAPTER XXII. MUSEUM AND ARCHAEOLOGY. SECTION I.’-THE STATE MUSEUM. Short History.–The establishment of a State Museum was first mooted in 1896. It was proposed to locate it in the Ananda Bagh. Nothing was done till 1909, when it was . decided that the Museum should be located in the small I’ Palace” in the Main Street of Tirug6karnam. The Museum was opened in 1910. In that year there were nearly 38,000 visitors to it. The economic· section was improved in 1912-13 by the addition of 80 plants collected in the State and identified by Dr. C. A. Barber, Government Botanist, Coimbatore. In 1914-15, it was further enriched by a number of useful exhibits sent by Dr. Henderson, Superintendent, Government Museum, Madras. In 1919-20, the Art and Industries Section was opened with specimens of the products of cottage industries carried on.by.women in the State, originally collected for the South Indian Exhibition of Women’s work held in Madras. In 1923-24, the Archreological Section was considerably improved; and ill that year the number of visitors exceeded a lakh. On the last day of fasli 1346· (1936-31), the number of exhibits was nearly 6,800. The building is unfortunately by no means suitable for its purpose though considerably improved between 1934 and 1937. A new building specially designed for its purpose is a desideratum that the Darbar are prevented by the present condition of their finances from providing. The different sections -The Museum has eight sections:- 1. Art and Indu6tries :-Specimens of the products of a.lmost all the industries’ carried on in the State are e”hibited side by side with specimens from outside the State for COlIl- 500 PUDUKKOTTAI STATE [CHAP. parison and study. These include specimens of very attractive baskets of various shapes and sizes made by N agarathar women from strips of the leaf of the palmyra palm (BorassU8 flabellifer) and wood and ivory carvings, bell-metal ware, and bronze figures of local origin. 2. Economic Section :-This contains a large collection of the cereals grown in the State including 69 varieties of paddy. Similar but superior varieties grown elsewhere are also exhibited. There is a good collection of medicin!l,l herbs found in the State. There are also indigenous vegetable libres, and fibres and basts made in the Museum itself from Agave americana, Abutilon indicum and Oalotropis gigantea. A collection of tan stuffs (in whi6h the State is particularly rich) is exhibited with labels explaining how each is used for tanning and with what results. There are also models of agrioultural implements and water lifts. 3. Natural History (including Entomology) :-The Mammalian gallery has not many specimens. Two of the more interest~ng are an Indian Pangolin (Manis pentadactllla), a Porcupine (Hystrix leucura) and an articulated skeleton oia deer. The gallery of birds contains a representative collection of the avi-fauna of the State. The more important and interesting specimens are those of the species of Perchers, Fowls, Ducks and Geese described in pages 37 tq 43 of Chapter II. The Museum had a good collection of live snakes among which were a good sized python and some varieties of the colubridae. Under the orders of the Dal’bar, these collections were sold or presented to other Museums in 1923, and only stnffed specimens and skeletons of reptiles are now exhibited. The· fresh water fisk found in the State are of genera. belonging to the Siluroids and the Oyprinoids. Specimens of tbeseare exbibited in bottles. There are also a few specimens of big sea fish mounted in cases. The groups Arachnid4_ M yriopoda and Orustacea are also represented. XXII] MUSEUM AND ARCHAEOLOGY 501 The entomological specimens belong mostly to the families of Diptera, Lepidoptera and Ooleoptera. 4. Ethnology :-This section is steadily growing in popularity. It includes a good collection of musical instruments, . , of arms and armour formerly used by the Sard.hs and Servaikars of the State, and of votive offerings of different castes, and jewels, especially talis, used by women of different castes and tribes. 5. Numismatics : -In this section are collections of Roman coins discovered in the State and of those of the Vijayanagar, Andhra and other South Indian dynasties. Moghul and Bahmini coins and those of the French, Dutch, and English East India Companies are also represented. Ma.ny of the· coins were presented to the Museum by the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, the Madras Government Museum and other institutions. 6. Archreology:-This is a very popular section and has expanded considerably within the last few years. Prehistoric burial sites are found in many parts of the State. The dead were buried in large pyriform urns, or in subterranean cells formed of stone-slabs. A number of urn-burials were opened about 1917, and more than 30 megalithic tombs in 1935. 152 specimens of old pottery and 72 iron weapons of different sorts and sizes discovered in the 1917 and 1935 excavations are preserved in the Museum. 37 fragments of wood-work carved with floral designs and human and animal figures which once formed part of the KalyaI}.a maI}.tapam in the old palace are exhibited in the Museum. Among the bronzes mention may be made of the images of Appal’, Manikkavacagar, Bik~atanamurti, Alingana , Candrasekharamurti (Siva embracing Parvati), 86maskanda and Sukhasanamurti. A bronze relievo of the 24 Jain Tirthatikaras arranged within a tiruvdcika frame with 1;tl?abhadeva III the centre is of special interest. There are fine images of the Tfrthanlmras Adinatha and parsvanatha. 502 PUDUKK6TTAI STATE [CHAP. The stone. gallery contains a number of images of Jain Tirthailkaras found in different parts of the State. Among those of Hindu deities, mention may be made of figures of Jye~tadevi, Bik~atanamurti, Ardhanarisvara, Surya, Ag6ravfrabhadra and the Saptamatrikas. There is a collection of specimens of Buddhist sculptures in marble from Amaravati, kindly presented by the M adms Museum. An interesting exhibit is a plaster of Paris model of one of the shrines of the Muvarkoil (Kodumba.lur) prepared by the Curator Mr~ VenkatarangarnRaju. 7. There is a small collection of paintings including miniatures, specimens of the Tanjore school of painting and oil paintings by the Curator which are of ethnological interest as illustrating local types. 8. The library contains. 350 volumes, mainly works of reference. The number of exhibits on June 30, 1937 was as follows:- Section. 1. Arts and Industries … Nitmber. 336 2. Economic section … 993 3. Natural History (including Entomology) 3,816 4. Ethnology 748 5. Numismatics 6. Archooology 7. Pictures 8. Library 811 595 25 350 7,674 Educational letvice.-The Museum welcomes school par· ties; and . Headmasters and Headmistresses of $chools in the Town frequently visit it with their pupils, and are taken round by the Curator who explains the. specimens to them. Parties oistudents from tbe mofussil get ail opportunity of visiting the Museum when they gather in the capital for’ the annual Children’s Day celebration. XXII] MUSEUM AND ARCHAEOLOGY 503 The Museum is open on all days except Sundays and Public holidays, from 7.30 to 11 a. m. and 2 to 5 p. m. Monday afternoons are set .apart far gosha women. Admission is free on all days. The daily average attendance is about 500. The total number of visitors durjng fasli 1346 was 1,34,105. The largest attendance is recorded on the Tirug6karnam car festival day in July-August, on which day in 1936-37, the number of visitors was 18,118. ‘rhe table below shows the number, sex and literacy of the persons that visited the Museum in faslis 1345 and 1346 :-. Men. Women. Fasli . .. _——_._. Total. Literates. Illi- Total. !Literates.! t Ill!- I Total. terates. I era es. –.. –… – I 1345 11,110 I 61,369 72,479 ·654 60,848 I 61,502 I 1,33,981 1346 8,950.1 61,801 70,751 561 62,7931 63,354 [ 1,34,105 The Museum publishes an annual report. Mr. Venkatarangam Raju, the Curator, has published a bulletin relating to the prehistoric urn-burials excavated at five places in the State. FinanciaI.-rrhe expenditure on the Museum including the establishment during the five faslis 1342 to 1346 was follows:- Fasli. Cost. Es . 1342 … 4,035 1343 … 3,897 1344 … 4,198 1345 … 4,629 1346 … 5,092 General.-The administrative head of the Muse’QID is the Curator who is assisted by a taxidermist. 504 PUDUKK6TTAI STATE [CHAP. The Museum has won the approbation of a number of distinguished visitors including the Political Agents to the State and high officials and scholars. Recently Mr. Hargreaves, formerly Direotor-General of Archreological Survey of India., visited the Museum in connection with the enquiry of the Museums Commission. A brief account of the Museum is given on page 200 of the Heport on the Museums of India by Mr. S. F. Markham, M. P. and himself. The statistics given in the Report show that the Pudukkottai State Museum compares very favourably with quite a large number of Museums of the same class in India. Other examples of Museum enterprise.-” It has been the policy of the Government of India,” observe Messrs. Markham and Hargreaves in their Report, “to keep the small and moveable antiquities recovered from the ancient sites in close association with the remains to which they belong, so that they may be studied amid their natural surroundings and not lose focus by being transported.” This has also been to some extent the policy of the Darbar in regard-for example-to the finds on the site of the Jain temple excavated at ChettipaHi. The Raja’s Oollege Muse’Um.-The collections comprise Zoological and Entomological, Botanical and Agricultural specimens and models to illustrate the study of Human Physiology. The Bird collections illustrate the division into carnivorous, herbivorous and omnivorous birds and include climbers, perchers and wading and swimming birds. There are a few reptiles and -insects, and in the entomological collection are speoimens of Orthoptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Rhyncota, Hymenoptera and Diptera. Specimens illustrative of the different parts of plants are found in the Botanical section, while improved strains of seed, samples of chemical manure, modern ploughs, _ harrows and mowers form the chief exhibits in the Agricultural section. There are also a few photographs and printe

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